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  • 1. Submitted To: Submitted By:Dr. Harshvardhan Halve Amrita Pandey(201002AlokPaliwal(201002Akshay Gupta(201002AkhilAgarwal(2010022)AkankshaPahwa(2010021)AdityaVikramMehra(2010020)
  • 2. What is Management Information System?
    MIS is a system that provides information needed to manage the organizations effectively.
    They are regarded to be the subset of the overall internal control procedures, in a business, which covers the application of people, documents, technologies and procedures used by management accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product, service or a business wide strategy.
    Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization.
  • 3. Data, information and Systems
    Data: is a fact, number, statement or a picture that is “given”. It is the raw material in the production of information.
    Information: is the data after manipulation, that has meaning within a context.
    Systems: a set of components that work together to achieve a common goal. Often a system has several sub-systems. A system can be open or closed, depending on the nature of information flow in the system.
  • 4. Characteristics of useful information
    Relevant:the information must be pertaining to the problem at hand.
    Complete: partial information is often worse than no information.
    Accurate: erroneous information might lead to disastrous decisions.
    Current: decisions should be based on the latest information available, because what was a fact yesterday might no longer be one today.
    Economical: in business setting ,the cost of obtaining information must be considered as one cost element involved in any decision.
  • 5. Four stages of processing
    Input: collecting and entering the data into the information system.
    Data Processing: here the data is manipulated into information using mathematical, statistical and other tools.
    Output: the information is displayed or presented.
    Storage: data and information are maintained for later use.
  • 6. Ethical and Societal Issues
    Consumer Privacy: organizations collect (and sometimes sell) huge amount of data on individuals.
    Employee Privacy: IT supports remote monitoring of employees, violating privacy and creating stress.
    Freedom of Speech: IT increases opportunities for pornography, hate speech, intellectual property crime, an d other intrusions; prevention may abridge free speech.
    • IT Professionalism: No mandatory or enforced code of ethics for IT professionals--unlike other professions.
    • 7. Social Inequality: Less than 20% of the world’s population have ever used a PC; less than 3% have Internet access.
    Computer software, is the collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do and how to do it
    Computer hardware refers to the physical parts of a computer and related devices. Internal hardware parts of a computer are often referred to as components. External hardware devices are usually called peripherals
    Science and technology associated, in general, with communications at a distance. A telecommunications system requires a analog or digital transmitter, a compatible receiver, and a physical (cable or wire) or non-physical (wireless) connection
  • 10. PEOPLE
    Information systems professionals who analyze organizational information needs, design and build information systems, prepare computer programs
    Procedures refers to rules for achieving optimal and secure operations in data processing
  • 12. DATA
    Data refers to representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by humans or by automatic means
  • 13. Types of Management Information System
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  • 22. Analyses Buying Patterns
    Maintain Customer Records
    Improve Quality of Customer Service
    Predicts switching of customer
  • 23. Business info system-past , present and future
    Year - 1970’s
    Main activities - Mainframe computers were used
    Computers and data were centralized
    Main focus was to automate existing
    Skills required - Programming in COBOL
    Systems were tied to a few business functions: payroll, inventory, billing
  • 24. Year - 1980s
    Main activities - PCs and LANs are installed.
    Departments set up own computer
    systems makes departments less
    dependent on the IT department.
    End-user computing with Word Processors
    and Spreadsheets.
    Main focus is automating existing
    Skills required - PC support, basic networking
  • 25. Year - 1990s
    Main activities - No more stand-Wide Area Networks (WANs)
    become corporatestandards.
    Senior management looks for system integration
    and dataintegration .
    No more stand-alone systems.
    Main focus is central control and corporate learning
    Skills required - Network support, systems integration, database
  • 26. Year - 2000s
    Main activities - Wide Area Networks expand via the Internet to
    includeglobalenterprises and business partners
    supply chainand distribution.
    Senior management looks for data sharing across
    Main focus is efficiencies and speed in inventory,
    manufacturing, distribution.
    Skills required - Network support, systems integration
  • 27. Present
    Dynamic business environment
    Modern business organizations become more and more dependent on their information systems to deal with the complexity and changeability of the context (markets) in which they operate and consequently their internal organization structures.
    Developments like dynamic cooperation networks, mass customization of products and services, and end-to-end process control require automated means to control operational business processes, for the simple reason that humans cannot oversee the entire operation in an efficient and effective way anymore
    Consequently, business requirements to information systems increase at a dazzling pace.
  • 28. Technological advances
    Developments in information technology range from basic computing technology via communication technology and a broad spectrum of data and process management technology to complete frameworks for enterprise information systems and e-business systems.
    Consequently, technology push forces have a major influence on current developments
  • 29. FUTURE
    Artificial intelligence
    The future executive information systems will become
    diverse because of integrating potential new applications
    and technology into the systems, such as incorporating
    artificial intelligence (AI) and integrating multimedia
    characteristics making it - timely, efficient and effective
    in supporting the decision making process.
  • 30. Information system in business functions
    IS’s serve various purpose throughout the organization in different
    business functional areas-
    Accounting –
    Information system helps record business transactions,
    produce periodic financial statements, and create reports
    required by law, such as balance sheet and
    profit- and-loss statement.
    Accounting ISs contain controls to ascertain adherence
    to standard: such as double entry
  • 31. Finance
    Finance information system help organize budgets,
    manage cash flow, analyze investments, and make
    decisions that could reduce interest payments and
    increase revenues from financial transactions.
  • 32. Marketing
    Marketing information system help analyze demand
    for various products in different region and
    population groups in order to more accurately
    market the right product to right producer.
    Marketing ISs provide information that helps
    management decides how many sales
    representatives to assign to specific products in
    specific geographical area
  • 33. Human Resource
    Human resource information system help in
    record- keeping and employee evaluation.
    HR management system have evolved to serve many
    purposes such as recruiting, selection.
    Placement, benefit analysis. Online benefit
    information for employee to access through the
    intranet, requirement project and other services
  • 34.
  • 35. ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)
    • ERP is software driven business management system
    • 36. Helps to integrate all functions of a business including planning,
    manufacturing, sales, and marketing
    • Helping the management for setting better business practices
    • 37. Equip them with correct information for taking timely decisions.
  • How ERP evolve over the time
    @In the 1970s, the concept of Material Requirement Planning
    @ In the 1980s, the concept of MRP-II (Manufacturing Resource
    Planning) evolved.
    @ Gradually extended to areas like Finance, HR, Engineering and Project
    Management etc.
    @ Eventually gave way to ERP that covered cross-functional coordination
    and Integration to support the production process
    @ Main modules :finance and accounting, customer order
    management, materials management and decision
    support/data warehousing.
  • 38. ERP in India
    • Implementation after the liberalization of the economy
    • 39. Important to provide improved quality at lower prices
    • 40. Earliest implement by manufacturing companies, followed by FMCG, automotive,
    steel, oil, textile and pharma companies
    • Major companies implement ERP :
    TISCO, TELCO, Nestle, Reliance, Godrej, Larsen & Toubro, HLL, Maruti, BPCL,
    IOCL, ONGC, Coke, Pepsi, ITC, Colgate-Palmolive, P&G, Shopper's Stop and M&M
    • Majority of ERP implementation exercises in India proved to be failures
  • Case study:
    by BPCL
  • 41. Implementation of Information System by BPCL
    • To focus on specific customer segments
    and address their individual needs
    • To take effective decisions in short time
    • 42. Speedy and effective communication
    • 43. To communicate with recipients over
    multiple locations
    Current situation:
    • Communication structure hamper the
    integration of activities
    • High costs of traditional communications
  • How it implement ???
    # Divided its IT initiatives into a three-pronged strategy:
    @To create a communication network within the organization
    @ To create a basic information network for the entire corporation
    @To process transactions with customers all over the country
    # Establish an intranet to improve communication systems
    within the organization.
    # Took help from Microsoft Consulting Services.
    # Conducted feasibility testing of the solution with the help of a pilot implementation
    # Connected its corporate office in Mumbai with the various regional offices
    # Seven web servers were deployed to provide intranet connectivity to users all
    over the country
    # Internet gatewayswere made available to connect organization to outer world
  • 44. Information Technology Initiatives taken by BPCL
    • Introduced 'Query by Mail' (QBM):
    • 45. Remote users could extract business transactions from corporate databases
    • 46. Conserve the WAN bandwidth and schedule database queries at night
    • 47. Setup a data warehouse :
    • 48. Facilitate information retrieval from corporate databases
    • 49. Employees to access and update personnel records such as contact details
    and salary information
    • Introduction of the Petrocard:
    • 50. 4K-microprocessor smart card used at retail outlets across the country.
    • 51. By March 2001, around 2.5 lakhs customers were using Petrocard with over
    20,000 daily transactions
    • Introduce Fleet card for transport companies:
    • 52. Made it easier for them to track the position of their
  • 53. Benefits of Information System and ERP
    @ Qualitative benefits:
    #Employees constantly connected to each other and to the outside world
    #Building employee skills and competencies
    #Communication costs reduced drastically
    #Provide Security of information.
    #Allowed the company to retain existing customers and attract new customers.
    #Cash management become easier.
    @ Quantitative benefits:
    #Increase its share of I&C customers from 14.9% in 2000 to 15.8% in 2001
    #BPCL's revenues grew by 2.28% in 2000-01, even as the revenues of the petroleum
    industry declined by 3.4%