Biodiesel and power biomass valorisation of palm oil in rural areas

959 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
959
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
29
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
17
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Biodiesel and power biomass valorisation of palm oil in rural areas

  1. 1. Biodiesel and Power Biomass Valorisation of Palm oil in rural areas: Case study of Mango´s village, Central province, Cameroon Mondialogo Engineering Award Symposium 7-11 December 2007, Mumbai, India Mr. Ioannis Sarantopoulos Greek Team Member Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Greece Mr. Willy Azangue Cameroonian Team Member Advanced Teachers Training College for Technical Education , University of Douala, Cameroon Technical University of Crete, Greece University of Douala, Cameroon
  2. 2. Team Formation and Exchange <ul><li>Initial steps </li></ul><ul><li>Project was initiated by Greek team </li></ul><ul><li>Contacts were made by Greek team </li></ul><ul><li>Project theme was proposed by Cameroonian team </li></ul>Mondialogo Engineering Award Symposium 7-11 December 2007, Mumbai, India <ul><li>Particular project was chosen because </li></ul><ul><li>Constitute research interest of both laboratories (available scientific support) </li></ul><ul><li>Problem being addressed is common in most agricultural rural areas of developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Cameroon is one of Africa and world bigger palm oil producer ( 144 millions kg in 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Exchange and Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Communication : Yahoo-groups email, Internet chats, telephone (vo-ip), and visit (one Greek team member to Cameroon) </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Dialogue for exchanging knowledge and experience </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Our Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Promote biodiesel as essential energy source for daily life </li></ul><ul><li>Build up skills for sustainability and energy self reliance </li></ul><ul><li>Gather experience for other rural areas of developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Improve intercultural dialogue between students and countries </li></ul>Team presentation Mondialogo Engineering Award Symposium 7-11 December 2007, Mumbai, India Technical University of Crete University of Douala Assist.Pr. Theocharis Tsoutsos Supervisors Dr. Alexis Kemajou <ul><li>Sarantopoulos Ioannis </li></ul><ul><li>Che Franklin </li></ul><ul><li>Bakirtzoglou Vaios </li></ul>Team Members <ul><li>Azangue Willy </li></ul><ul><li>Ndipen Frankline </li></ul><ul><li>Donatien Kop </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The site: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity: agriculture, palm tree plantation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor infrastructure, no electricity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population: around 10000 people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palm oil production 2006/2007: 80000 l/month </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palm oil available for trade: 72000 l/month </li></ul></ul></ul>Mondialogo Engineering Award Symposium 7-11 December 2007, Mumbai, India The site : Mangoo village , Cameroon Energy consumption graph ( Data obtained from on-site investigation , 7-21/03/2007 )  Impacts from current situation in Mango village High Palm Oil Production Low selling price Contribution to high poverty rate Low economic growth Limited access to modern energy sources <ul><li>Manual tasks </li></ul><ul><li>No industries </li></ul>Productive time and labour sink Poor living standards Use of fuel wood as primary energy feedstock Land degradation High indoor air pollution Impacts on health
  5. 5. Project description : Aims Palm fruits Motorised pressing machine Biodiesel processor Biodiesel <ul><li>Main Aims: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel production from palm oil in rural area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effective and better palm oil production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using palm oil wastes as power biomass for production process </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Mondialogo Engineering Award Symposium 7-11 December 2007, Mumbai, India Proposed palm oil exploitation in the village Actually … inefficient and polluting ! Residue and wood used for cooking Manual pressing of palm oil
  7. 7. Mondialogo Engineering Award Symposium 7-11 December 2007, Mumbai, India <ul><li>Extraction from the nuts of the crude palm oil by pressing </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, high acidity due to poor extraction methods (FFA level 8%) </li></ul><ul><li>Pretreatment step of oil with acid esterification for reducing the acidity </li></ul><ul><li>Transesterification with basic catalyst for production of crude bio-diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity separation of glycerin from crude-bio-diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Water-washing of crude bio-diesel for the removal of impurities </li></ul>Proposed biodiesel production process Crude Palm oil Methanol Crude Bio-diesel Bio-diesel Water-Washing +NaOH Sedimentation Crude Glycerin Pretreatment Bio-diesel production process chart
  8. 8. Mondialogo Engineering Award Symposium 7-11 December 2007, Mumbai, India Project implementation steps <ul><ul><li>Phase 1: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification and characterization of area of study; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental impacts of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design low cost oil production process that fit with local environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory experiments: biodiesel production by a simple batch with sample palm oil and kernel palm oil quantities; analyzing products obtained; identify the suitable method. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct a complete flow diagram for the transformation process from palm nut to biodiesel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment design and selection: palm oil production unit, biodiesel processor, water supply, waste water treatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 2: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put in place a management organization of the project in the village </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training operators of the unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final evaluation and result presentation </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Requirements for project to be successful: </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of physical and social framework for complete intra-community sustainability with little outside intervention; </li></ul><ul><li>Setup of capable village committee to oversee maintenance and finances </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges: </li></ul><ul><li>Villagers were highly motivated but poorly trained (qualified) </li></ul><ul><li>Initial suspicion because several projects heralded in the past ended in fiasco </li></ul><ul><li>Mistrust between villagers who were afraid of monopoly of stronger families </li></ul><ul><li>Possible fuel for food problem </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed Solutions: </li></ul><ul><li>Organize training workshop and seminars for villagers with help of local University </li></ul><ul><li>Villagers to create committee/cooperation which will be strictly supervise by local team </li></ul><ul><li>Small scale plant, studies and investigations to prevent occurrence of food problem </li></ul>Mondialogo Engineering Award Symposium 7-11 December 2007, Mumbai, India Project work: Challenges and Solutions
  10. 10. Mondialogo Engineering Award Symposium 7-11 December 2007, Mumbai, India Project benefits <ul><li>Positive aspects of the designed unit </li></ul><ul><li>Can be replicated to other contexts; </li></ul><ul><li>Can easily be scaled up concerning the local needs; </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost of construction; </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass valorization of palm kernel shell for thermal energy provision; </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-diesel generator to cover electrical needs; </li></ul><ul><li>Simple process design for inexperienced users (batch reactor) </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of Project </li></ul><ul><li>Provides fuel applicable for different uses (e.g. cooking, lighting, electricity etc); </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents deforestation and desertification by providing alternatives for fuel wood; </li></ul><ul><li>More productive time available for other activities; </li></ul><ul><li>Less greenhouse gas emissions; </li></ul><ul><li>Less harmful to health; </li></ul><ul><li>Can revive local economy; </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mondialogo Engineering Award Symposium 7-11 December 2007, Mumbai, India Photos from the field First visit: Determining palm oil production and local energy needs Second visit: Informing the villagers about our intentions
  12. 12. Mondialogo Engineering Award Symposium 7-11 December 2007, Mumbai, India Future goals and perspectives <ul><li>Conservation of the collaboration for implementation of project </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project expansion: Multipurpose building (feedstock storage, mechanized palm oil production, biodiesel plant) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Project replicability (different feedstock) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel activities to enhance project implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction of a pilot plant (Unisteplus Program-Greek Team) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching for funding opportunities(e.g. World Bank’s Lighting Africa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in Conferences </li></ul></ul>Perspectives
  13. 13. Mondialogo Engineering Award Symposium 7-11 December 2007, Mumbai, India Thank you for your attention!! Technical University of Crete, Greece University of Douala, Cameroon

×