Literacy in Three Metaphors by Sylvia Scribner A’Kena LongBenton, MA, PMC EDP 9310 11.3.11
Literacy Quiz <ul><li>1.  In a standard five paragraph essay, how many main points must be supported? </li></ul><ul><li>A....
Literacy Quiz cont. <ul><li>2.  True or False </li></ul><ul><li>In a typical essay, transitions should begin each body par...
Literacy Quiz cont. <ul><li>3.  A transition is… </li></ul><ul><li>A.  Furthermore </li></ul><ul><li>B.  Similarly </li></...
Literacy Quiz Answers <ul><li>1.  In a standard five paragraph essay, how many main points must be supported? </li></ul><u...
Quiz Answers cont. <ul><li>2.  True  or False </li></ul><ul><li>In an essay, transitions should begin each body paragraph?...
Quiz Answers cont. <ul><li>3.  A transition is… </li></ul><ul><li>A.  Furthermore </li></ul><ul><li>B.  Similarly </li></u...
Homonym Poem Quiz Directions <ul><li>Read the following homonym quiz.  Can you find the 12 homonym errors? </li></ul><ul><...
Homonym Poem Quiz <ul><li>I  have a spelling checker. It came with my PC. It plainly marks four my revue mistakes I cannot...
Poem Quiz Answers <ul><li>I  have a spelling checker. It came with my PC. It plainly marks  four   my  revue mistakes I ca...
Literacy Introduction <ul><li>We all agree that literacy is a pressing national concern, but…  </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy ...
Literacy Introduction cont. <ul><li>Questions to Ponder: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How should literacy be defined in our techn...
Literacy & Society  <ul><li>Moving beyond the individualistic approach to literacy, but seeing literacy as a social achiev...
Other Questions to Ponder <ul><li>Is literacy a social right or a private power?  </li></ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul>
Our Literacy Dilemma <ul><li>We cannot reach a consensus on a literacy definition because our views differ on literacy’s s...
Value of Literateness <ul><li>What beliefs are shared across social classes and ethnic and religious groups? </li></ul>
Other Dilemmas  <ul><li>Do illiterates perceive their lack of skills as a hindrance to parenting, neighboring, or working?...
More Literacy Problems <ul><li>Scholars cannot even agree on which skills are “necessary” or “optional” </li></ul><ul><li>...
Literacy Problems cont. <ul><li>Class-based, heterogeneous society yields unequivocal demands </li></ul><ul><li>Small, iso...
Literacy Problems cont.  <ul><li>Different criteria for different regions will lead to inequality & limited opportunity ac...
Reder & Greens (1984) <ul><li>Literacy has different meanings for members of different groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural ...
Farrell (1977) <ul><li>College English Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Prominence for writing in the curriculum </li></ul><ul><...
A Historical Look at Literacy <ul><li>During WWI (early 1990’s), a 4 th  grade education rendered literacy </li></ul><ul><...
Literacy & Technology  <ul><li>Storing and retrieving information will require a new set of literacy skills </li></ul><ul>...
Consider this graphic.
The Three Metaphors  <ul><li>Literacy as Adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy as Power </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy as a St...
Literacy as Adaptation <ul><li>Survival or Pragmatic Value </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Literacy  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In...
Literacy & People’s Settings & Goals <ul><li>People’s setting and goals are considered an example of the functional approa...
Literacy as Adaptation: Commonsense Appeal  <ul><li>Daily Life Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Job Security & Advancement </li></...
Literacy as Power <ul><li>Group/ community advancement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elites...
Consider this graphic.
Consider this graphic.
Literacy as a State of Grace <ul><li>Salvation—broader than religion </li></ul><ul><li>Special virtue </li></ul><ul><li>“ ...
Discussion Questions <ul><li>Explain what you think is most important in literacy training? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you ...
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Literacy in Three Metaphors

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What are the challenges of literacy? How is it defined?

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Literacy in Three Metaphors

  1. 1. Literacy in Three Metaphors by Sylvia Scribner A’Kena LongBenton, MA, PMC EDP 9310 11.3.11
  2. 2. Literacy Quiz <ul><li>1. In a standard five paragraph essay, how many main points must be supported? </li></ul><ul><li>A. 5 </li></ul><ul><li>B. 3 </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>D. All of the above </li></ul><ul><li>E. None of the above </li></ul>
  3. 3. Literacy Quiz cont. <ul><li>2. True or False </li></ul><ul><li>In a typical essay, transitions should begin each body paragraph? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Literacy Quiz cont. <ul><li>3. A transition is… </li></ul><ul><li>A. Furthermore </li></ul><ul><li>B. Similarly </li></ul><ul><li>C. Consequently </li></ul><ul><li>D. All of the above </li></ul><ul><li>E. None of the above </li></ul>
  5. 5. Literacy Quiz Answers <ul><li>1. In a standard five paragraph essay, how many main points must be supported? </li></ul><ul><li>A. 5 </li></ul><ul><li>B. 3 </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>D. All of the above </li></ul><ul><li>E. None of the above </li></ul>
  6. 6. Quiz Answers cont. <ul><li>2. True or False </li></ul><ul><li>In an essay, transitions should begin each body paragraph? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Quiz Answers cont. <ul><li>3. A transition is… </li></ul><ul><li>A. Furthermore </li></ul><ul><li>B. Similarly </li></ul><ul><li>C. Consequently </li></ul><ul><li>D. All of the above </li></ul><ul><li>E. None of the above </li></ul>
  8. 8. Homonym Poem Quiz Directions <ul><li>Read the following homonym quiz. Can you find the 12 homonym errors? </li></ul><ul><li>Hint: Homonyms are words that sound alike, but are spelled differently and have different meanings? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Homonym Poem Quiz <ul><li>I have a spelling checker. It came with my PC. It plainly marks four my revue mistakes I cannot sea. I ran this poem threw it. I'm sure your pleased too no. Its letter perfect in it's weigh. My checker tolled me sew. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Poem Quiz Answers <ul><li>I have a spelling checker. It came with my PC. It plainly marks four my revue mistakes I cannot sea . I ran this poem threw it. I'm sure your pleased too no. Its letter perfect in it's weigh. My checker tolled me sew . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Literacy Introduction <ul><li>We all agree that literacy is a pressing national concern, but… </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy itself is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries have not been set </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Literacy Introduction cont. <ul><li>Questions to Ponder: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How should literacy be defined in our technological society? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we measure literacy? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Literacy & Society <ul><li>Moving beyond the individualistic approach to literacy, but seeing literacy as a social achievement </li></ul><ul><li>“ Individuals in society without writing systems do not become literate” (Scribner 1984). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other Questions to Ponder <ul><li>Is literacy a social right or a private power? </li></ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Our Literacy Dilemma <ul><li>We cannot reach a consensus on a literacy definition because our views differ on literacy’s social purposes and values. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Value of Literateness <ul><li>What beliefs are shared across social classes and ethnic and religious groups? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Other Dilemmas <ul><li>Do illiterates perceive their lack of skills as a hindrance to parenting, neighboring, or working? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erika & Dad examples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inner city youth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have no interest in writing letters to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not see higher reading levels as a ticket to a job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All will not have a bank account so mastering unusual forms is unneeded (Heath 1980). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// youtu.be/nFY0HBkUm8o </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. More Literacy Problems <ul><li>Scholars cannot even agree on which skills are “necessary” or “optional” </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Performance Level Project (1975) failed content validity test </li></ul>
  19. 19. Literacy Problems cont. <ul><li>Class-based, heterogeneous society yields unequivocal demands </li></ul><ul><li>Small, isolated, rural communities vs. college bound high school graduates </li></ul><ul><li>Vocational & personal needs vs. college subject matter—hallmark of literacy </li></ul>
  20. 20. Literacy Problems cont. <ul><li>Different criteria for different regions will lead to inequality & limited opportunity access </li></ul>
  21. 21. Reder & Greens (1984) <ul><li>Literacy has different meanings for members of different groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural variations must be considered. </li></ul><ul><li>Government, private agencies, community leaders involvement? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Farrell (1977) <ul><li>College English Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Prominence for writing in the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting logical reasoning & critical thinking </li></ul>
  23. 23. A Historical Look at Literacy <ul><li>During WWI (early 1990’s), a 4 th grade education rendered literacy </li></ul><ul><li>In 1947, a 5 th grade education was necessary </li></ul><ul><li>By 1952, a 6 th grade education was the minimum threshold </li></ul><ul><li>In 1984 (year of article), economics and computerized production will influence literacy levels </li></ul>
  24. 24. Literacy & Technology <ul><li>Storing and retrieving information will require a new set of literacy skills </li></ul><ul><li>As technology grows in future decades, literacy will increase for some and decrease for others </li></ul><ul><li>Resulting in more uneven, class-based literacy </li></ul>
  25. 25. Consider this graphic.
  26. 26. The Three Metaphors <ul><li>Literacy as Adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy as Power </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy as a State of Grace </li></ul>
  27. 27. Literacy as Adaptation <ul><li>Survival or Pragmatic Value </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced during WWI (Harman 1970) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For modern soldiering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently, the meaning has changed to fit various settings </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Literacy & People’s Settings & Goals <ul><li>People’s setting and goals are considered an example of the functional approach </li></ul><ul><li>Questions of fact, value, and purpose complicate how to apply people’s settings and goals to a curriculum </li></ul>
  29. 29. Literacy as Adaptation: Commonsense Appeal <ul><li>Daily Life Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Job Security & Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Directions </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping for Groceries </li></ul><ul><li>Civic & Political Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Growth & Stability </li></ul>
  30. 30. Literacy as Power <ul><li>Group/ community advancement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elites & dominant classes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contemporary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor & politically powerless </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Paulo Freire (1970) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental social transformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illiterate = state of victimization </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Consider this graphic.
  32. 32. Consider this graphic.
  33. 33. Literacy as a State of Grace <ul><li>Salvation—broader than religion </li></ul><ul><li>Special virtue </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cultured” </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiritual </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Explain what you think is most important in literacy training? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think experts should represent as literacy’s highest benefits? </li></ul>
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