Study of heat transfer characteristics of laminar air


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Study of heat transfer characteristics of laminar air

  1. 1. Study of Heat Transfer Characteristics of Laminar Air Flows In Parallel-Plate Dimpled Channels
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>What is Forced Convection? </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Convection is a type of heat transfer in which fluid motion is generated by an external source(like a pump,fan,suction device,etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Forced convection is often encounterd by engineers designing or analyzing heat exchangers,pipe flow and flow over a plate at a different temperature than the stream. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Forced convection laminar flows have been widely studied in recent decades. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of low heat dissipation rate is often encoutered in applications such as compact heat exchangers and electronic equipment packages with limited space or weight limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>In most parallel-plate channels,the flow is laminar due to small channel dimensions and low fluid velocities and as a result heat transfer coefficient is very low. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Enhancing heat transfer rate <ul><li>A typical method to enhance this insufficient heat transfer rate is to install transverse ribs normal to the main flow. </li></ul><ul><li>These ribs interrupt the hydrodynamic boundary layer periodically, add surface area, generate secondary flows and vortexes, and increase flow velocity by decreasing the channel width. </li></ul><ul><li>It is clear that the enhancement in heat transfer rate is extremely dependent on the arrangement of the ribs and to some extent, on the geometric properties of them. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why use Dimpled Channels over Ribbed Channels? <ul><li>The inward protruding elements generally increase pressure </li></ul><ul><li>drop drastically. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been observed in various studies that the increase in </li></ul><ul><li>undesirable pressure drop in dimpled channels is generally </li></ul><ul><li>lower compared to the ribbed ones and this is due to more self-structured motion of the fluid in cavities. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat transfer in these dimpled channels is enhanced due to periodic interruptions of thermal boundary layers and also improvement in lateral mixing by disruption of the shear layer, separation of the bulk flow, formation of recirculating flows, and thus destabilization of the transversal vortices in the dimples. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fig. 1 Schematic of the channels interior section: (a) 3-cavity channel,(b)6-cavity channel,and (c) 12-cavity channel
  7. 7. Channel Geometry And Boundary Conditions <ul><li>Salient Features of air flow </li></ul><ul><li>Laminar incompressible air flow </li></ul><ul><li>Density=1.225 kg/m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity=1.7894 x 10 -5 kg/ms </li></ul><ul><li>specific heat of 1006.43 J/kgK </li></ul><ul><li>Ti=280 K. Tw=320K </li></ul>
  8. 8. Streamlines and Temperature Distribution on the 3-cavity channel
  9. 9. Streamlines and Velocity Distribution (δ/D=0.2)
  10. 10. Variation of heat flux <ul><li>The above figure clearly illustrates that the maximum local heat flux happens at the downstream of each dimple which is due to large vorticities in these zones. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Concept of Nusselt Number <ul><li>In heat transfer at a boundary(surface) within a fluid,the Nusselt Number is the ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer across the boundary. </li></ul><ul><li>The average Nusselt Number is computed by the equation: </li></ul><ul><li>where </li></ul><ul><li>k=fluid thermal conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>D h =Hydraulic diameter and is computed by: </li></ul><ul><li>Dh=4A/P=2HW/(H+W), </li></ul><ul><li>H=channel height </li></ul><ul><li>W=depth of channel </li></ul>
  12. 12. Variation of Nusselt Number as a function of Reynolds number in 3-cavity channel
  13. 13. Variations of Nusselt number as a function of the number of cavities in Re=1000
  14. 14. Variations of average Nusselt number as a function of dimple relative depth in the 3-cavity channel in re=1000
  15. 15. Conclusions <ul><li>The results have shown an enhancement in local wall heat flux for the relative depth value of 0.2 especially in the downstream of each dimple because of increase in strength of vortexes in cavities. </li></ul><ul><li>Also the mean Nusselt Number increases as the Reynolds number increases. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be now conferred that we have optimized the value of relative depth which is equal to 0.2 for which the wall heat flux is maximum. </li></ul>