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Human Resource Development: Maritime Education and Training in Bangladesh
Human Resource Development: Maritime Education and Training in Bangladesh
Human Resource Development: Maritime Education and Training in Bangladesh A Thesis Defense In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master Shipping & Transport STC-NMU, Rotterdam October 28, 2009 13:30 hrs Ahamedul Karim Chowdhury Supervisor : Mr. Erik Hietbrink ,MSc. Chairman, Board of Directors, STC-Group
Maritime Education and Training (MET) has not yet been considered as a potential tool of HRD in Bangladesh since long time although there was an enormous potentialities and global demand of competent seafarers exist.
What is the significance of state role and effect of state initiatives in MET and maritime cluster?
What are the possibilities, potentialities and possible impacts of establishing joint venture MET institute and create competitive factors?
Are there any potentialities of MET institutes in Bangladesh?
What are the causes of underdevelopment of MET in Bangladesh?
What are the steps to be taken to remove causes and hurdles against development of MET ?
Overview of Research Methodology Descriptive analysis Review of literatures Review of legal bases Review of facts & documents Quantitative & qualitative analysis Overview, recommendations and conclusion Quantitative analysis, Hypotheses testing & Thematic analysis Interview for perception survey Review of country reports
To investigate the existing situation of MET in Bangladesh.
To asses state role in development of Maritime sector including MET and the possibilities to establish a unique and accredited MET Institute in Bangladesh with or without partnership and its impacts.
To explore the causes of the stagnancy and sluggish growth of Maritime Education and Training in Bangladesh during last few decades and to formulate recommendations to remove cause based on a perception survey and analysis through interviewing.
Summary of theoretical framework and literature review
Education and training are the basic tools for HRD.
Human resource development is a prime responsibility of a state.
Bangladesh also has a constitutional binding for developing its human resource.
The Government's education policy aims at poverty alleviation and improving the productive capacity of the workforce.
In Bangladesh, structures of polytechnic, vocational and technical trainings remain underutilized and problematic.
Bangladesh has become considerably dependent on the foreign remittance of expatriate to maintain its foreign exchange reserve.
Under the current situation, producing and supply of competent maritime officers in the global market through MET can play a vital role to meet the current demand of employment and foreign exchange.
Current Scenarios of MET structure in Bangladesh
Maritime activities are mainly divided into two sectors.
Sea-going ships operating in international water including near coastal and deep sea area
Other is for small ships operating in Inland waterways.
The Department of Shipping (DOS) is responsible for supervising and monitoring the requisite International Standard of the Public and Private Sector Maritime Institutes .
There are five Government and four Private Maritime Training Institutions offering pre-sea and post-sea maritime courses in different grades and areas respectively. Government owned Maritime Institutes in Bangladesh are:
Marine Academy, Chittagong.
National Maritime Institute (former Seamen’s Training Centre), Chittagong.
Marine Fisheries Academy, Chittagong.
Bangladesh Institute of Marine Technology, Dhaka.
Deck Personnel Training Centre, Dhaka.
The Private Maritime Training Institutes in Bangladesh are:
Maritime Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), Dhaka/Chittagong.
Bangladesh Maritime Training Institute (BMTI), Dhaka/Chittagong.
International Institute of Maritime Technology (IIMT), Dhaka/Chittagong.
VINAMARINE: The Vietnam Maritime Bureau is the only maritime administration and statutory agency in Vietnam
VINALINES : a largest state-owned shipping conglomerate in shipping business operation in Vietnam; both are under the Ministry of Transport and Communication.
VIMARU: Vietnam Maritime University is a state-owned institution in Vietnam. The university established relationships with a number of maritime universities and institutions worldwide and international organizations especially with those in Japan and Korea.
UT-HCMC: University of Transport in Ho Chi Minh established in 2001now managed by Ministry of Transport. Navigation faculty and Marine Engineering faculty are the solid strengths of this University. UT-HCMC has achieved considerable interest and investment in a block of the maritime training labs satisfying IMO standards. About 400 navigation students come out as graduate from this university every year and they are employed in domestic and foreign sea-going vessels.
MET in India and Vietnam: Comparing with MET structure in Bangladesh
Bangladesh MET structure is far behind than India and Vietnam.
India is a big country. Therefore it’s quite natural that Bangladesh may lag behind India in terms of size of MET structure. But unfortunately in terms of quality like legal framework, upgradation of courses,standard of maritime administration and private participation in MET institute Bangladesh falls behind India.
In terms of potentilities and possibilities, Bangladesh could be a better country for MET development than Vietnam. Available students having science background with good english language skill could be an advantage for flourishing maritime education.
But due to ignorance, lack of awareness, weak MET structure and lack of international cooperation and assistance Bangladesh couldnot avail this opportunity yet.
Bangladesh now needs to go a long way in MET development to reach to the level of Vietnam and India.
Lack of sufficient national fleet affected the growth of the country as a maritime nation and has enormous negative influence on fostering MET in Bangladesh.
Responsibility of MET being given to DOS & MOS without any specific directives and attention, the sector has become sterile resulting in failure to develop & expand maritime education in vocational as well as tertiary level compared to other formal educational institution of Bangladesh.
Lack of political ambitions and awareness of the politicians, civil society, and government regarding ongoing trends in MET in the world are the main causes of underdevelopment of MET structure in Bangladesh.
The regulatory role of DOS itself doesn’t facilitate rather impede the growth and development of MET in vocational as well as in tertiary level education in Bangladesh.
Lack of publicity, awareness about the ongoing global trend in ship manning and lack of awareness campaigns are the other reasons for the underdeveloped situation in MET structure of Bangladesh.
Lack of strong European partnership in MET system has slowed down the development and growth of MET in Bangladesh.
Result of hypothesis testing at a glance Number of hypothesis Numbers of question attributed Parameter (50% of highest possible score) Average mean value Result H1 7 17.5 15.99 rejected H2 6 15 19.09 accepted H3 8 20 30.56 accepted H4 9 22.5 28.15 accepted H5 2 5 6.9 accepted H6 4 10 12.26 accepted
In order to remove stagnancy and sluggish growth of MET in Bangladesh a high level task force can be constituted with maritime experts, transportation experts and HRD experts to formulate a policy in national level.
To remove hurdles in policy level as well as to remove identified causes or factors steps can be taken ;
Political consensus on development of maritime cluster including MET.
A comprehensive maritime policy including MET structure development.
Organizational reform of DOS to unleash MET sector form their grip or establishment of an independent maritime commission in place of DOS.
Incentive packages for private participation in MET institute.
Joint venture MET institute with a right EU partner under PPP.
Awareness campaign about significance and potentialities of MET in Bangladesh.
Diplomatic initiatives to reduce barriers like VISA and security check harassment for Bangladeshi seafarers.
Conversion of infrastructure of some Polytechnic institutes and TTC into MET institutes under PPP.
PPP for MET institute in joint venture and in private sector.
A comprehensive feasibility study with economic analysis and financial modeling to establish a unique and an accredited MET institute or a maritime university in Bangladesh with or without partnership can be carried out.