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  1. 1. Presented By:- Amit Kapoor MCA Deptt. MAIMT
  2. 2. Contents Introduction to Animation Why Do We See Images As Moving ? Effects On Picture During Animation Categories Of Animation Animation Functions Animation Techniques Uses Of Animation Animation Softwares Animation File Formats
  3. 3. Introduction to AnimationThe word “animation” derives from “animate,” whichmeans “to bring to life”.Thus when a multimedia developer wants to bring anImage to life, animation is used.“Animation is the process resulting time-varyingvisual effects of motion, shape, color and so on.”
  4. 4. Why Do We See Images As Moving ?The Persistence of Vision Theory  Our brain holds onto an image for a fraction of a second after the image has passed. If the eye sees a series of still images very quickly one picture after another, then the images will appear to move because our eyes cannot deal with fast-moving images.
  5. 5. Effects On Picture During AnimationIn Animation, you get moving images when thepictures change in some way. Here are some waysin which pictures can change :-  Change in Size  Change in Position  Change in Angle  Change in Color  Change of Shape
  6. 6. Categories Of AnimationAnimation deals with graphics drawn by hand or by animationsoftware. Depending upon the techniques used to create andmanage the frame. There are two broad categories ofanimation :-1. Cell Animation2. Computer Animation :- a) Computer Assisted (two-dimensional) animation b) Computer Generated (three dimensional ) animation
  7. 7. Animation Functions Zooming Tilting Panning Tweening Morphing
  8. 8. ZoomingIf we fix the window on an object but reduce orincrease its size, the object would appear bigger(zoom in) or smaller (zoom out), respectively.
  9. 9. Tilt (camera)Tilting is a technique inwhich the camera isstationary and rotates in avertical plane (or tiltingplane). Tilting the camera pitch rotation.results in a motion similarto someone nodding theirhead "yes" or to anaircraft performing a pitchrotation.
  10. 10. PanningA rotation in a horizontalplane is known aspanning (yaw rotation).Tilting the camera resultsin a motion similar to yaw rotationsomeone nodding theirhead “no" or to an aircraftperforming a yawrotation.
  11. 11. TweeningTraditional animation sequence is created bytwo types of artists :-1. the lead artists or experts who draw those frames where major changes take place within the sequence, called key frames.2. assistants draw a number of frames in between the frames, process is called tweening.
  12. 12. MorphingTransformation of object shapes from one toanother is called morphing.
  13. 13. Animation TechniquesThere are four basic techniques used in animation.These are:- 1. Drawn Animation 2. Cut-out Animation 3. Model Animation 4. Computer Animation
  14. 14. Drawn AnimationThis covers any form where one drawing isreplaced by another in a sequence. Each drawing isslightly different from one before.Disadvantages:- It takes a very long time to filmfrom start to finish and is expensive needing manyanimators to complete the work.
  15. 15. Cut-out AnimationThis covers any form where cut-out shapes aremoved around or replaced by other cut-out. Flatobjects like buttons, matchsticks and string can alsobe used in this form of animation.Disadvantages:- It is difficult to have more than oneor two cut-outs moving at the same time.
  16. 16. Model AnimationThis involves the filming ofpuppets or any form ofthree-dimensional models.Disadvantages:- This type of animation needsa lot of time and hard work. The makers of„James and the Giant Peach‟ were only able tocomplete 45 seconds of model animation aweek, 10 seconds a day. This was becauseeach puppet had so many joint.
  17. 17. Computer AnimationThis refers to drawing of three dimensional modelsand sets on the computer. Images can be scannedinto the computer using digital photography ormade within the computer itself.
  18. 18. 11 Basic Principle of Animation1. Squash and stretch2. Anticipation3. Staging4. Straight ahead action and pose to pose5. Follow through and overlapping action6. Slow in and slow out7. Arcs8. Secondary action9. Timing10. Exaggeration11. Appeal
  19. 19. 1. Squash and StretchDefining the rigidity andmass of an object bydistorting its shapeduring an action
  20. 20. 2. AnticipationPreparation for an actionExample:Goofy prepares to hit a baseball.
  21. 21. 3. StagingPresenting an idea so that it is unmistakably clear
  22. 22. 4. Straight Ahead Action and Pose- to-Pose Action1. Straight AheadAnimator start from first drawing in the scene anddraw all subsequent frames until the end of scene.2. Pose-to-PoseAnimator plans actions, draws a sequence of poses, in between frames etc.
  23. 23. 5. Follow Through and Overlapping Action The termination of an action and establishing its relationship to the next actionExample: Luxo Jr.‟s hop withoverlapping action on chord.
  24. 24. 6. Slow in and Out
  25. 25. 7. Arcs• Visual path of action for natural movement.• Makes animation much smoother and less stiff than a straight line.
  26. 26. 8. Secondary ActionThe action of an object resulting from another action Example: Body movement is the primary action, facial expression is the secondary action
  27. 27. 9. Timing and MotionExamples:1. Timing: tiny characters move quicker thanlarger ones.2. Motion: can define weights of objects.
  28. 28. 10. ExaggerationAccentuating the essence of an idea via thedesign and the actionExample: Luxo Jr.made smaller to giveidea of a child.
  29. 29. 11. AppealCreating a design or an action that the audienceenjoys watching
  30. 30. Animation File FormatsSoftware File FormatDirector .dir & .dcrAnimator Pro .fliStudio Max .maxSuperCard and Director .picsWindows Audio Video Interleaved .aviMacintosh .qt & .movMotion Video .mpegCompuServe .gifFlash .swfShockwave .dcr
  31. 31. Current Companies• Pixar • Metrolight Studios• Industrial Light and • Boss Film Studios Magic (ILM) • deGraf/Wahrman• Pacific Data Images • R/Greenberg (PDI) Associates• Disney • Blue Sky Productions• Xaos • Sony Pictures• Rhythm & Hues • Cinesite• Digital Domain • Imageworks• Lamb & Company • Apple…. .
  32. 32. Thank You All