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DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS BASICS.

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DCS BASICS

DCS BASICS

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  • 1. DCS EVOLUTIONDCS EVOLUTION--CENTRALISED CONTROLCENTRALISED CONTROL
  • 2. DCS EVOLUTIONDCS EVOLUTION--DISTRIBUTED CONTROLDISTRIBUTED CONTROL
  • 3. DCS EVOLUTIONDCS EVOLUTION--FIELDBUS CONTROLFIELDBUS CONTROL
  • 4. DCS EVOLUTIONDCS EVOLUTION-- WEB CONTROLWEB CONTROL
  • 5. DCS EVOLUTIONDCS EVOLUTION--WEB CONTROL APPLICATIONWEB CONTROL APPLICATION
  • 6. ABB DCS ARCITECTUREABB DCS ARCITECTURE
  • 7. ABB DCS HARDWAREABB DCS HARDWARE
  • 8. CONTROL SYSTEMS TRENDCONTROL SYSTEMS TREND1) PLC1) PLC2) DCS2) DCS3) PC3) PC -- Based ControlBased Control..•• PLCPLC :: Introduced in the late 1960 to replace Relays and HardIntroduced in the late 1960 to replace Relays and Hard--wiredwiredProgramming.Programming.
  • 9. DCSDCS :: Introduced in the MidIntroduced in the Mid--1970 to1970 toreplace pneumatic controls by usingreplace pneumatic controls by usingcomputers.computers.•• PCPC--Based ControlBased Control :: Introduced by the early 1980s to avoid theIntroduced by the early 1980s to avoid theproprietary PLC & DCS systems.proprietary PLC & DCS systems.
  • 10. DCS EVOLUTIONDCS EVOLUTION•• LOCAL CONTROLLOCAL CONTROL :: Initially control was performed local to the equipmentInitially control was performed local to the equipmentcontrol. Thecontrol. The ADVANTAGEADVANTAGE was low wiring costs .was low wiring costs .DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES werewere --not much control, monitoring, alarming & history.not much control, monitoring, alarming & history.•• CENTRALISED CONTROLCENTRALISED CONTROL:: With the advent of minicomputer, sensors andWith the advent of minicomputer, sensors andactuators were into the Central Control (Computer).actuators were into the Central Control (Computer).•• DISTRIBUTED CONTROLDISTRIBUTED CONTROL:: With the advent of microcomputer, DistributedWith the advent of microcomputer, Distributedcontrol systems were installed in the plants near to the controlcontrol systems were installed in the plants near to the control room viaroom viaproprietary digital communications lines called as Data Hiway. Fproprietary digital communications lines called as Data Hiway. First DCS wasirst DCS wasdeveloped by Honeywell,U.S in 1975.developed by Honeywell,U.S in 1975.TheThe ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES were greatly reduced wiring costs, much more limitedwere greatly reduced wiring costs, much more limitedfailure and less cost to add more points.failure and less cost to add more points.TheThe DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES were that wiring costs were that wiring costswere that wiring costs were that wiring costswere still significant and there was lack of interoperability amwere still significant and there was lack of interoperability among controllers ofong controllers ofvarious manufacturers due to the proprietary protocols. Hence thvarious manufacturers due to the proprietary protocols. Hence the user wase user waslocked into a single vendor.locked into a single vendor.
  • 11. DCS System Installations in RCFDCS System Installations in RCF1. Yokogawa1. Yokogawa -- CS 3000 : Ammonia IICS 3000 : Ammonia II2. Yokogawa2. Yokogawa -- CS 3000 : A N PCS 3000 : A N P3. Yokogawa3. Yokogawa -- CS 3000 : N N A PCS 3000 : N N A P4. Moore4. Moore -- APACSAPACS : Methyl amine: Methyl amine5. Fisher5. Fisher -- RosemantRosemant -- Delta V field Bus : S T PDelta V field Bus : S T P6. Honeywell6. Honeywell -- GUS : Ammonia I SynthesisGUS : Ammonia I Synthesis7. Yokogawa7. Yokogawa -- Centum Excel : Steam Generation PlantCentum Excel : Steam Generation Plant8. Moore8. Moore -- APACS : SuphalaAPACS : Suphala9. Yokogawa9. Yokogawa -- Micro Excel : MethanolMicro Excel : Methanol10. Yokogawa10. Yokogawa -- Micro Excel : S A P/C N AMicro Excel : S A P/C N A11. ABB11. ABB -- Freelance 2000 : A B CFreelance 2000 : A B C12. Honeywell12. Honeywell -- TDC 3000 : Ammonia ITDC 3000 : Ammonia I13. Honeywell13. Honeywell -- GUS : Ammonia/UreaGUS : Ammonia/Urea -- ThalThal14. Fox14. Fox boroboro -- I/A series : D M A CI/A series : D M A C -- ThalThal15. Fisher15. Fisher -- Rosemant RS3 : P G RRosemant RS3 : P G R16. Fisher16. Fisher -- Rosemant RS3 : Steam GenerationRosemant RS3 : Steam Generation -- ThalThal17. Moore17. Moore -- APACS : Water Treatment PAPACS : Water Treatment Plantlant --ThalThal
  • 12. DCSDCS•• The importance of DCS systems to increase as global competitiveThe importance of DCS systems to increase as global competitivedynamics in food and beverage, specialty metals, pulp and paper,dynamics in food and beverage, specialty metals, pulp and paper,pharmaceutical and fire chemical processing.pharmaceutical and fire chemical processing.•• The DCS has networking capabilities which are useful for businesThe DCS has networking capabilities which are useful for businesssmanagement.management.•• The DCS has capacity for processing large number of I/O points.The DCS has capacity for processing large number of I/O points.TYPES OF DCSTYPES OF DCS ::1) Conventional DCS .1) Conventional DCS .2) PLC based DCS.2) PLC based DCS.3) Hybrid DCS.3) Hybrid DCS.4) Open DCS System4) Open DCS System
  • 13. CONVENTIONAL DCSCONVENTIONAL DCSThis is a pureThis is a pure ““Process onlyProcess only”” control system. Usually purchased fromcontrol system. Usually purchased fromone vendor. This DCS arranged into three categories:one vendor. This DCS arranged into three categories:•• SmallSmall -- Less than $ 100,000.Less than $ 100,000.•• MediumMedium -- Greater than $100,000 & Less than $500,000.Greater than $100,000 & Less than $500,000.•• LargeLarge -- Greater than $500,000.Greater than $500,000.PLC Based DCSPLC Based DCS..This is a network of PLCThis is a network of PLC’’s used to perform the task ofs used to perform the task ofconventional DCS and programmable functionality when required.conventional DCS and programmable functionality when required.Hybrid DCSHybrid DCS..Performs both process and sequential control.Performs both process and sequential control.Open DCS SystemOpen DCS System..This is FieldThis is Field--Bus Control. Advantages are lower wiring cost andBus Control. Advantages are lower wiring cost andless failure, smaller expansion costs and multi vendor interoperless failure, smaller expansion costs and multi vendor interoperabilityabilityDCS and PLC can be more closely and efficiently interconnected.DCS and PLC can be more closely and efficiently interconnected.
  • 14. Honeywell TDC 3000 DCS ArchitectureHoneywell TDC 3000 DCS ArchitectureAMCAMCUS#1 US#2 HMLCN ABHGA BData HiwayFieldFieldEC Link
  • 15. Hiway Gateway (HG)Hiway Gateway (HG)•• LCN Module. Provides a two way communication link between the LoLCN Module. Provides a two way communication link between the LocalcalControl Network and data hiway.Control Network and data hiway.•• 68020 based high performance intelligence module.68020 based high performance intelligence module.•• Converts data and protocol between Local Control Network and datConverts data and protocol between Local Control Network and data hiway.a hiway.•• Scans the hiway for alarm conditions.Scans the hiway for alarm conditions.•• Synchronize time keeping for hiwaySynchronize time keeping for hiway--based process connected boxes.based process connected boxes.•• One HG is required for each data hiway that is connected to theOne HG is required for each data hiway that is connected to the LCN. Up toLCN. Up to20 data hiway pairs can be connected to an LCN.20 data hiway pairs can be connected to an LCN.•• Connects following hiway resident boxes to LCNConnects following hiway resident boxes to LCN1.1. AMCsAMCs2.2. CPC ( critical process controller ).CPC ( critical process controller ).3.3. DHP.DHP.4.4. Hiway traffic director etcHiway traffic director etc……HG FunctionsHG Functions ::1.1. Data access :Data access :-- gets box data requested from LCN modules.gets box data requested from LCN modules.2.2. Event processing :Event processing :-- sends process and box alarm to LCN modulessends process and box alarm to LCN modules3.3. Database configuration :Database configuration :-- 3000 points per hg can be configured.3000 points per hg can be configured.
  • 16. Data HiwayData HiwayData hiway provides communication link betweenData hiway provides communication link between hiwayhiwaygateway,gateway,preferred access devices and process connecting box. Data hiwapreferred access devices and process connecting box. Data hiwayyoperates atoperates at250 kbps.250 kbps.It is redundant pair of 75 ohm coax cable conneIt is redundant pair of 75 ohm coax cable connected to box.cted to box.It may beIt may be20,000 feet long.20,000 feet long.There are 3 kinds of devices on the data hiway,There are 3 kinds of devices on the data hiway,1.1. Respond only devices Ex:Respond only devices Ex:-- AA--MC (Advanced MultifunctionMC (Advanced Multifunctioncontroller)controller)2.2. Polled devices Ex:Polled devices Ex:-- PIUPIU’’s (Process interface unit)s (Process interface unit)3.3. Preferred access devicesPreferred access devices
  • 17. History ModuleHistory Module•• LCN Module. Stores process and systemLCN Module. Stores process and systeminformation that can be displayed.information that can be displayed.•• Based on microprocessors 68020.Based on microprocessors 68020.•• Winchester disk for data storage.Winchester disk for data storage.•• Communicates with all Modules on the LCN.Communicates with all Modules on the LCN.•• Stores history and general information.Stores history and general information.
  • 18. Universal StationUniversal StationUniversal station (US) communicates with all modulUniversal station (US) communicates with all modules on thees on theLCN, processLCN, processconnected devices on the hiway via hiway gateway and UCN via neconnected devices on the hiway via hiway gateway and UCN via networktworkinterface moduleinterface module(NIM).(NIM).The following are the features of US,The following are the features of US,•• Intelligent man/machine interface in the TDC 3000 system.Intelligent man/machine interface in the TDC 3000 system.•• Stands on the LCN. Communicates with all Modules on LCN, processStands on the LCN. Communicates with all Modules on LCN, processconnected devices on the Hiway via Hiway Gateway.connected devices on the Hiway via Hiway Gateway.•• Provides comprehensive facilities to the process operator, proceProvides comprehensive facilities to the process operator, processssengineer and maintenance technician on the Universal Window.engineer and maintenance technician on the Universal Window.US provides comprehensive facilities to the followUS provides comprehensive facilities to the following people,ing people,•• Process engineerProcess engineer•• Process operatorProcess operator•• Maintenance technician.Maintenance technician.
  • 19. AMCAMC•• TDC 3000 controllerTDC 3000 controller1.1. Based on Motorola 68000 Microprocessor.Based on Motorola 68000 Microprocessor.2.2. Faster execution and control with 500 ms processing rate.Faster execution and control with 500 ms processing rate.•• MultifunctionMultifunction –– Modulating, sequence, logic, I/O monitoringModulating, sequence, logic, I/O monitoringcommunication and diagnostic.communication and diagnostic.•• Faster peer to peer communication over EC link ( 500 kbits/sec )Faster peer to peer communication over EC link ( 500 kbits/sec )..•• Proven control techniquesProven control techniques1.1. Full function algorithms.Full function algorithms.2.2. Process oriented programming.Process oriented programming.•• Configured as a box on TDC 3000 Data Hiway. Supported byConfigured as a box on TDC 3000 Data Hiway. Supported by1.1. LCN devicesLCN devices –– US, AM, HM.US, AM, HM.
  • 20. HONEYWELLHONEYWELL -- GUSGUSHMNIMHPMHPMHPMLocal Control NetworkUS#1 US#2 US#3 US#4Printer PrinterDrive’s- -High Performance ManagerHistory ModuleNetwork Interface ModuleUniversalStationABUniversalControlNetwork
  • 21. Honeywell System DescriptionHoneywell System Description•• Global User StationGlobal User Station•• History ModulesHistory Modules•• Network Interface ModulesNetwork Interface Modules•• Communication SubsystemCommunication Subsystem -- Local Control Network & UniversalLocal Control Network & UniversalControl NetworkControl Network•• High Performance Process ManagerHigh Performance Process Manager
  • 22. Global User StationGlobal User StationOverviewOverviewThe TPS system provides an integrated interface between the procThe TPS system provides an integrated interface between the processessand the end user. This interface is named as the Global User Staand the end user. This interface is named as the Global User Station (GUS).tion (GUS).GUS is an important part in the Honeywell Total planGUS is an important part in the Honeywell Total plant Solutionst Solutionsofferings. It provides access to plant wide process network, plaofferings. It provides access to plant wide process network, plant ornt ororganization wide intranet or even Internet.organization wide intranet or even Internet.The following hardware is available to enhance the fThe following hardware is available to enhance the functionality of theunctionality of theGUS:GUS:•• Integrated Keyboard for Operators as well as Engineer.Integrated Keyboard for Operators as well as Engineer.•• Matrix printer supported by Windows NT.Matrix printer supported by Windows NT.•• 8 * CD8 * CD--ROMROM•• 100MB ZIP Drive100MB ZIP Drive•• 3.53.5”” Floppy DriveFloppy DriveGUS has following functionalitys :GUS has following functionalitys :•• TheThe ““HumanHuman ”” interface allows effective interaction of the Operator throughinterface allows effective interaction of the Operator throughthe use of operating displaysthe use of operating displays•• Engineering functions such as data point building, display buildEngineering functions such as data point building, display building and reporting and reportbuilding are available.building are available.•• Communication with other LCN modules is accomplished.Communication with other LCN modules is accomplished.•• Communication on Ethernet.Communication on Ethernet.
  • 23. Honey well GUS Hardware:Honey well GUS Hardware:•• Processor : Pentium ProProcessor : Pentium Pro / 200MHZ/ 200MHZ•• Memory : 64MB RAM ECCMemory : 64MB RAM ECC•• Cache : 256KB ECCCache : 256KB ECC•• Storage : 2 GB hardStorage : 2 GB hard disk drive, CD ROM,disk drive, CD ROM,Cartridge DriveCartridge Drive•• Video : 21Video : 21”” high resolution screen 1280 * 1024high resolution screen 1280 * 1024PixelsPixels•• Colours : 256 colorColours : 256 color palettepalette•• Keyboard : IntegratedKeyboard : Integrated keyboard with mousekeyboard with mouse•• PIN Connection : Built in EthernPIN Connection : Built in Ethernetet•• Cursor Control : QWERTY & MousCursor Control : QWERTY & Mouse/Touch Screene/Touch ScreenPeripherals supportedPeripherals supported•• PrinterPrinter•• 8 * CD8 * CD--ROMROM•• 1/41/4”” Steamer TapeSteamer Tape•• 3.53.5”” Floppy DriveFloppy Drive•• 100 Mb ZIP Drive100 Mb ZIP Drive•• Annunciator relay on the consoleAnnunciator relay on the console--based keyboardbased keyboard
  • 24. Honeywell GUS softwareHoneywell GUS software•• Operating System : Windows NT versiOperating System : Windows NT version 4.0on 4.0•• Base System : Provides reaBase System : Provides real time datal time dataexchangeexchangebetween the network and all GUSbetween the network and all GUSfunctions.functions.
  • 25. History ModulesHistory ModulesThe History Modules is the bulk module that can be utilizeThe History Modules is the bulk module that can be utilized by all moduled by all moduleconnectedconnectedto the Local Control Network. It is as the name implies the masto the Local Control Network. It is as the name implies the mass memory of thes memory of theTPSTPSSystem. The memory components of this module are one 1.8 gigabySystem. The memory components of this module are one 1.8 gigabyteteWinchester discs.Winchester discs.It is controlled by an M68040 microprocessor. This provides theIt is controlled by an M68040 microprocessor. This provides the module withmodule withsignificantsignificantcomputing power that this used to structure much of the incomincomputing power that this used to structure much of the incoming data andg data andformat it intoformat it intoa form for easy retrieval.a form for easy retrieval.The history in the model is provided by the History ModThe history in the model is provided by the History Module. Processule. Processvariables arevariables areavailable for hourly, shift, daily and monthly average calculatavailable for hourly, shift, daily and monthly average calculation and recording.ion and recording.All system event history such as process alarms, systemAll system event history such as process alarms, system status changes,status changes,and errorand errormessages are stored into the History Modules.messages are stored into the History Modules.Other modules have access to data in the History ModulesOther modules have access to data in the History Modules for theirfor theirfunctions.functions.The History Module provides two functions, storage only and dataThe History Module provides two functions, storage only and data structuringstructuring
  • 26. HM functions and Historization parameterHM functions and Historization parameterHM functionsHM functions ::It can automatically backup the control databasesIt can automatically backup the control databases in the HG, AM, CG.in the HG, AM, CG.HM can store,HM can store,•• Continuous process history.Continuous process history.•• Event journal (history).Event journal (history).•• Active system files.Active system files.•• Static system files.Static system files.•• On process analysis program (maintenance aid)On process analysis program (maintenance aid)HM Historization parametersHM Historization parameters ::There can be up to 10 HMThere can be up to 10 HM’’s on the LCN. There can be maximum of 150s on the LCN. There can be maximum of 150groups pergroups perHM. Each group can have up to 20 points. All points in the groHM. Each group can have up to 20 points. All points in the group must be in theup must be in thesamesameunit.unit.
  • 27. Network Interface Module (NIM)Network Interface Module (NIM)The Network Interface Module (NIM) provides the link between tThe Network Interface Module (NIM) provides the link between the local Controlhe local ControlNetwork and the Universal Control Network. As such it make theNetwork and the Universal Control Network. As such it make the transition fromtransition fromthethetransmission technique and protocol or the Local Control Networtransmission technique and protocol or the Local Control Network to thek to thetransmissiontransmissiontechnique and the protocol of the Universal Control Network. Thtechnique and the protocol of the Universal Control Network. The NIM providese NIM providesaccessaccessby LCN modules data from UCN resident devices. The NIM is availby LCN modules data from UCN resident devices. The NIM is available in theable in theredundantredundantconfiguration to provide continued operation in the event of thconfiguration to provide continued operation in the event of the primary failure. Ite primary failure. Itcancanalso do event processing.also do event processing.There can be up to 10 redundant NIM pairs per LCN. A NThere can be up to 10 redundant NIM pairs per LCN. A NIM can host uptoIM can host upto8000 tag8000 tagnames and supports a data transfer rate of 2400 parameters pernames and supports a data transfer rate of 2400 parameters per second.second.
  • 28. Communication SubsystemCommunication SubsystemLocal Control Network (LCN)Local Control Network (LCN)The backbone of every TPS system is a comThe backbone of every TPS system is a communication network,munication network,known asknown asLocal Control Network. The LCN is a LAN through which TDC 3000Local Control Network. The LCN is a LAN through which TDC 3000 modulesmodulescommunicate with each other. The LCN is a broadcast type of LAN.communicate with each other. The LCN is a broadcast type of LAN. It is high speedIt is high speedredundant communication bus that connect all the control room eredundant communication bus that connect all the control room equipment. Allquipment. Allinformationinformationis transferred on the network at 5 million bits per sec.,serialis transferred on the network at 5 million bits per sec.,serially. It is based on thely. It is based on theIEEE 802.4IEEE 802.4Token passing and Bus Standard.Token passing and Bus Standard.Each LCN device that is connected to the LEach LCN device that is connected to the Local Control Network isocal Control Network iscalled acalled amodule. Up to 64 modules may be connected to the Local Contromodule. Up to 64 modules may be connected to the Local Control Network in al Network in aTPSTPSsystem. The Local Control Network is designated as the primarysystem. The Local Control Network is designated as the primary and the other asand the other asthe backthe back
  • 29. Universal Control Network (UCN)Universal Control Network (UCN)The Universal Control Network is a high sThe Universal Control Network is a high speed, high securitypeed, high securityprocessprocesscontrol network based on open system interconnection standards.control network based on open system interconnection standards. ItItfeatures a 5features a 5megabit/second, carrier band, token bus network compatible withmegabit/second, carrier band, token bus network compatible with IEEE andIEEE andISOISOstandards. It is used as the real time redundant Communicationsstandards. It is used as the real time redundant Communications backbonebackboneforforprocess connected devices such as the High Performance Processprocess connected devices such as the High Performance Process ManagerManager(HPM), Advanced Process Manager . The UCN supports peer(HPM), Advanced Process Manager . The UCN supports peer--toto--peerpeercommunication for sharing data and allowing greater cocommunication for sharing data and allowing greater co--ordination ofordination ofcontrolcontrolstrategies among network devices. The UCN uses redundant costrategies among network devices. The UCN uses redundant co--axial cablesaxial cablesand canand cansupport up to 32 redundant devicessupport up to 32 redundant devicesUCN supports 2 types of devicesUCN supports 2 types of devicesCommunication SubsystemCommunication Subsystem
  • 30. High Performance Process ManagerHigh Performance Process Manager(HPM)(HPM)The High Performance Process Manager is the latest in the ProgreThe High Performance Process Manager is the latest in the Progression ofssion ofHighHighPerformance control products offered by Honeywell for the applicPerformance control products offered by Honeywell for the application toation toImprove controlling of existing and new industrial processes. HiImprove controlling of existing and new industrial processes. HighghPerformancePerformanceProcess Manager is a fully integrated member of the TPS family.Process Manager is a fully integrated member of the TPS family. It isIt iscapablecapableof :of :•• performing data acquisition and control functionsperforming data acquisition and control functions•• fully communicating with operators and engineers at the GUSs andfully communicating with operators and engineers at the GUSs anduniversal Work stations.universal Work stations.•• Supporting higherSupporting higher--level strategies available on the Local Controllevel strategies available on the Local ControlNetwork through the Application Module and Host Computers.Network through the Application Module and Host Computers.
  • 31. The High Performance Process Manager uses a powerful multiThe High Performance Process Manager uses a powerful multi--processorprocessorarchitecturearchitecturewith separate microprocessors dedicated to perform specific taswith separate microprocessors dedicated to perform specific tasks. The HPMks. The HPMconsistsconsistsof two modules Communication and Control Module (CCM) and the Iof two modules Communication and Control Module (CCM) and the I/O/Osubsystemsubsystemthe I/O subsystem consist of up to 40 Smart I/O Modules (SIOM)the I/O subsystem consist of up to 40 Smart I/O Modules (SIOM). All control. All controloperation are performed within the communication and control modoperation are performed within the communication and control module. Theule. Theprocessprocessengineer has complete flexibility of choice within the maximum Hengineer has complete flexibility of choice within the maximum HPM designPM designlimits.limits.These selections are implemented using the interactive tools prThese selections are implemented using the interactive tools provided byovided byboth theboth theGUS and Universal Work Station. The I/O processors, for exampleGUS and Universal Work Station. The I/O processors, for example, provide, providesuchsuchfunctions as engineering unit conversion and alarm limit checkifunctions as engineering unit conversion and alarm limit checkingngindependent of theindependent of thecommunication and control modules.communication and control modules.High Performance Process Manager Overview
  • 32. YOKOGAWA CENTUM EXCEL ARCHITECTUREYOKOGAWA CENTUM EXCEL ARCHITECTUREEOPS/1EOPS/2ENGG.STATIONEFGWEFMSEFCDClosed loopcontrol signalThrough I/O NESTHF BUS : High frequency Bus: no. of station on HF Bus are 32EOPS : Extended Operator station: Hard disk capacity of EOPS is 80 MBEFCD : Extended field controlstation : 80 laps per controllerEFMS : Extended field mauturestation Max 255 inputsEFGN : Extended field gateway unitENGS : Engineering stationNIO : Nest I/O bus.Monitoring signalsThrough I/O NESTThird party system with PLC,Gas Analyser etc. thr RS 232C portAt the rate of 9600 bpsHF BUS(1 Mbps)ABI/O #1ncstI/O #2ncstI/O #3I/O #4I/O #5ncstA BNIO BusMicro-XL
  • 33. HIS HISPRTPRTHISWindows NT Based Centum CS ConfigurationNIU NIUEthernet Connectivity (optional)InkjetPrinterDMPrinterFCSRIO BUSOPERATOR/ENGINEERINGSTATIONOPERATOR STATION SUB-SYSTEMINTERPLANTNETWORK PC(OPTIONAL)DUAL “V NET”10 MbpsHIS – Human Interface Station.FCS – Field Control Station.NIU – Node Interface Unit.RIO Bus – Remote I/O Bus.
  • 34. Centum CS 3000 System OverviewCentum CS 3000 System OverviewCentum CS 3000 is an integrated production control systemCentum CS 3000 is an integrated production control system for mediumfor mediumand large controland large controlapplications. This system is a synthesis of the latest technoloapplications. This system is a synthesis of the latest technology withgy withYokogawaYokogawa’’s experiences experienceand specialist knowand specialist know--how.how.Centum CS 3000 system featuresCentum CS 3000 system features ::•• Synthesis of DCS with Personal computers.Synthesis of DCS with Personal computers.•• Online Documentation.Online Documentation.•• Powerful Operation and Monitoring Functions.Powerful Operation and Monitoring Functions.•• Two Types of Control Station.Two Types of Control Station.•• Compact I/O Modules.Compact I/O Modules.•• Powerful Control and Communication Functions.Powerful Control and Communication Functions.•• Efficient Engineering.Efficient Engineering.•• Virtual Test functions donVirtual Test functions don’’t require Control Station hardware.t require Control Station hardware.•• FullFull--Featured Batch Package.Featured Batch Package.•• CENTUM CS microCENTUM CS micro--XL Integration ( to be released ).XL Integration ( to be released ).
  • 35. Centum CS 3000 System OverviewCentum CS 3000 is an integrated production control system for medium and large controlapplications. This system is a synthesis of the latest technology with Yokogawa’s experienceand specialist know-how.Centum CS 3000 system features :•Synthesis of DCS with Personal computers.•Truly open system for integrating multi-vendor solutions.•High Reliability of computed process data by the unique fault tolerant control processor.•Powerful built in “RISC PROCESSOR” with high speed and dynamic error correcting code.•Remote I/O concept enables geographically distribution of I/O Modules thereby reducingcabling cost.•1:1 Redundancy at almost all the system levels except for control processor which employs aspecial Redundancy with 4 identical CPU’s.•Powerful Control Tools and Communication Functions.•Virtual Test functions don’t require Control Station hardware.•Full-Featured Batch Package.•Built in security features to prevent mal-operations.•CENTUM CS micro-XL Integration ( to be released ).
  • 36. HIS HISPRTPRTHISCS3000 – System ConfigurationNIU NIUEthernet Connectivity (optional)InkjetPrinterDMPrinterFCSRIO BUSOPERATOR/ENGINEERINGSTATIONOPERATOR STATION SUB-SYSTEMINTERPLANTNETWORK PC(OPTIONAL)V NET10 MbpsHIS – Human Interface Station.FCS – Field Control Station.NIU – Node Interface Unit.RIO Bus – Remote I/O Bus.CGW – Communication gateway unitBCV – Bus ConverterRemote Domain SystemCS, CS 1000Centum – XL, -V, -MXLCGWBCV
  • 37. CENTUM CS 3000 NETWORKCENTUM CS 3000 NETWORKFCS FCS FCSHISHIS HISV net
  • 38. CENTUM CS3000 SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONCENTUM CS3000 SYSTEM SPECIFICATION•• NO. OF TAGS MONITOREDNO. OF TAGS MONITORED 1,00,0001,00,000•• TOTAL NO. OF STATIONTOTAL NO. OF STATION 256256•• NO. OF DOMAINSNO. OF DOMAINS 1616•• NO. OF STATIONS IN A DOMAINNO. OF STATIONS IN A DOMAIN 6464•• NO. OF HIS / DOMAINNO. OF HIS / DOMAIN 16 NOS16 NOS
  • 39. CENTUM CS3000 SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONCENTUM CS3000 SYSTEM SPECIFICATION•• Max. no. of stations : 256 /Max. no. of stations : 256 / systemsystem•• Max. no. of DomainsMax. no. of Domains : 16 / system: 16 / system•• Numbering of DomainsNumbering of Domains :: 1 to 641 to 64•• Domain No. CS3000 DomainDomain No. CS3000 Domain(V net Domain)(V net Domain) : 1 to 16: 1 to 16•• Max. no. of stations/Domain : 64Max. no. of stations/Domain : 64•• Domain No.Virtual DomainDomain No.Virtual Domain(Non V net Domain)(Non V net Domain) :: 17 to 6417 to 64•• Station NO. HIS : 1 tStation NO. HIS : 1 to 64 in descendingo 64 in descendingorderorder•• Station NO. FCSStation NO. FCS : 1 to 64 in ascending order: 1 to 64 in ascending order•• Max. No. of ICS / DomainMax. No. of ICS / Domain : 16: 16•• Max. No. of NIU / FCS : 8Max. No. of NIU / FCS : 8•• Max. No. of IOU / FCS : 40Max. No. of IOU / FCS : 40 ( Max. 5/ IOU)( Max. 5/ IOU)•• Max. length of VnetMax. length of Vnet : 20 Km: 20 Km•• Max. length of RIO bus : 20 KmMax. length of RIO bus : 20 Km (750m ~(750m ~20Km)20Km)
  • 40. Centum CSCentum CS--3000 Communication3000 CommunicationV netV netV net is 10 mbps real time control bus which links stationV net is 10 mbps real time control bus which links station such as FCS , HIS , BCVsuch as FCS , HIS , BCVandandCGW. It can be dual redundant. It can be up to 500m using coaxiCGW. It can be dual redundant. It can be up to 500m using coaxial cable alone, oral cable alone, orup to 20up to 20Km when repeater are used or optical fiber is used.Km when repeater are used or optical fiber is used.•• 10BASE2 cable10BASE2 cableused by HIS, maximum segment length = 185 mused by HIS, maximum segment length = 185 m•• 10BASE5 cable10BASE5 cableused by stations other than HIS(FCS,CGW etc.) maximum segused by stations other than HIS(FCS,CGW etc.) maximum segment length = 500ment length = 500mm
  • 41. V net CommunicationV net CommunicationFCS FCSHISV netHISProtocol : IEEE802.4Access Control : Token PassingTrans. Speed : 10 MbpsTrans. Distance: 500m to 20KmMedia : Coaxial/optical fiber
  • 42. V net specificationV net specificationToken passingToken passingProto typeProto typeDualDual--redundantredundantRedundancyRedundancy500M500M ––20Km Max20Km MaxTransmission DistanceTransmission Distance10 Mbps10 MbpsCommunication rateCommunication rateBus type or MultiBus type or Multi--drop typedrop typeTypeTypeCoaxial or fiber opticalCoaxial or fiber opticalcablecableTransmission routeTransmission routeSPECIFICATIONSPECIFICATIONITEMITEM
  • 43. VV-- net Featuresnet Features•• Real time control bus. ( Dual redundant possible )Real time control bus. ( Dual redundant possible )•• Cable : 50 ohm coax. cable with BNC connector ( 10Base2Cable : 50 ohm coax. cable with BNC connector ( 10Base2comp. )comp. )•• Communication speed : 10 Mbps.Communication speed : 10 Mbps.•• High reliable token passing communicationHigh reliable token passing communication( performance guaranteed )( performance guaranteed )•• Std. max. length : 185 m.Std. max. length : 185 m.•• Max. length : 20 Km ( with optical fiber )Max. length : 20 Km ( with optical fiber )1.6 Km ( with coax. Repeater )1.6 Km ( with coax. Repeater )BNC ConnectorVL net I/F card ( PCI )VL netcable
  • 44. EthernetEthernetHIS and ENG, HIS and supervisory systems can beHIS and ENG, HIS and supervisory systems can beconnected by anconnected by anEthernet LAN; supervisory computers and personalEthernet LAN; supervisory computers and personalcomputers on the Ethernetcomputers on the EthernetLAN can access messages and trend data in the CS 3000LAN can access messages and trend data in the CS 3000system. The Ethernetsystem. The Ethernetcan also be used for sending trend data files from the HIScan also be used for sending trend data files from the HISto supervisoryto supervisorycomputers, or for equalizing the data in the two HIS stationcomputers, or for equalizing the data in the two HIS station( rather than using( rather than usingthe V net control bus to do this ). A system with only onethe V net control bus to do this ). A system with only oneHIS with engineeringHIS with engineeringfunctions installed, does not need Ethernetfunctions installed, does not need Ethernet –– but in generalbut in generalEthernet ( andEthernet ( andcorresponding network engineering ) is required.corresponding network engineering ) is required.
  • 45. Ethernet SpecificationEthernet SpecificationCSMA/CD TypeCSMA/CD TypeProto typeProto typeNot availableNot availableRedundancyRedundancy500m500m –– 2.5 Km max.2.5 Km max.Transmission DistanceTransmission Distance10 Mbps10 MbpsCommunication RateCommunication RateBus type or MultiBus type or Multi––drop typedrop typeTypeTypeCoaxial or Fiber optical cableCoaxial or Fiber optical cableTransmission RouteTransmission RouteSPECIFICATIONSPECIFICATIONITEMITEM
  • 46. TYPES OF HISTYPES OF HIS•• Console type HISConsole type HIS•• Desk top type HISDesk top type HIS•• PHIS Yokogawa brand OPSPHIS Yokogawa brand OPS
  • 47. HIS HardwareHIS Hardware•• CPUCPU Pentium 166Pentium 166•• Main memoryMain memory 96MB or larger(for op &96MB or larger(for op &monitoring only)monitoring only)•• Hard diskHard disk 1 GB or larger1 GB or larger•• DisplayDisplay 256Colors min. resolution 800*600256Colors min. resolution 800*6001024*768 recommend(1280*1024 best)1024*768 recommend(1280*1024 best)•• Serial portSerial port RS232C*1 or more (for operationRS232C*1 or more (for operationkeyboard)keyboard)•• Parallel portParallel port 1 port for printer or more1 port for printer or more•• OSOS Windows NT 4.0 WorkstationWindows NT 4.0 Workstation•• Operator stationsOperator stations Max. 8 stationsMax. 8 stations
  • 48. Field Control Station ConfigurationField Control Station ConfigurationHISSub systemSub systemI/O UnitI/O UnitHIS HISV netEthernetNodeInterfaceUnitRIO BusNodeCompact FCS Standard FCS
  • 49. Connection to Centum CS 3000 SystemConnection to Centum CS 3000 SystemFCS FCSExapilot communication dataProcess data read/writeV-netHIS ENG ExaopcExapilot client(engineering, operation)Exapilot server(engineering, operation)Exapilot client(engineering,operation)Ethernet
  • 50. Features ofFeatures of ExapilotExapilot•• Standardize and Automate Manual ProceduresStandardize and Automate Manual Procedures•• Improve Plant Operating EfficiencyImprove Plant Operating Efficiency•• Improve safety of Plant OperationImprove safety of Plant OperationFeatures of Event Analysis PackageFeatures of Event Analysis Package•• Analysis DCS Event History to Help You Enhance Efficiency.Analysis DCS Event History to Help You Enhance Efficiency.•• Enhance Process Stability: Balance Process Events and Operator AEnhance Process Stability: Balance Process Events and Operator Actions.ctions.•• When, Where, What (3W) Filters Help You Narrow Focus of AnalysisWhen, Where, What (3W) Filters Help You Narrow Focus of Analysis..
  • 51. OPEN DCS SYSTEMOPEN DCS SYSTEMSafety BarrierPressure TX.Control ValveTerminatorH M IEthernetField Bus Power Supply Flow Trans.
  • 52. Field busField busIt is a standardized digital communication protocol between a pIt is a standardized digital communication protocol between a processrocessControl field devicesControl field devicesand the Control room. It is a simple pair of wires to power andand the Control room. It is a simple pair of wires to power and carry thecarry thecommunicationcommunicationsignal between the field devices and the Control room.signal between the field devices and the Control room.FEATURESFEATURES ::•• Drastic reduction in cable, conduits cable trays, marshallive raDrastic reduction in cable, conduits cable trays, marshallive racks, andcks, andconnectors etc.connectors etc.•• Drastic reduction in installation cost.Drastic reduction in installation cost.•• Fewer non field devices.Fewer non field devices.•• More reliability due to the smaller number of devices.More reliability due to the smaller number of devices.•• More efficient operation due to better accuracy (no A/D and D/AMore efficient operation due to better accuracy (no A/D and D/Aconversion).conversion).•• Easy integration into plant management system.Easy integration into plant management system.•• Flexibility for different suppliers are interoperable and intercFlexibility for different suppliers are interoperable and interchangeable.hangeable.•• Major reduction in maintenance cost.Major reduction in maintenance cost.
  • 53. FieldField--bus Benefitsbus BenefitsWiringScrewTermsWire(pair)I/OCardsISBarriersTraditionalField bus3500’ 168 2 2640’ 64 1 1SavingsSavings %Savings $2860’ 104 1 182% 63% 50% 50%$ 3000 Material$ 2000 Labor$ 5000 TotalTypically comments from a plant personal :•Easy to identify what’s out there.•Consistent calibration procedure.•Two days versus four days to commission system.•Familiar with twisted pair wiring – comfortable.
  • 54. FunctionBlock(s)FunctionBlock(s)TransducerTransducer(Servo)(Servo)BlockBlockFOUNDATION™fieldbusBasic ComponentsResourceBlockResourceResourceBlockBlockValveFOUNDATIONFOUNDATION™™ fieldbus Vocabularyfieldbus VocabularyBlocksBlocks
  • 55. FunctionBlock(s)FunctionBlock(s)TransducerTransducerBlockBlockResourceBlockResourceResourceBlockBlockFOUNDATION™fieldbusTemperatureTransmitterFOUNDATIONFOUNDATION™™ fieldbus Vocabularyfieldbus VocabularyBlocksBlocksBasic Components
  • 56. FOUNDATIONFOUNDATION™™ fieldbus Vocabularyfieldbus VocabularyH1 and H2H1 and H2•• H1 SegmentH1 Segment–– Moderate speedModerate speed–– Use existing wiringUse existing wiring–– Bus poweredBus powered–– Can be intrinsicallyCan be intrinsicallysafesafe–– Low power 2 wireLow power 2 wiredevicesdevices–– 4 wire devices4 wire devices–– Replace analog &Replace analog &proprietary digitalproprietary digital•• H2 SegmentH2 Segment–– High speedHigh speed–– Link multiple H1Link multiple H1SegmentsSegments–– I/O subsystem busI/O subsystem bus–– ReplaceReplaceproprietaryproprietarynetworksnetworks–– New wiringNew wiring
  • 57. FOUNDATIONFOUNDATION™™ fieldbus Vocabularyfieldbus VocabularyNew Approach for H2New Approach for H2•• 100 Meg Ethernet technology with extensions100 Meg Ethernet technology with extensions–– Improve time to marketImprove time to market–– High speedHigh speed–– Mandatory redundancyMandatory redundancy–– Widely available technology and siliconWidely available technology and silicon–– Widely available toolsWidely available tools–– Limited incremental developmentLimited incremental development–– Many suppliersMany suppliers–– High volume for low costHigh volume for low cost–– Works with installed equipmentWorks with installed equipment–– Evergreen technologyEvergreen technology•• Better than ANY other solution!Better than ANY other solution!
  • 58. H2 Segment 100 Meg EthernetPLCH1/H2BridgeControlModuleH1/H2 BridgeReplacesTraditional I/OH1/H2 BridgeReplacesTraditional I/OServerH1 SegmentH1 SegmentH1 SegmentFOUNDATIONFOUNDATION™™ fieldbus Vocabularyfieldbus VocabularyH1/H2 BridgesH1/H2 Bridges
  • 59. FOUNDATIONFOUNDATION™™ fieldbus Standardsfieldbus StandardsOrganizationsOrganizations•• IECIEC–– International ElectroInternational Electro--technical Commissiontechnical Commission•• ISAISA–– International Society for Measurement and ControlInternational Society for Measurement and Control(formerly: Instrument Society of America)(formerly: Instrument Society of America)•• SP50SP50•• CENELECCENELEC–– European standards bodyEuropean standards body•• Parallel (competitive?) Working Groups to IECParallel (competitive?) Working Groups to IEC
  • 60. FewerTerminationsFewerTerminationsFewer IS barriersFewer IS barriersMarshalingJunctionBoxIS (Ex i)BarriersH1 I/OTerminationsH1 Fieldbusall-digitalH1 Fieldbusall-digitalH1 I/OInterfaceControllerSimilar I/O CardsSimilar I/O CardsCost savings:• wiring• I/O cards &cables• terminations• IS barriers• marshalingCost savings:• wiring• I/O cards &cables• terminations• IS barriers• marshalingFewer TerminationsFewer TerminationsReduced WiringReduced WiringFOUNDATIONFOUNDATION™™ fieldbus Topographyfieldbus TopographyH1 Fieldbus InstallationsH1 Fieldbus Installations
  • 61. BarriersFOUNDATIONFOUNDATION™™ fieldbus Topographyfieldbus TopographyIntrinsic SafetyIntrinsic Safety
  • 62. DeltaV System ArchitectureDeltaV System ArchitecturePrinterPrinter8 port Hubprimary8 port HubRedundantSerialPSDIDODIAOAIAIContr.Contr.PSBlankBlankHIBlankBlankBlankDOBlankPLC For8 DI &8 DOH1Connector1Operator stationEngineering station8 wide carrier forI/O subsystem2 wide carrier forPower/ControllerPower supplyControllerFieldbus Transmitter3244MVF1NAB4Pressure Transmitter3051TG2A2B21AB4M5FFSmart valve positionerFSDVC0400-201I/O extension cableRS232 ModbusFieldbus Power
  • 63. DCS communication system HierarchyDCS communication system HierarchyMISSCHED.SUP.DDCSUP.DDC DDC DDCS A A A A AS S S S S SPLANTLevel 5ManagementLow data ratesSuperior responsibilityLevel 1Sensors (S)& Actuators (A)High data ratesLow responsibilityLevel 2Direct digitalControl (DDC)Level 3Supervisory controlLevel 4SchedulingHighLow
  • 64. History of Process Control SignalHistory of Process Control SignalAround 50 years ago, most plant used 3Around 50 years ago, most plant used 3--15psi pneumatic signal to control their15psi pneumatic signal to control theirprocess.process.The last change change in signal standard was the open protocolThe last change change in signal standard was the open protocol HART digitalHART digitalcommunicationscommunicationsformat. The HART protocol provides simultaneous digital communiformat. The HART protocol provides simultaneous digital communications with the 4cations with the 4--2020mAmAoutput.output.The next protocol change will be fieldbus. FieldThe next protocol change will be fieldbus. Fieldbus is entirely digitalbus is entirely digital--there isthere isno analogno analogSignal. Fieldbus also allows migration of control functions to fSignal. Fieldbus also allows migration of control functions to field devices.ield devices.Process control TimelineProcess control Timeline –– The Evolution of Signal StandardThe Evolution of Signal StandardSignal standards have evolved over the years, starting with theSignal standards have evolved over the years, starting with the 33--15 psi15 psistandard.standard.There are also other communication methods, but they have not gThere are also other communication methods, but they have not gained widespreadained widespreadacceptance.acceptance.With many standard there is typically a slow transition period aWith many standard there is typically a slow transition period as plants plantengineers andengineers andmanagers test period does gain widespread acceptance. However,managers test period does gain widespread acceptance. However, once the benefits ofonce the benefits ofthetheFieldbus become tested and proven, more plant will install FielFieldbus become tested and proven, more plant will install Fieldbus because of itsdbus because of itsDigital plus Analog: HART with 4-20mADigital: FieldbusAnalog: 4-20mAPneumatic: 3-15 psi1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
  • 65. I/O Bus Network ProtocolI/O Bus Network ProtocolI/O Bus NetworkDiscreteByte-wideDataBit-widedataSeveral HundredData BytesAnalogDevice bus network Process bus network
  • 66. Protocol StandardProtocol StandardDevice bus networkProcess bus networkField Bus Foundation(Field Bus std.)Profibus Trade Organization(Profibus std.)Byte-WideDataBit-WideDataCAN BusInter Bus-SDevice netSDSSeriplexInter Bus LoopASI
  • 67. Fieldbus ArchitectureFieldbus ArchitectureFieldbus is more than just a new signal communications protocol,Fieldbus is more than just a new signal communications protocol, but a whole new waybut a whole new waytotocontrol the process. With the release of the low fieldbus (H1),control the process. With the release of the low fieldbus (H1), the entire fieldbus willthe entire fieldbus willbebedefined. Most of the recent published literature has focused ondefined. Most of the recent published literature has focused on the intricate details ofthe intricate details ofthethefieldbus architecture, especially those layers that have not befieldbus architecture, especially those layers that have not been released. However,en released. However,exceptexceptphysical layer and the user layer, these layer are transparentphysical layer and the user layer, these layer are transparent to the engineers and theto the engineers and themanager.manager.Physical LayerData LayerApplication LayerUser LayerSystemmanagementNetworkManagementMaintenanceinformationsystemWorkstationstackPumpLevelTransmitterValveMultivariableTransmitter
  • 68. Open System Interconnected ReferenceOpen System Interconnected ReferenceModelModelApplicationPresentationSessionTransportNetworkData linkPhysicalMBAP, SMB, FTP, SMTP, FMS,IEC 61158, ANSI/ISA S50.2,IEEE 1451TCP, SPX, UDPIP, IPX, NetBeuiHDLC, ETHERNET, ANSI/ISA S50.02EIA-485, ETHERNET,ANSI/ISA S50.02Physical – Provides the standard for transmitting rawelectrical signals over the communication channels.Data link – Contains the rule for interpreting electricalsignals as data, error checking and physical addressingNetwork – Describes the rule for routing messagesthrough a complex network and deals with congestion.Transport – Establishes a dependable end-to-endconnection between two host.Session – provides Management and Synchronizationof complex data transaction.Presentation – Establishes protocol for data formatconversion, encryption and security.Application – Contains protocol that accomplish tasksuch as e-mail, file transfer or reading a set of registersfrom a PLC.For the purpose of Process control, the top and bottom four layers are used.Layers 5 and 6 are important to large commercial networks.
  • 69. Field BusField BusField Bus is a biField Bus is a bi--directional digital communication that interconnects smart fielddirectional digital communication that interconnects smart fielddevices todevices tocontrol system or to instrument located in the control room.control system or to instrument located in the control room.Field Bus is based on the OSI (Open System Interconnect), whichField Bus is based on the OSI (Open System Interconnect), which was developed bywas developed bythe ISOthe ISO(International Standard Organization) to represent the various f(International Standard Organization) to represent the various functions required inunctions required inanyanyCommunication network.Communication network.Connects theConnects theequipmentequipmentPhysicalPhysical11Establishes the dataEstablishes the datalink connectionlink connectionLinkLink22Establishes networkEstablishes networkconnectionsconnectionsNetworkNetwork33Secures the transportSecures the transportconnectionconnectionTransportTransport44Handles the dialogueHandles the dialogueSessionSession55Converts dataConverts dataPresentationPresentation66Provides formattedProvides formatteddatadataApplicationApplication77FunctionFunctionLayerLayer
  • 70. Field BusField BusThe OSI model consists of seven layers. However for real time aThe OSI model consists of seven layers. However for real time applicationpplicationlayers 3 to 6 arelayers 3 to 6 arenot considered since they deal with transference of data amongnot considered since they deal with transference of data among networks.networks.For suchFor suchapplication following layers are used:application following layers are used:•• LAYER 1LAYER 1 -- PHYSICAL LAYERPHYSICAL LAYERDefines the type of signal, transmitting medium, data tranDefines the type of signal, transmitting medium, data transmissionsmissionspeed, etc.speed, etc.•• LAYER 2LAYER 2 –– DATALINK LAYERDATALINK LAYERDefine the interface between the physical layer and the applicatDefine the interface between the physical layer and the application layer.ion layer.It establishesIt establisheshow the messages shall be structured and normalizes the ushow the messages shall be structured and normalizes the use ofe ofmultiple masters.multiple masters.•• LAYER 3LAYER 3 –– APPLICATION LAYERAPPLICATION LAYERDefines how data is specified, its addresses and its representatDefines how data is specified, its addresses and its representation.ion.The Fieldbus was invented by an Indian engineer Mr. Ram Ramchandran( M.S in Comp. Tech , Texas)
  • 71. PHYSICAL LAYERPHYSICAL LAYERThe Physical layer defines the medium that transport the messageThe Physical layer defines the medium that transport the messages frames, the signals frames, the signalshape andshape andamplitude limits, data transfer rate, and power distribution.amplitude limits, data transfer rate, and power distribution.Technical Characteristics:Technical Characteristics:Physical MediumPhysical MediumThree types are defined: wires, optic fiber, and radio signals.Three types are defined: wires, optic fiber, and radio signals. TheThespecification forspecification forwire has been already approved.wire has been already approved.Bit rate for wire mediaBit rate for wire media31.25 Kbps (H1)31.25 Kbps (H1)1 megabits and 2.5 megabits (H2).1 megabits and 2.5 megabits (H2).H1 and H2 are classification of the two hanks of Field Bus targeH1 and H2 are classification of the two hanks of Field Bus target applications.t applications.H1 hasH1 haslow speed and utilizes existing wires. H2 has high speed and maylow speed and utilizes existing wires. H2 has high speed and may requirerequireindependentindependentwires to power up field devices.wires to power up field devices.Number of devices per link (31.25Kbps)Number of devices per link (31.25Kbps)2 to 32 devices, without power and no IS (intrinsic safety).2 to 32 devices, without power and no IS (intrinsic safety).2 to 6 with power and IS.2 to 6 with power and IS.Maximum distanceMaximum distanceUp to 1900 meters for 31.25Kbps, without repeaters. Up to 750 meUp to 1900 meters for 31.25Kbps, without repeaters. Up to 750 meters for 1ters for 1megabits. Up to 500 meter for 2.5 megabits.
  • 72. PHYSICAL LAYERPHYSICAL LAYERSignal ModulationSignal ModulationManchester bi phase L synchronous.Manchester bi phase L synchronous.Physical layer preamblePhysical layer preambleon transmissions, the physical layer will add to the data sent bon transmissions, the physical layer will add to the data sent by the layery the layerabove aabove apreamble and one start delimiter in the beginning of the frame apreamble and one start delimiter in the beginning of the frame and one endnd one enddelimiterdelimiterat the end delimiter at the end of the of the frame.at the end delimiter at the end of the of the frame.
  • 73. DATA LINK LAYERDATA LINK LAYERThe Data Link Layer will assure the integrity of the message byThe Data Link Layer will assure the integrity of the message by using the frame checkusing the frame checksequence:sequence:Two bytes added to the frames and a polynomial calculation of alTwo bytes added to the frames and a polynomial calculation of all frame data.l frame data.The Data Link Layer also checks to see that the data reaches theThe Data Link Layer also checks to see that the data reaches the devices correctly.devices correctly.Technical characteristicsTechnical characteristicsMedium Access:Medium Access: There are three forms to access the network:There are three forms to access the network:•• Token passing:Token passing:Token is the right to initiate a transaction on the bus. A devicToken is the right to initiate a transaction on the bus. A device must have thee must have thetoken totoken toinitiate a conversation. As soon it finishes it will return theinitiate a conversation. As soon it finishes it will return the token to the LAStoken to the LAS(Link(LinkActive Scheduler). The LAS send the token to the unit that requeActive Scheduler). The LAS send the token to the unit that requested in eithersted in eitherin ain aprepre--configured way or via scheduling.configured way or via scheduling.•• Immediate response:Immediate response:A master station will give an opportunity to the station to replA master station will give an opportunity to the station to reply with one frame.y with one frame.•• Requested token:Requested token:a device request a token by using a code in any of the responsea device request a token by using a code in any of the response sent to thesent to thebus. Thebus. The
  • 74. APPLICATION LAYER AND MANAGEMENTAPPLICATION LAYER AND MANAGEMENTThe Application Layer provides a simple interface to the end useThe Application Layer provides a simple interface to the end userr’’s application.s application.Basically , itBasically , itdefines how to read, write , interpret and execute a message odefines how to read, write , interpret and execute a message or command. Ar command. Abig part of this jobbig part of this jobis to define the message syntax. The contents include the requeis to define the message syntax. The contents include the requested message,sted message,action taken, andaction taken, andthe response message.the response message.The management defines how to initialize the network : tag assiThe management defines how to initialize the network : tag assignment,gnment,address assignment,address assignment,clock assignment, clock synchronization, distributed applicatioclock assignment, clock synchronization, distributed application schedulingn schedulingacross the networkacross the networkor association of the input and output parameters of the functior association of the input and output parameters of the function blocks. Iton blocks. Italso controls thealso controls theoperation of the network with statistic of faults and detectionoperation of the network with statistic of faults and detection of the addition ofof the addition ofthe new elementthe new elementor the absence of a station. The system always look for the newor the absence of a station. The system always look for the new stations onstations onthe bus by pollingthe bus by pollingthe possible station addresses.the possible station addresses.
  • 75. Digital Communication ProtocolDigital Communication ProtocolISOISO -- International Standard Organization. Responsible for developingInternational Standard Organization. Responsible for developingthethemodel that the communication specimodel that the communication specification are based upon asfication are based upon aswell aswell asstandards for each layer of communstandards for each layer of communication specification.ication specification.IEEEIEEE -- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Formed the IInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Formed the IEEEEEE802802project for defining standards forproject for defining standards for network media and accessnetwork media and accessmethods.methods.SP72SP72 -- Institute Society of America, Standards and Practice committeeInstitute Society of America, Standards and Practice committeeNumber 72Number 72Developing EIA1393 companion standDeveloping EIA1393 companion standard for process controlard for process controlmessaging.messaging.SP50SP50 -- Institute Society of America, Standards and Practice committeeInstitute Society of America, Standards and Practice committeeNumber 50Number 50Developing standards for digital cDeveloping standards for digital communication between fieldommunication between fielddevices.devices.F.I.PF.I.P -- Factory Information Protocol, approved French National StandardFactory Information Protocol, approved French National Standard..ProfibusProfibus -- Process Fieldbus, approved German National Standard.Process Fieldbus, approved German National Standard.
  • 76. HART COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLHART COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLWhy HART protocolWhy HART protocol ??44--20 ma is tried, tested and widely used standard but only limited20 ma is tried, tested and widely used standard but only limited amount ofamount ofinformationinformationis sent by a 4is sent by a 4--20 ma signal.20 ma signal.HART (Hiway Addressable Remote Transducer) protocol enhances tHART (Hiway Addressable Remote Transducer) protocol enhances theseheseoperations byoperations bytransmitting digital data along with the 4transmitting digital data along with the 4--20 ma signal20 ma signal –– without interfering withwithout interfering withit !it !HART permits twoHART permits two--way communications. It also has all digital mode that allowsway communications. It also has all digital mode that allowsinstrument to be connected to a single cable, cutting installinstrument to be connected to a single cable, cutting installation costsation costsdramatically.dramatically.Features :Features :1.1. Field proven concept that is easy to understand and use.Field proven concept that is easy to understand and use.2.2. Compatible with existing 4Compatible with existing 4--20 ma systems.20 ma systems.3.3. Simultaneous pointSimultaneous point--toto--point 4point 4--20 ma and digital communication.20 ma and digital communication.4.4. Alternative multiAlternative multi--drop mode.drop mode.5.5. Measured variables, tag no. , range and span settings, deviceMeasured variables, tag no. , range and span settings, deviceinformation, diagnostics and simple messages transmitted.information, diagnostics and simple messages transmitted.6.6. Digital response time of 500 msec; burst mode response of 300 msDigital response time of 500 msec; burst mode response of 300 msec.ec.7.7. Open architecture; freely available to any vendor and every userOpen architecture; freely available to any vendor and every user..
  • 77. Method of Operation :Method of Operation :The Hart protocol operates using the FSK principal. The digitaThe Hart protocol operates using the FSK principal. The digital data isl data ismade up from twomade up from twofrequenciesfrequencies ––1200 Hz and 2200 Hz representing bits 1 and 01200 Hz and 2200 Hz representing bits 1 and 0respectively. Sinusoidalrespectively. Sinusoidalwaves of these frequencies are superimposed on the DC analogwaves of these frequencies are superimposed on the DC analog signalsignalcables to givecables to givesimultaneous analog and digital communicationssimultaneous analog and digital communicationsHART Protocol Structure :HART Protocol Structure :HART follows the basic Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) refeHART follows the basic Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) referencerencemodel, developedmodel, developedby the International Organization for Standard (ISO). The HARby the International Organization for Standard (ISO). The HART protocolT protocoluses a reduceduses a reducedOSI model, implementing only layers 1,2 and 7OSI model, implementing only layers 1,2 and 7HART COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL
  • 78. OSI reference modelOSI reference modelOpen Systems InterconnectionsOpen Systems InterconnectionsHART COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLBell 202Bell 202Connects theConnects thePhysicalPhysical11HART protocolHART protocolregulationsregulationsEstablishes theEstablishes thedata linkdata linkconnectionconnectionLinkLink22EstablishesEstablishesnetworknetworkconnectionsconnectionsNetworkNetwork33Secures theSecures thetransporttransportconnectionconnectionTransportTransport44Handles theHandles thedialoguedialogueSessionSession55Converts dataConverts dataPresentationPresentation66HART instructionsHART instructionsProvides formattedProvides formatteddatadataApplicationApplication77HARTHARTFUNCTIONSFUNCTIONSLAYERLAYER
  • 79. Layer 1, the physical layer, operates on the FSK principleLayer 1, the physical layer, operates on the FSK principleData transfer rate: 1200 bit/sData transfer rate: 1200 bit/sLogicLogic ““00”” frequency: 2200 Hzfrequency: 2200 HzLogicLogic ““11”” frequency: 1200 Hzfrequency: 1200 Hzthe vast majority of existing wiring is used for this type ofthe vast majority of existing wiring is used for this type of digital communication.digital communication.Layer 2, the link layer establishes the format for a hart messaLayer 2, the link layer establishes the format for a hart message. HART is age. HART is amaster/slavemaster/slaveprotocol.protocol.the structure of these messages is given below:the structure of these messages is given below:SDSD –– start character. ADstart character. AD –– display terminal and fielddisplay terminal and fieldaddresses.addresses.CDCD –– HART instruction. BCHART instruction. BC –– Byte count.Byte count.StatusStatus –– Field device and communication status (only from field device tField device and communication status (only from field device toomaster)master)The individual characters are : 1 start bit, 8 data bits, 1The individual characters are : 1 start bit, 8 data bits, 1 bit for odd parity and 1bit for odd parity and 1HART PROTOCOL LAYERSParityParityDatDataaStatuStatussBCBCCDCDADADSDSDPreamblPreamblee
  • 80. Layer 7, the application layer, brings the HART instruction inLayer 7, the application layer, brings the HART instruction into play. The masterto play. The mastersendssendsmessages with requests for specified values, actual values anmessages with requests for specified values, actual values and any other data ord any other data orparametersparametersavailable from the device. The field device interprets theseavailable from the device. The field device interprets these instruction as definedinstruction as definedin thein theHART protocol. The response message provides the master with tHART protocol. The response message provides the master with the statushe statusinformationinformationand data from the slave.and data from the slave.For slave devices, logical uniform communication is provided bFor slave devices, logical uniform communication is provided by the followingy the followingcommandcommandsets:sets:Universal commandsUniversal commands –– understood by all field devices.understood by all field devices.Common practice commandsCommon practice commands –– provide functions which can be carried out byprovide functions which can be carried out bymany,many,though not all, field devices.though not all, field devices.DriveDrive--specific commandsspecific commands –– provide functions which are restricted to anprovide functions which are restricted to anindividualindividualHART PROTOCOL LAYERS
  • 81. DATA TRANSMISSIONDATA TRANSMISSIONTypes of data transmission : Frequency shiftTypes of data transmission : Frequency shift keying (FSK)keying (FSK)Transfer rate : 1200 bTransfer rate : 1200 bit/s.it/s.‘‘00’’ bit information frequency : 2200 Hzbit information frequency : 2200 Hz‘‘11’’ bit information frequency : 1200 Hzbit information frequency : 1200 HzSignal structure : 1 startSignal structure : 1 start bit, 8 data bits, 1 bit forbit, 8 data bits, 1 bit forodd parity, 1 stop bit.odd parity, 1 stop bit.Transfer rate for simple variables : Approximately 2/sTransfer rate for simple variables : Approximately 2/s (poll/response)(poll/response)DATA INTEGRITYDATA INTEGRITYPhysical layer : Error rate destination circuit : 1Physical layer : Error rate destination circuit : 1/(10^5)/(10^5)Link layer : Recognizes : all groups up to 3 cLink layer : Recognizes : all groups up to 3 corrupt bits andorrupt bits andpractically all longerpractically all longerand multiple groups.and multiple groups.Application layer : Communication status terminated in aApplication layer : Communication status terminated in a responseresponsemessage.message.HART PROTOCOL – TECHNICAL DATA
  • 82. MODBUSMODBUSThe MODBUS protocol describes an industrial commuThe MODBUS protocol describes an industrial communication andnication anddistributeddistributedcontrol system developed bycontrol system developed by GouldGould--ModiconModicon. MODBUS is a Master/Slave. MODBUS is a Master/Slavecommunications protocol, whereby one device (Master), controlcommunications protocol, whereby one device (Master), controls all serials all serialactivities byactivities byselectively polling one or more slave devices. The protocol pselectively polling one or more slave devices. The protocol provides for one masterrovides for one masterdevicedeviceand up to 247 slave devices on a common line. Each device isand up to 247 slave devices on a common line. Each device is assigned anassigned anaddress toaddress todistinguish it from all other connected device.distinguish it from all other connected device.Only a master initiates a transaction. TransactioOnly a master initiates a transaction. Transactions are either ans are either aquery/response type,query/response type,or a broadcast/noor a broadcast/no--response type. A transaction comprises a single query andresponse type. A transaction comprises a single query andsinglesingleresponse frame or a single broadcast frame.response frame or a single broadcast frame.Certain characteristic of a MODBUS protocol are fCertain characteristic of a MODBUS protocol are fixed such as frameixed such as frameformat, frameformat, framesequences, handling of communication errors and exception consequences, handling of communication errors and exception conditions, and theditions, and thefunctionsfunctionsperformed.performed.
  • 83. RSRS--232 Communication232 CommunicationRSRS--232 is an asynchronous communication network. Normally, a binary232 is an asynchronous communication network. Normally, a binarysystem issystem isused to transmit data in ASCII (American Standard Code for Infoused to transmit data in ASCII (American Standard Code for InformationrmationInterchange)Interchange)format. This code translates human readable code (letter/numberformat. This code translates human readable code (letter/numbers) intos) into ““computercomputerreadablereadable””code(1code(1’’s and 0s and 0’’s).s).There are 2 types of RSThere are 2 types of RS--232 devices. The first is called a DTE (Data Terminal232 devices. The first is called a DTE (Data TerminalEquipment) device and a common example is a computer. The otherEquipment) device and a common example is a computer. The other type of device istype of device iscalledcalledDCE (Data Communication Equipment) device and a common exampleDCE (Data Communication Equipment) device and a common example is a modem.is a modem.In RSIn RS--232 the first thing a terminal send is start bit. This start bit232 the first thing a terminal send is start bit. This start bit is ais asynchronizingsynchronizingbit added just before each character being send. The last thingbit added just before each character being send. The last thing send is a stop bit.send is a stop bit.This stop bitThis stop bitinforms to the receiving terminal that the last character has jinforms to the receiving terminal that the last character has just being send.ust being send.
  • 84. RSRS--232 communication is done through Serial port which usually has232 communication is done through Serial port which usually has a 9a 9--pinpinconfiguration. The pin and their purposes are shown below.configuration. The pin and their purposes are shown below.RS-232 CommunicationRing indicator (RI) *only for modems*Ring indicator (RI) *only for modems*99Clear to Send (CTS)Clear to Send (CTS)88Request to send (RTS)Request to send (RTS)77Data set ready (DSR)Data set ready (DSR)66Signal ground (GND)Signal ground (GND)55Data terminal ready (DTR)Data terminal ready (DTR)44Transmit data (TD)Transmit data (TD)33Receive data (RD)Receive data (RD)22Frame groundFrame ground11PURPOSEPURPOSE99--PINPIN
  • 85. PC-to-PC Communication through Serial PortCD 10RXD 20TXD 30DTR 40GND 50DSR 60RTS 70CTS 80RI 9001 CD02 RXD03 TXD04 DTR05 GND06 DSR07 RTS08 CTS09 RI9-Pin D Connector
  • 86. PC-to-PC Communication through LPT1 Port1234567891011121314151617181920212223242512345678910111213141516171819202122232425
  • 87. FlavoursFlavours of Internet Telephonyof Internet TelephonyTheInternetTheInternetTheInternetPCPCPCPhonePhonePhoneLocal ISP Local ISPLocal ISP Local ISPVoice GatewayLocal ISPVoice GatewayLocal ISPVoice GatewayPC-to-PCPC-to-PhonePhone-to-PhoneDial-up orLeased LineAccessCode
  • 88. APACSAPACS -- Operation PlatformOperation PlatformDatabase OwnershipDatabase OwnershipOperator Console Engineer Console Operator ConsoleController ModuleTransmitter Interlock I/P ValveI/O Modules I/O Level•TAGS•Range•Engineering Unit•DiagnosticsConsole LevelController Level
  • 89. TODAYS INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMSTODAYS INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMSH M IPlanningH M I1 2 3 4 5 6ApplicationDriversDevicesPLCI/ODCS-----------------------
  • 90. PC Based Industrial SystemsPC Based Industrial SystemsH M IPlanningH M I1 2 3DevicesPLCI/ODCSOPC ClientApplicationOPCServer----------------------------------
  • 91. Enterprise Automation SchemesEnterprise Automation SchemesWindows NTWindows NTEmbeddedReal SystemControlnetworkCorporateIT NetworkServer
  • 92. Windows NT (Windows NT (““New technologyNew technology””))FEATURESFEATURES::•• A true 32 bit processing.A true 32 bit processing.•• A very reliable operating system.A very reliable operating system.•• Real operating system.Real operating system.TECHNICAL ASPECTTECHNICAL ASPECT::•• Multiprocessing, Multithreading and partitioned memory space.Multiprocessing, Multithreading and partitioned memory space.•• SecuritySecurity -- C2 compliance.C2 compliance.•• InIn--built networking.built networking.•• Internationalization .Internationalization .•• Human interface as Windows 95.Human interface as Windows 95.•• ObjectObject -- based : DCOM/OLEbased : DCOM/OLE -- ActiveX.ActiveX.•• for special need of the process industries. DCOM and OLE are notfor special need of the process industries. DCOM and OLE are not robust,robust,deterministic and secure.deterministic and secure.•• ClientClient -- Server architecture.Server architecture.
  • 93. Transparent interTransparent inter--connectivity to typical business systems in plants:connectivity to typical business systems in plants:1) ODBC : It provides access to most SQL databases1) ODBC : It provides access to most SQL databases..2) ActiveX/OLE : Supports data access between appl2) ActiveX/OLE : Supports data access between application andication andembedding ofembedding ofone applications funone applications function within another.ction within another.3) DDE : Dynamic Data Exchange supports simple data exch3) DDE : Dynamic Data Exchange supports simple data exchangeangebetweenbetweenapplications such as plant data poapplications such as plant data populating an Excel spreadpulating an Excel spreadsheets.sheets.Windows NT Interconnectivity
  • 94. Windows NT featuresWindows NT featuresWindows NT is gaining ground in open control because of the foWindows NT is gaining ground in open control because of the following advantages :llowing advantages :•• User acceptance.User acceptance.•• Corporate interoperabilityCorporate interoperability•• Ease of use.Ease of use.•• Connectivity.Connectivity.•• Scalability for small and large application.Scalability for small and large application.However, Windows NT has the following disadvantages :However, Windows NT has the following disadvantages :•• Needs a lot memory and processing power.Needs a lot memory and processing power.•• Optimized for office, not control, requirements.Optimized for office, not control, requirements.•• Requires a disk drive which may fail.Requires a disk drive which may fail.•• Depends on single vendor.Depends on single vendor.•• Reboots at unexpected timesReboots at unexpected times•• Unstable operating system.Unstable operating system.
  • 95. Embedded control Operating SystemEmbedded control Operating System -- QNXQNXQNX realQNX real--time operating system, has evolved from the firsttime operating system, has evolved from the first--ever microever micro--kernelkerneloperatingoperatingsystem for PCs into one of the best selling and most trusted opesystem for PCs into one of the best selling and most trusted operating systems forrating systems formissionmissioncritical application. Today, QNX is the real time operating systcritical application. Today, QNX is the real time operating system in industrialem in industrialautomation,automation,hand held devices, controllers and soft PLCshand held devices, controllers and soft PLCsQNX is recognized as :QNX is recognized as :•• The fastest and most dependable real time operating system.The fastest and most dependable real time operating system.•• The most proven high speed, deterministic real time kernel.The most proven high speed, deterministic real time kernel.•• Having a hard real time engine that gives PLCHaving a hard real time engine that gives PLC--style control.style control.•• Enabling data acquisition with milliseconds resolution.Enabling data acquisition with milliseconds resolution.•• Providing a faultProviding a fault--tolerant architecture on which you can run control, events,tolerant architecture on which you can run control, events,alarms in a virtually crashalarms in a virtually crash--proof environment.proof environment.
  • 96. Windows NTWindows NT -- for Process controlfor Process controlWindows NT features :Windows NT features :•• A true 32 bit processing.A true 32 bit processing.•• A very reliable operating system.A very reliable operating system.•• Real operating system.Real operating system.•• Multiprocessing, Multithreading and partitioned memory space.Multiprocessing, Multithreading and partitioned memory space.•• SecuritySecurity -- C2 compliance.C2 compliance.•• InIn--built networking.built networking.•• Internationalization.Internationalization.•• Human interface.Human interface.•• ObjectObject--based DCOM/OLE :based DCOM/OLE :The sending object is shown as client and receiving objThe sending object is shown as client and receiving object is known asect is known asserver. Theserver. TheMS technology allows any developer to produce small, seMS technology allows any developer to produce small, self contain objectslf contain objectsthat havethat have““packagedpackaged”” visual component and specific action. These components arevisual component and specific action. These components arecalledcalled““ActiveXActiveX”” objects. NTobjects. NT’’s OLE technology is part of Microsofts OLE technology is part of Microsoft’’s Distributeds DistributedComponent Object Model (DCOM) operating across networksComponent Object Model (DCOM) operating across networks. Anyone can. Anyone candevelopdevelopActiveX Object using VC++ or even VB on a PC. For speciaActiveX Object using VC++ or even VB on a PC. For special needs of thel needs of theprocessprocesscontrol industries DCOM and OLE are not secure, determinicontrol industries DCOM and OLE are not secure, deterministic and robuststic and robustenough.enough.
  • 97. EthernetEthernetEthernet was originally designed by Digital, Intel andEthernet was originally designed by Digital, Intel and Xerox (DIX) in the earlyXerox (DIX) in the early19701970’’ssand has been designed as a broadcast system. The original formaand has been designed as a broadcast system. The original format for Ethernet wast for Ethernet wasdevelopeddevelopedin Xerox Palo Alto Research center (PARC), California in 1972.in Xerox Palo Alto Research center (PARC), California in 1972. The two inventorsThe two inventorswerewereRobert Metcalf and David Boggs.Robert Metcalf and David Boggs.Ethernet version 1.0 and 2.0 followed until the IEEE 8Ethernet version 1.0 and 2.0 followed until the IEEE 802.3 committee re02.3 committee re--jigged thejigged theEthernet II packet to form the Ethernet 802.3 packet. NowadaysEthernet II packet to form the Ethernet 802.3 packet. Nowadays you will see eitheryou will see eitherEthernet II (DIX) format or Ethernet 802.3 format being used.Ethernet II (DIX) format or Ethernet 802.3 format being used.TheThe ‘‘EtherEther’’ part of Ethernet denotes that the system is not meant to bepart of Ethernet denotes that the system is not meant to berestricted only torestricted only toone medium type, copper cables, fiber cables and even radio wavone medium type, copper cables, fiber cables and even radio waves can be used.es can be used.Briefly, stated Ethernet what is referred to as the PhBriefly, stated Ethernet what is referred to as the Physical layer and the Dataysical layer and the Data--link layerslink layersprotocols. The physical layer defines the cable types, connectoprotocols. The physical layer defines the cable types, connectors and electricalrs and electricalcharacteristics.characteristics.The Data link layer defines the format an Ethernet frames, theThe Data link layer defines the format an Ethernet frames, the error checkingerror checkingmethod and themethod and the
  • 98. 10Base510Base5Traditionally, Ethernet is used overTraditionally, Ethernet is used over ‘‘thickthick’’ coaxial cable called 10Base5 (coaxial cable called 10Base5 (the 10the 10denotes 10 Mbps, base means that the signal is baseband i.e, tadenotes 10 Mbps, base means that the signal is baseband i.e, takes the wholekes the wholebandwidthbandwidthof the cable, 5 denotes 500m maximum length ). The minimum lengof the cable, 5 denotes 500m maximum length ). The minimum lengththbetween stationsbetween stationsis 2.5m.is 2.5m.The cable is run in one long length forming aThe cable is run in one long length forming a ‘‘Bus TopologyBus Topology’’. The. Thesegments aresegments areterminated by 50 ohm resistor and the shield should be groundedterminated by 50 ohm resistor and the shield should be grounded at one endat one endonly.only.10Base210Base2Thin Ethernet (Thinnet) uses RGThin Ethernet (Thinnet) uses RG--58 cable and is called 10Base2 (the 258 cable and is called 10Base2 (the 2denotesdenotes200 mtr maximum length cable). Each station connects to the Thin200 mtr maximum length cable). Each station connects to the Thinnet by waynet by wayofEthernetEthernet
  • 99. 10BaseT10BaseTNowadays, it is becoming increasingly important to useNowadays, it is becoming increasingly important to use Ethernet acrossEthernet acrossUnshieldedUnshieldedTwisted Pair (UTP) or Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), this being cTwisted Pair (UTP) or Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), this being called 10BaseT (the Talled 10BaseT (the Tdenotes twisted pair). UTP is installed in star wire format anddenotes twisted pair). UTP is installed in star wire format and Ethernet Hubs withEthernet Hubs withUTP portsUTP ports(RJ45) centrally located. Also there should be no more than a 1(RJ45) centrally located. Also there should be no more than a 11.5db signal loss and1.5db signal loss andthetheminimum distance between devices is 2.5 meters.minimum distance between devices is 2.5 meters.The advantages of the UTP/STP technology are gained froThe advantages of the UTP/STP technology are gained from the flexibility ofm the flexibility ofthethesystem, with respect to moves, changes, fault finding, reliabilsystem, with respect to moves, changes, fault finding, reliability and security.ity and security.10BaseF10BaseF10BaseF standard developed by IEEE 802.3 committee defi10BaseF standard developed by IEEE 802.3 committee defines the use of Fibernes the use of FiberforforEthernet. 10BaseFB allows up to 2 Km per segment and is defineEthernet. 10BaseFB allows up to 2 Km per segment and is defined for Backboned for BackboneEthernetEthernet
  • 100. The following table shows the RJ45 pin outs for 10BaseT :The following table shows the RJ45 pin outs for 10BaseT :Brown/WhiteBrown/White88White/BrownWhite/Brown77Green/WhiteGreen/WhiteReceiveReceive66White/BlueWhite/Blue55Blue/WhiteBlue/White44White/GreenWhite/GreenReceiveReceive33Orange/WhiteOrange/WhiteTransmitTransmit22White/OrangeWhite/OrangeTransmitTransmit11ColourColourFunctionFunctionRJ45 PinRJ45 PinEthernetEthernet
  • 101. PCPC--toto--PC Communication throughPC Communication throughEthernetEthernetRJ45 RJ451 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 8
  • 102. Controller ControllerControllerControllerWorkstation Workstation Workstation WorkstationSwitched HubSegmented (star) topology Bus topologyEthernet TopologyEthernet Topology
  • 103. Wireless LANWireless LANWireless LAN is based on standard IEEE 802.11b which throughputWireless LAN is based on standard IEEE 802.11b which throughput of up to 11Mbps inof up to 11Mbps inthethe2.42.4 GhzGhz band. Similar Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) are Bluetooband. Similar Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) are Bluetooth andth andInfrared.Infrared.Ethernet works on the CSMA/CD technology but wireless LAN haEthernet works on the CSMA/CD technology but wireless LAN has difficulty ofs difficulty ofdetectingdetectingcollision in Radio frequency. Therefore they are using CSMA/CA (collision in Radio frequency. Therefore they are using CSMA/CA (Collision Sense MultipleCollision Sense MultipleAccess / Collision Avoidance) technology to transmit data. PhysiAccess / Collision Avoidance) technology to transmit data. Physical Layer is eithercal Layer is eitherPhotonic orPhotonic orRadio frequency.Radio frequency.
  • 104. Process control Software characteristicsProcess control Software characteristicsThe most important feature of process control system is that itThe most important feature of process control system is that it needs to beneeds to bereliable.reliable. TheTheprocess control system used has to be completely crashprocess control system used has to be completely crash--proof and any changes inproof and any changes inthethesystem need to be made onsystem need to be made on--line.line.The process control needs to be madeThe process control needs to be made real time,real time, which means that it canwhich means that it canupdate the I/Oupdate the I/Odata table and process the control program in the time requireddata table and process the control program in the time required by the process.by the process.A process control system that isA process control system that is deterministicdeterministic refers to whether the operatingrefers to whether the operatingsystemsystemallows the highest priority task to work without interruption fallows the highest priority task to work without interruption from task with lowerrom task with lowerpriority.priority.Software offerings in the automation and the process control fSoftware offerings in the automation and the process control fields must beields must beversatileversatile andandopenopen enough to address the needs of different applications.enough to address the needs of different applications.Finally the chosen solution must deliver tangible, quantifiablFinally the chosen solution must deliver tangible, quantifiable values such as :e values such as :1.1. Reducing project implementation time and cost.Reducing project implementation time and cost.2.2. Improving timeImproving time--toto--market.market.3.3. Achieving higher production and quality.Achieving higher production and quality.4.4. Cutting maintenance and training cost.Cutting maintenance and training cost.
  • 105. PCPC--based control system featuresbased control system featuresUnlike the other systems, PCs provide a more open architectureUnlike the other systems, PCs provide a more open architecture making them idealmaking them idealforforimproving, optimizing and integrating the overall automation primproving, optimizing and integrating the overall automation process, as well asocess, as well asconductingconductingcontrol task.control task.In addition PCs offer the following features :In addition PCs offer the following features :•• Lower cost.Lower cost.•• Ease of use.Ease of use.•• Graphical user interface.Graphical user interface.•• Easy integration of logic, motion and process control.Easy integration of logic, motion and process control.•• Simplified application development.Simplified application development.•• Software portabilitySoftware portability•• Independence from proprietary control system.Independence from proprietary control system.Using PCs enable the following functions,Using PCs enable the following functions,•• Millisecond time stamping which is essential to utilities.Millisecond time stamping which is essential to utilities.•• Real time control.Real time control.•• Sequence of events.Sequence of events.•• Alarming.Alarming.•• Data collection.Data collection.
  • 106. PLC conceptual overviewPLC conceptual overviewProcessGraphicsHistory &TrendAlarm &EventsSCADAconfigurationeditorOther AspectsystemABB Siemens AllenBradleyGEFanuc ….opc Modbus comliProtocolxxProtocolyySCADAserverOPC serverOP Client SCADA ControlAspectReal-timedatabase
  • 107. PLC Programming StandardsPLC Programming StandardsThe open, manufacturerThe open, manufacturer--independent programming standard forindependent programming standard forautomation isautomation isIEC 61131IEC 61131--3. You can thus choose what configuration interface you wish to3. You can thus choose what configuration interface you wish to useusewhenwhenwriting your application :writing your application :•• Ladder DiagramLadder Diagram•• Instruction ListInstruction List•• Function Block DiagramFunction Block Diagram•• Sequential Function ChartSequential Function Chart•• Structured TextStructured TextAll users, be they plant electrician or coAll users, be they plant electrician or computer scientists, thus havemputer scientists, thus havea configuration interface in which they can feel at home.a configuration interface in which they can feel at home.
  • 108. Industrial IT TrendsIndustrial IT TrendsThe availability of information is becoming increasingly crucialThe availability of information is becoming increasingly crucial in the view of growingin the view of growingglobalglobalcompetition. In future, a decisive competitive edge can only becompetition. In future, a decisive competitive edge can only be achieved by providingachieved by providingthetheright information at the right time, in the right place and inright information at the right time, in the right place and in the right form for the rightthe right form for the rightperson.person.these leadingthese leading-- edge application are continuously optimized and repositioned.edge application are continuously optimized and repositioned.Industrial IT consists of five components:Industrial IT consists of five components:1.1. Engineering ITEngineering IT2.2. Operation ITOperation IT3.3. Production ITProduction IT4.4. Optimization ITOptimization IT5.5. Evolution / InformationEvolution / Information
  • 109. ASSET OPTIMIZATIONIndustrial IT TrendIndustrial IT TrendSales &MarketingPlanning &SchedulingPlant &Process Eng.Operation &Maintenance DistributionReal-timeAutomation &Informatione-PRODUCTIVITYBusinessSystemsPlant