Now that you’ve heard about the problem, you can be a part of the solution. Take this message back to your school and your family. Make your community zero waste. Lets stop the flow of throwaway plastics that end up in our oceans. So we’ve taught you this presentation on line. Now its your turn. Find a group of friends, download the script, add some photos of plastic in your community, and help us spread the word. Go on line, fill out the application, and send us your ideas! You may be one of the 100 students selected for plastics are forever youth summit. Lets all help Captain Moore realize his dream to find the solution to plastic pollution. Good luck!
1. Plastics are polymers, large molecules made of repeating units of smaller molecules (monomers) that are chemically bound together. A polymer is like a chain in which each link is a monomer. SYNTHESIS OF PLASTICS Oxygen,170 C Ethylene Polythene 1000 atm
2. Plastics are chemically produced substance that can be molded into a permanent or a temporary object. TYPES: T h e r mo P l a s t i c s • Those which can be remoulded into any other desired shape. T h e r m o s e t t i n g Pl a s t i c s • Those which cannot be remoulded into any other desired shape. There are about 50 different groups of plastics, with hundreds of different varieties. American Society of Plastics Industry developed a marking code to help consumers identify and sort the main types of plastics.
3. TYPE EXPANSION USES PET Poly Ethylene Fizzy drink bottles and Pterephthalate oven-ready meal traysHDPE High-density Bottles for milk and polyethylene washing-up liquids. PVC Polyvinyl chloride Food trays, cling film, bottles for squash, mineral water and shampoo.LDPE Low-density polyethylene Carrier bags and bin liners. PP Polypropylene - Microwaveable meal trays, margarine tubs Pots, fish trays, boxes and PS Polystyrene cartons, cups, plastic
4. Resistance to chemicals, water and impact. Good safety and hygiene properties for food packaging. Excellent thermal and electrical insulation properties. Relatively inexpensive to produce. Lighter weight than competing materials, reducing fuel consumption during transportation.
5. Disadvantages of Plastics
6. DECOMPOSITION The main disadvantage of plastic is the shear amount of time they take to decompose--the average plastics takes 500 years. Plastics decomposition can be affected by various factors, such as the type of plastic, the climate and acids in the landfill; plastic still lasts a long time, filling landfills for an indefinite period.
7. DIFFICULT TO RECYCLE Glass bottles can be melted and easily reused, as can tin cans. Recycling plastic is not so simple. Much of the plastic placed in recycling boxes is not recycled at all, as most plastic cannot be recycled. Those bottles that are recycled are not used to make new bottles. Instead, recycled plastic bottles are used to make non-recyclable products, such as T-shirts, plastic lumber or parking lot bumpers. This means more raw materials need to be used to create new plastic bottles than is the case with easily recycled material, such as glass or tin.
8. NON-RENEWABLE Plastic is manufactured using oil by- products and natural gas, materials that could be used in numerous other applications or conserved were plastic usage lower. Natural gas, for example, can be used to heat houses and cook food. Using plastic in the volume we currently do reduces the availability of these resources, which are gone forever when used up.
9. HARD TO REUSE The standard disposable plastic bottle is meant for one use, not many. Recycled plastic bottles are not refilled in-mass the way glass beer bottles are, and flimsy plastic bottles do not lend themselves well to at- home re-usage. Water bottles, for example, are often reused in the home but become less and less sturdy over time and are ultimately thrown away.
10. THREAT TO ANIMALS Discarded Plastic usually ends up within marine sources. The Pacific Ocean has one of the largest dumping ground for plastics, unknown numbers of sea birds marine mammals and fish ingest plastics which causes a variety of negative health effects.
11. Plastic is one of the few new chemical materials which pose environmental problem. Plastic in the environment is regarded to be more an aesthetic nuisance than a hazard, since the material is biologically quite inert. Plastic is cheap, it gets discarded easily, and, its persistence in the environment can do great harm.
13. POLLUTANTS FROM PLASTIC INCINERATION• Many plastics, particularly PVC, when burned result in emissions of the deadly poisons named dioxin.• Dioxins are highly persistent compounds, with the potential to become increasingly concentrated in living tissues as they move up the food chain. It is often considered to be the man-made compound most toxic to animals.
14. PLASTIC DEBRIS ON THE MOVE
15. The per capita consumption of plastic in the country is 10.2 kg in 2012.It is expected to go up to 12 kg by 2014. By 2012, India is also projected to be the third largest consumer market for plastic goods with a consumption of 12.5 million tonnes per annum, behind US and China.
16. Percentage of Plastic used in different fields Mechanical Engineering 2% Toys/Sports Medical 3% Other Footwear 2% 3% Agriculture 1% 7% Transport 8% Furniture/Houseware 8% Electrical and Electronics 8%Packaging 35% Building and Construction 23%
17. Disposing of plastic waste is trickier than dealing with other traditional landfill material. Not only does plastic take thousands of years to break down, it can leach dangerous poison into the environment. Plastic is not going away, but how plastic waste is managed is becoming more sophisticated. Managing plastic waste starts at home with the consumer, but ultimately depends on governments around the world as well.
18. RecyclingPlastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products, sometimes completely different in form from their original state. For instance, this could mean melting down soft drink bottles and then casting them as plastic chairs and tables. Typically a plastic is not recycled into the same type of plastic, and products made from recycled plastics are often not recyclable.
19. Plasma Pyrolysis Technology (PPT) Plasma pyrolysis or plasma gasification is a waste treatment technology that gasifies matter in an oxygen-starved environment to decompose waste material into its basic molecular structure. It uses high electrical energy and high temperature created by an electrical arc gasifier and does not combust the waste as incinerators do. This arc breaks down waste primarily into elemental gas and solid waste (slag), in a device called a plasma converter.
20. Biodegradable PlasticsBioplastics are a form of plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils , corn starch or micro biota .Common plastics, such as fossil-fuel plastics, are derived from petroleum. These plastics rely more on scarce fossil fuels and produce more greenhouse gas. Some, but not all, bioplastics are designed to biodegrade. Bioplastics which are designed to biodegrade can break down in either anaerobic or aerobic environments, depending on how they are manufactured. There is a variety of bioplastics being made; they can be composed of starches, cellulose, or other biopolymers. Some common applications of bioplastics are packaging materials, dining utensils, food packaging, and insulation.
21. Conversion of Plastic Waste into Liquid Fuel Methods to convert waste plastics into hydrocarbon fuel have been in development for decades. But the associated costs to commercialize the technologies were prohibitive in previous years when crude oil was relatively inexpensive. As costs for crude oil have risen, concerns about energy security and the environment are renewing efforts in plastics-to fuel recycling processes. Scientists hope the technologies will soon provide the nation with cheaper, alternative fuels that can help reduce foreign oil dependency.
22. DESIGN TO CHANGEThe two best changes we can do are Use less plastics To reuse plastics when possible.
23. Share what you’ve learned Lead by example Ask your friends and family to join you Speak to city council Write letters to government officials Get your school involved