FY-BMS BALBHARTI’SM. J. PANCHOLIA COLLEGE OF COMMERCE
Fundamentals of Computer• Data, Information & EDP – Introduction – Need and Concept of Data• Electronic Data Processing – Definition – History of EDP• EDP in the Modern Era• EDP and the Paperless Business• Number System & Codes – Binary Numbers System (Base 2) – Decimal Number System (Base 10) – Number Systems (Base N) – Octal Numbers (Base 8) – Hexadecimal Numbers (Base 16)• BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Number System• ASCII Code – American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Fundamentals of Computer Data, Information & EDP• INTRODUCTION – Data are plain facts. The word “Data” is the plural for “datum”. Data are the pieces of information that represents the qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables. When data are processed, organized, structured or presented in a given context so as to make them useful, they are called Information. Information is more meaningful than data• NEED AND CONCEPT OF DATA – Collection of facts, figures and statistics – Process to create useful Information – Valuable asset for organization – Perform effective and successful Operations of Management – View of past activities, rise and fall of an organization – Better decision for future – Generate Reports, Graphs & Statistics – Data is viewed from the lowest level of abstraction from which information and knowledge is derived. – Data is raw material to create information.
Fundamentals of Computer Electronic Data Processing• Electronic Data Processing (EDP) can refer to the use of automated methods to process commercial data. Typically, this uses relatively simple, repetitive activities to process large volumes of similar information. For example: stock updates applied to an inventory, banking transactions applied to account and customer master files, booking and ticketing transactions to an airlines reservation system, billing for utility services.• EDP (electronic data processing), an infrequently used term for what is today usually called "IS" (information services or systems) or "MIS" (management information services or systems), is the processing of data by a computer and its programs in an environment involving electronic communication. EDP evolved from "DP" (data processing), a term that was created when most computing input was physically put into the computer in punched card form and output as punched cards or paper reports.
Fundamentals of Computer Electronic Data ProcessingHistoryThe first commercial business computer was developed in the United Kingdom in 1951, by the J. Lyons and Co.catering organization. This was known as the Lyons Electronic Office - or LEO for short. It was developedfurther and used widely during the 1960s and early 1970s. (Joe Lyons formed a separate company to developthe LEO computers and this subsequently merged to form English Electric Leo Marconi and then InternationalComputers Ltd.) Early commercial systems were installed exclusively by large organizations. These couldafford to invest the time and capital necessary to purchase hardware, hire specialist staff to develop bespokesoftware and work through the consequent (and often unexpected) organizational and cultural changes.At first, individual organizations developed their own software, including data management utilities,themselves. Different products might also have one-off bespoke software. This fragmented approach led toduplicated effort and the production of management information needed manual effort. High hardware costsand relatively slow processing speeds forced developers to use resources efficiently. Data storage formatswere heavily compacted, for example. A common example is the removal of the century from dates, whicheventually led to the millennium bug.Data input required intermediate processing via punched paper tape or punched card and separate input to arepetitive, labor intensive task, removed from user control and error-prone. Invalid or incorrect data neededcorrection and resubmission with consequences for data and account reconciliation. Data storage was strictlyserial on paper tape, and then later to magnetic tape: the use of data storage within readily accessible memorywas not cost-effective.
Introduction to Computers• What is a Computer?• Advantages/Features of Computer• Definition of Computer• History of Computer• Generations of Computers• Types of Computer• Hardware & Software• Parts of Computer (Block Diagram)• Storage (I/O) Devices• Software – System Software & Application Software• Operating Software
Introduction to ComputersWhat is a Computer?The computer is one of the greatestinventions in the history of humankind.Computers have applications in all fieldsof knowledge and therefore touch allaspect of our life whatever may be ourfield of activity.The computer can be defined as amachine that can do calculations,comparisons, reading and writing on agiven set of data at a very high speed,logically and intelligently in a desiredmanner.
Introduction to ComputersAdvantages / Features of ComputersSpeed – A computer performs operations with greatspeed.Accuracy – The computer gives accurate resultsaccording to the instruction provided.Storage – The storage capacity of the computer isvery largeVersatility – Computers are used in vide areas ofhuman activities.Automatic – The computer performs all theinstructions provided to it automatically.Diligence – After long hours of work human beinggets tired but a computer never gets tired.
Introduction to ComputersDefinition of a ComputerA computer is an electronic device,which can perform arithmetic andlogical operations with a high speedas per instructions given.
Introduction to ComputersHistory of Computer• 1642 – Pascal built Mechanical Calculating Machine – mechanical gears, hand-crank, dials and knobs – other similar machines followed• 1805 – First Programmable device, Jacquard Loom wove tapestries with elaborate, programmable patterns pattern represented by metal punch-cards, fed into loom could mass-produce tapestries, reprogram with new cards
Introduction to ComputersHistory of Computer• Mid 1800s – Babbage designed "analytical engine" expanded upon mechanical calculators, but programmable via punch-cards described general layout of modern computers never functional, beyond technology of the day• 1890 – Hollerith invented tabulating machine – used for 1890 U.S. Census – stored data on punch-cards, could sort and tabulate using electrical pins – finished census in 6 weeks (vs. 7 years) – Holleriths company would become IBM
Introduction to ComputersHistory of Computer• 1930s – several engineers independently built "computers" using electromagnetic relays physical switch, open/close via electrical current Zuse (Nazi Germany) – destroyed in WWII Atanasoff (Iowa State) – built with grad student Stibitz (Bell Labs) – followed design of Babbage
Introduction to ComputersGenerations of Computers Generation 1: Vacuum Tubes (1945-1954)• mid 1940s – vacuum tubes replaced relays – glass tube w/ partial vacuum to speed electron flow – faster than relays since no moving parts – invented by de Forest in 1906• 1940s – hybrid computers using vacuum tubes and relays were built COLOSSUS (1943) built by British govt. (Alan Turing) used to decode Nazi communications ENIAC (1946) built by Eckert & Mauchly at UPenn 18,000 vacuum tubes, 1,500 relays weighed 30 tons, consumed 140 kwatts
Introduction to ComputersGenerations of Computers Generation 2: Transistors (1954-1963)• mid 1950s – transistors began to replace tubes – piece of silicon whose conductivity can be turned on and off using an electric current – smaller, faster, more reliable, cheaper to mass produce – invented by Bardeen, Brattain, & Shockley in 1948 (won 1956 Nobel Prize in physics)• computers became commercial as cost dropped high-level languages were designed to make programming more natural FORTRAN (1957, Backus at IBM) LISP (1959, McCarthy at MIT) BASIC (1959, Kemeny at Dartmouth) COBOL (1960, Murray-Hopper at DOD) the computer industry grew as businesses could buy Eckert-Mauchly (1951), DEC (1957) IBM became market force in 1960s
Introduction to ComputersGenerations of Computers Generation 3: Integrated Circuits (1963-1973)• integrated circuit (IC) – as transistor size decreased, could package many transistors with circuitry on silicon chip – mass production further reduced prices 1971 – Intel marketed first microprocessor, a chip w/ all the circuitry for a calculator• 1960s saw the rise of Operating Systems an operating system is a collection of programs that manage peripheral devices and other resources allowed for time-sharing, where multiple users share a computer by swapping jobs in and out as computers became affordable to small businesses, specialized programming languages were developed Pascal (1971, Wirth) C (1972, Ritche)
Introduction to ComputersGenerations of ComputersGeneration 4: VLSI (1973-1985)• Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) – by mid 1970s, could fit hundreds of thousands of transistors w/ circuitry on a chip – could mass produce powerful microprocessors and other useful ICs – computers finally affordable to individuals• Late 1970s saw rise of personal computing Gates & Allen founded Microsoft in 1975 Gates wrote BASIC compiler for personal computer would grow into software giant, Gates richest in world http://www.webho.com/WealthClock Wozniak and Jobs founded Apple in 1977 went from garage to $120 million in sales by 1980 IBM introduced PC in 1980 Apple countered with Macintosh in 1984
Introduction to ComputersGenerations of ComputersGeneration 5: Parallelism & Networking (1985-????)In this generation the computers are supposed to useArtificial Intelligence.Japan initiated the fifth generation computer project itwas also known as knowledge processing system. It useda very large scale parallel processing technologies andincorporated Artificial Intelligence.
Introduction to ComputersTypes of ComputerComputers can be classifies as follows:Analog Computers: are used forprocessing data that varycontinuously such as speed,humidity etc. in such computersdata is given in continuous form.These computers are not capableof taking decisions but still areused in scientific and industrialestablishments.
Introduction to ComputersTypes of ComputerDigital Computers: Digital computers performcalculations by counting and are used formanipulating data with great accuracy. Digitalcomputers are further classified into:a) General Purpose – computers are able to handle many complicated problems by using programs which are specially prepared for solving complicated problemsb) Special Purpose – computers are found in various consumer appliances, these are different from the computers used by business organization e.g. computers to identify mobile problems.
Introduction to ComputersTypes of ComputerHybrid Computer: It is a combination of Analog andDigital computers. Hybrid computer are used wherecontinuous and digital processing is required e.g. tomonitor weather the analog devices may measurethe humidity, temperature etc. the numbers arefurther converted into numbers and supplied todigital component of the system.
Introduction to ComputersTypes of ComputerBased on the other features of the computer suchas speed, memory, processing power and costcomputers are classified as follows:a) Micro Computer (Personal Computer)b) Desktopsc) Workstationsd) Multimediae) Laptopsf) Palmtopsg) Serversh) Mini Computersi) Mainframe Computersj) Super Computers
Introduction to ComputersHardware & Softwarei) Hardware : The hardware consist of the physical parts of the computer which can be touched, seen and felt.ii) Software: The full set of instructions and procedures to be used on the computer is called software. Software’s can be classified into: i) System Software (Operating System) ii) Application Software
Introduction to ComputersParts of Computer (Block Diagram) ALU Arthematic & Logical UnitINPUT OUTPUT CU Control Unit MU Memory Unit RAM & ROM
Introduction to ComputersInput Devices• You use an input device, such as a keyboard or a mouse, to input data and issue commands – Keyboard – Mouse – Game Controller (Joystick) – Bar Code Reader – Scanner – Trackball – Touch Screen – Optical Mark Reader (OMR) – Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) – Pen Input – POS Terminals (Point of Sales) – Digital Camera – OCR (Optical Character Recognition) – Microphone
Introduction to ComputersCPU – Central Processing UnitData which is entered in the computer is processed in a component of thesystem unit called Microprocessor.The CPU consist of ALU (Arthematic & Logical Section which is used forcomputations, CU (Control Unit for monitoring the sequence ofinstructions or programs and controlling the other devices connected tothe computer.The CPU also consist of MU (Memory Unit) which is used to store data aswell as the results given by the computer. The memory unit is classifiedinto two types:RAM (Random Access Memory) Volatile Memory Data is lost when the lost is switched off.ROM (Read Only Memory) Permanent Memory BIOS (Basic Input Output System) CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)
Introduction to ComputersOutput Devices• Output devices show you the results of processing data – VDU (Visual Display Unit) or CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) or Monitor – LCD – Sound System – Printer • Impact Printers – Dot Matrix • Non-Impact Printers – Laser – Inkjet / Bubble Jet • Computer Output Microfilm(Com) Devices – Plotters – LCD Projectors – Communication Device • Modems • ISDN • Broadband Services (Cable Modems)
PROCESSORSA Silicon Chip that contains in the CPU. Microprocessor also control the logic of almost alldigital devices.Three basic characteristics differentiate microprocessor:a) Instruction Set a) The set of instructions that microprocessor can executeb) Bandwidth a) The number of Bits processed in a single instruction.c) Clock Speed i) Given in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz), the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the processor can execute. ii) Also called as clock rate, the speed at which the microprocessor executes instructions iii) CPU requires a fixed number of clock ticks (or clock cycles)
PROCESSORSDifferent kinds of Processors:1) AMD (ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES) Inc. a) American semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale, California b) AMD is second largest global supplier of Microprocessor based on x86 architecture after Intel. c) AMD Opteron, AMD Athlon …….. are a few types of processors. d) K6 introduced in 1997 i) Pentium Class Microprocessor ii) Co-developed by Vinod Dham lead designer for Pentium Processor iii) Compatible with INTEL Motherboards e) Athlon made its debut in June 23 1999, ancient Greek word for “Champion / trophy of games”. x86 Processors and first to lead over the performance of Intel’s Processor.2) CYRIX a) Manufacturing of the CPU began in 1978 in Richardson, Texas b) Founder is Jerry Rogers c) High performance co-processors for 286 and 386 systems. d) FasMath was the fastest 386-compatible 50% more performance than Intel 387DX processor3) CELERON a) x86 CPU from Intel b) Performance was lower compared to similar high priced Intel CPU brands. c) April 1998 – first Celeron branded CPU was based on Pentium II branded core. d) 25% as much cache memory
PROCESSORSDifferent kinds of Processors:4) PENTIUM a) Intel single-core x86 microprocessor based on P5. b) Derived from Greek word “pent” meaning “five” and the Latin ending “ium” c) Pentium succeeded the Intel486 – fourth generation d) 1996, the original Pentium was succeeded by Pentium MMX branded CPU e) 1995, Pentium registered trademark x86 processors branded as : i) Pentium Pro ii) Pentium II iii) Pentium III iv) Pentium IV v) I3 vi) I7 f) Vinod Dham father of Intel Pentium Processor, including many other people like John H. Crawford. g) Pentium were released at the clock speeds of 66MHz and 60MHz, later 75 – 300 MHz were released
PROCESSORSDifferent kinds of Processors:5) Intel Core DUO a) A dual-core processors is a CPU with two processors b) They can perform operations upto twice as fast as a single processor can. c) Core brand refers to Intel 32-bit mobile dual core x86 CPUs that derived from the Pentium M branded processor d) Core brand comprises of two branches: i) DUO (dual-core) ii) Solo (DUO with one disabled core) e) Core DUO is first Intel Processor used in Apple Macintosh.6) CORE 2 DUO a) 2 x 2 MCM (Multi Chip Module) b) Quad Core CPUs c) Introduced in July 27 2006, comprising of following: i) Solo (Single Core) ii) DUO (Dual Core) iii) Quad (Quad Core)7) CENTRINO a) Technology package from Intel b) Wireless support for Laptop with full day running without battery recharge. c) The Centrino package consists of: i) The Pentium Processor ii) 855 Chipset Family iii) The Pro Wireless Network connection
Introduction to ComputersData RepresentationComputer understands only one language i.e. 8 Bits = 1 Bytemachine language. It is made up of Binary Digits (0& 1). 1024 Bytes = 1 KB 1024 KB = 1 MBThe computer stores data in form of Binary Digits,each digit is known as Bit. Each character stored in 1024 MB = 1 GBcomputer is a combination of 8 Bits (see the tablebelow for example) 1024 GB = 1 TB ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Introduction to ComputersStorage DevicesThe device on which is stored permanently,which can be used as future reference. Storagedevices are Input / Output devices. The devicesare:•Magnetic Tapes•Magnetic Disk –Floppy Disk –Hard Disk•Optical Storage device –CD –DVD (Digital Versatile Disk)•Flash Memory•Memory Card
Introduction to ComputersPRINTERS Printer Technologies
Introduction to ComputersPRINTERSPrinters are used to create a hard copy of a document or image. Printers vary byspeed, quality, and price.The most popular types of printers are1) Impact Printers2) Non-Impact Printers
Introduction to ComputersPRINTERS – IMPACT PRINTERSImpact printers leave an image on the paper by physically striking an inked ribbon against the surface of the paper Used for multipart forms Relatively slow and noisyDaisy-wheel and dot-matrix are two prominent types of impact printers
Introduction to ComputersPRINTERS – DOT MATRIX PRINTERSDot-matrix printersMore flexibility than daisy-wheel printersUse an array of pins known as printwires to strike an inked printer ribbon andproduce images on paper.The case that holds the print wires is called the printheadUse either 9-pin (draft quality) or 24-pin (letter or near-letter quality)
Introduction to ComputersPRINTERS – INKJET PRINTERS (NON IMPACT PRINTER)Inkjet printers are simple devices that consist of the printheadmechanism, support electronics, a transfer mechanism, and apaper feed componentWork by ejecting ink through tiny tubesInk is heated by tiny resistors or electroconductive plates at theend of each tubeThe resistors or plates boil the ink which creates a tiny air bubblethat ejects a droplet of ink on the paperInk inside the jets tend to dry out when not usedMost color printers are ink-jet and produce a high-quality image
Introduction to ComputersPRINTERS – THERMAL PRINTERS (NON IMPACT PRINTER)Thermal printersTwo types: Direct thermal and Thermal waxUse a heated print head to burn dots into the surface ofspecial heat-sensitive paperStill used for receipts at some businesses
Introduction to ComputersPRINTERS – LASER PRINTERS (NON IMPACT PRINTER) Laser printers use a mechanism called electro-photographic imaging, to produce a high quality and high-speed output of both text and graphics More expensive than ink-jet or impact printers Use lasers as a light source The toner cartridge contains the parts that suffer the most wear and tear
Introduction to ComputersDefinition of Software• Instructions and associated data, stored in electronic format, that direct the computer to accomplish a task.
Introduction to Computers Software SOFTWARE Classification of Software System ApplicationHardware cannot work without a Software. System softwareis used by the computer to interact with hardware.Application Software (e.g. MS-Office) cannot be executedwithout the installation of system software. An operatingsystem is system software.
Introduction to Computers Components of OSSystem Software File Manager Stores information on• An Operating System (OS) is the various secondary storage devices e.g. master controller within a FDD, HDD…. etc Process Manager computer. To share several programs / processes to EX: Windows, MacOS, DOS (Disk run at the same time Operating System), UNIX, Linux the operating system has to share out• An operating system interacts microprocessor time. Device Manager with: The device manager – All hardware installed in or handles communication between the connected to a computer system. peripherals and the – All software installed or running microprocessor. Memory Manager from a storage device on a Various programs are computer system. allocated memory in such a manner that no clash occurs.
Introduction to ComputersSystem Software• Types of Operating System – CUI (Character User Interface) Based Operating System – GUI (Graphics User Interface) Based Operating System – Single Task Operating System – Multitasking Operating System – Single User Operating System – Multi User Operating System
Introduction to Computers System Software - OS• DOS (Disk Operating System) – Developed by IBM• Windows 95/98/XP/VISTA – GUI• Windows NT – Multiuser – Multitasking – Networking – Available in different languages• Windows 2000 – Windows NT 5.0 – Windows 2000 – Provided more Security – Available in different local languages.• UNIX – Developed by Bell Labs in 1969 – Dennis Ritchie & Ken Thompson rewrote in C language – CUI – UNIX interface is called as Shell
Introduction to Computers System Software - OS• LINUX – Alternate to UNIX – GUI – Created by Linus Torvalds – University of Helsinki – 1991. – Vendors are Red Hat, Caldera Systems, Mandarake … etc.• SOLARIS – Sun Micro Systems deleoped in 1991 – Features of UNIX – LINUX & Java are also Compatible• MAC Operating System – Introduced in 1983 by Apple – GUI – Used in Creative Works
Introduction to ComputersApplication Software• Accomplishes specific tasks for Application Software is further Classified users. into:• Enables a computer to become a 1) Propriety multi-purpose machine. 2) Off the Shelf Produce Create flow charts worksheets and and graphic reports. organizers. Automate record Communicate keeping like worldwide. attendance and grades.
Introduction to ComputersPersonal Operating Software• Word Processor• Spreadsheet• Presentation• Financial Management• ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) – Raw Material Planning – Checking Stock & Inventory – Production & Planning – Finished Goods Planning – Sales – Delivery