Additional information has been documented on biodiesel’s use in cold weather. Of course, cold weather we know can cloud and gel any diesel fuel, including biodiesel, and users with B20 with No. 2 usually see a slight increase of the cold flow properties, about 2-10 degrees F colder than with normal diesel fuel. Similar precautions can be employed for petroleum diesel that are needed for biodiesel blends. Blends with No. 1 fuel use fuel heaters or parking indoors, or use a cold flow improvement additive.
Introduction to Biodiesel:An Overview for Dealers & Drivers Presented by: Akash Mandal Student 1
Topics for Today:• Introduction to Biodiesel• Top 10 Reasons Smart Customers Are Using Biodiesel• ASTM Specifications & Biodiesel Fuel Quality• Legislative Updates Impacting Biodiesel Demand• OEM Acceptance & Positions of Support for Biodiesel• Biodiesel Resources & Future Training Opportunities• Q&A 2
What is Biodiesel?A renewable fuel commercially refinedfrom a diverse array of fats and oilsby-products & used in normal dieselengines
Biodiesel Defined• Biodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, meeting ASTM D 6751, designated B100.• Biodiesel Blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.
Biodiesel Raw MaterialsOil or Fat Alcohol Soybean Methanol Corn Ethanol Canola Cottonseed Catalyst Sunflower Sodium hydroxide Beef tallow Potassium hydroxide Pork lard Used cooking oils
Future Feedstocks Algae Jatropha Halophytes Brown GreasePennycress Photo by: Joel Rose Low Ricin Castor
Biodiesel ReactionReacting: In the presence of a catalyst Yields: 100 Lbs. 100 Lbs.Vegetable Biodiesel Oil orAnimal Fat + + 10 Lbs. 10 Lbs.Alcohol Glycerine Produces mono-alkyl esters – chemically similar to diesel fuel
U.S. Biodiesel Production by Calendar YearVolume in RFS-2 Implemented Gallons Biodiesel Tax Credit Extended 1.1 Billion Economic Downturn Economic Downturn RFS2 Uncertainty RFS2 Uncertainty Lapse of Biodiesel Tax Lapse of Biodiesel Tax Credit Credit 700 Million 545 Million 450 Million 315 250 Million Million 112 Million 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Biodiesel: An “Advanced Biofuel” Available Now 205 EPA- Registered plants nationwide with over 3.08 Billion GPY Capacity
Biodiesel Infrastructure• Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are now available nationwide from more than: – 575 Distributors – 850 Retailers – 450 Truck Stops – At least 1,875 Public Locations• Visit the new NBB website at: www.biodiesel.org/using-biodiesel/finding- biodiesel/retail-locations to view biodiesel retailers near you, by state, or along a route
Biodiesel in Pipelines• B5 and lower blends are being transported on existing US pipelines that do not carry jet fuel. Volumes relatively small.• B5 and lower blends are being transported in Europe on lines that carry jet fuel – B100 level in jet fuel must be maintained <5 ppm• Large project being executed to provide allowance of 100 ppm biodiesel in jet fuel• This would enable biodiesel pipeline shipment on all U.S. pipelines— even those with jet fuel
Top 10 Reasons Why SmartCustomers Are Using Biodiesel Why Biodiesel? 12
#1 – America’s Advanced Biofuel• Biodiesel is America’s first domestically produced, commercially available Advanced Biofuel and meets EPA requirements for inclusion and use under the new Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS-2).• RFS-2 mandates 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel be used by obligated parties (i.e. refiners) by 2022 – 1 billion gallons biomass based diesel, – 4 billion gallons un-differentiated advanced biofuel• 2011 Volume Requirement = 800 Million Gallons• 2012 = 1 Billion Gallons• 2013 = 1.28 Billion Gallons 13
RFS-2 Advanced Biofuel• EPA Definition 40 CFR 80.1401 - Advanced Biofuel means renewable fuel, other than ethanol derived from cornstarch, that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions that are at least 50 percent less than baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions.• Feedstock pathway MUST be EPA approved• Biodiesel is the ONLY U.S. domestic fuel available in commercial quantities that has been approved by the U.S. EPA as an “Advanced Biofuel”
RFS-2 Approved Biodiesel Pathways• Advanced Biofuel: Lifecycle GHG Emissions Must Be At Least 50% Less Than Diesel Fuel - EPA Approved Pathways: • Vegetable Oils derived from Soybeans, Canola and Camelina; • Waste Oils / Yellow Grease; • Animal fats; • DDG Corn Oil derived from the ethanol production process; • Algae, and • Secondary annual crops planted on existing cropland
#2 – Lower Emissions• U.S. biodiesel reduces lifecycle carbon emissions by 57% – 86% compared to petrodiesel, qualifying it as an Advanced Biofuel under RFS-2 and making it the best carbon reduction tool of any liquid fuel commercially available. – Biodiesel from Waste Oils, Waste Grease and Animal Fats = 86% reduction in GHG Emissions – Biodiesel from Soy based oils = 57% reduction in GHG Emissions 16
#3 – High Energy Balance• Biodiesel has the highest energy balance (5.54 : 1) of any commercially available fuel, returning 5.54 units of renewable energy for every 1 unit of fossil energy needed to produce it.• Compression Ignition Platform (i.e. diesel engine system) is 30-40% More Fuel Efficient Than Spark Ignition (i.e. gasoline, CNG, propane) 17
#4 – Sustainability• Biodiesel is produced from a variety of renewable resources, such as plant oils, animal fats, recycled grease, and even algae, making it one of the most sustainable fuels on the planet.• With biodiesel, you don’t sacrifice food for fuel. Oils and fats for biodiesel are a minor by- product of producing food for humans and animals. – Soybeans are 80% protein, 20% oil – No one grows livestock for its fat content – No one cooks more fried food to get used oil for biodiesel 18
#5 – Energy Security• Biodiesel production reduces our dependence on foreign oil from unstable parts of the world, while expanding and diversifying our domestic refinery capacity.• Biodiesel is the most economical option for turning oils and fats into usable fuel diesel applications: – Low capital cost for facilities – Low processing costs • 80% of product cost is from oil/fat 19
#6 – Better For Your Health• Biodiesel is: – Biodegradable – Nontoxic: • LD50 =17.4 g/Kg - less toxic than table salt • Skin irritation less than that of 4% soap and water solution – Safer to handle: Flash point above 200 Degrees F, Non-Reactive, Non-Corrosive• Compared to petrodiesel, biodiesel reduces black smoke (particulates), Carbon Monoxide, and harmful unburned hydrocarbons that cause smog.
#7 – Economic Benefits• Biodiesel helps our U.S. economy and improves our balance of trade.• Using biodiesel creates added outlets for farm based products and high paid manufacturing jobs in rural parts of our country.• The 1.1 billion gallons of biodiesel produced in the U.S. in 2011 also supported over 39,000 U.S. jobs. 21
#8 – Ease of Use & Performance• Using Biodiesel is easy!• B20 and lower blends are a drop-in replacement for diesel fuel; no vehicle modifications needed• Can be used in any diesel engine / vehicle according to OEM’s recommendations – www.biodiesel.org/using-biodiesel/oem-information/oem- statement-summary-chart for OEM positions • No trade-offs in terms of engine performance, fuel economy, horsepower, torque – essentially the same as diesel• Dispensed through existing fueling stations 22
# 9 – ASTM Specifications & Technical Credibility• Biodiesel production is guided by stringent ASTM fuel specifications, developed through years of testing.• The biodiesel industry works closely with OEMs and Petroleum companies to identify needed technical information• Continued investment to answer technical questions that arise is something that sets the biodiesel industry apart from other fuels• The ASTM D6751 specifications continue to improve and evolve over time – Especially as petrodiesel and engines change 23
Biodiesel Standards:ASTM D6751 is the approved standard for B100 for blending up to B20, in effect since 2001 – Performance-based standard: Feedstock and Process NeutralD975 – Covers petrodiesel and blends up to 5% biodiesel maximum for on/off road engines; B5 is now fungible with diesel fuelD396 – Covers heating oil and blends up to 5% biodiesel; B5 is now fungible with petro-based heating oilD7467 – Covers blends containing 6% to 20% biodiesel for on/off road engines – Designed so that if B100 meets D6751 and petro diesel meets D975, then B6 to B20 blends will meet their specifications – Important quality control is at B100 level
Additional Fuel Quality Controls• States’ Adoption of ASTM D6751 into law 2011: 48 states (AK, NJ remain)• Active Enforcement 2011: – 36 states have authority to regulate fuel quality – 20 states do proactive testing
#10 – BQ-9000 & Fuel Quality• The biodiesel industry has an excellent fuel quality program called BQ-9000 (www.bq- 9000.org).• Helps ensure that only the highest quality biodiesel meeting ASTM specifications gets put into your fuel tanks. 26
BQ-9000 Program•Biodiesel Industry’s equivalent to an ISO 9000program for biodiesel production & distributioncompanies as well as testing labs•BQ-9000 works hand-in-hand with the ASTMspecifications for biodiesel•Quality Control System covers biodieselmanufacturing, sampling, testing, blending, storage,shipping, distribution•ASTM Grade Fuel, BQ-9000 Companies
• NBB implemented BQ-9000 as a means to help instill confidence in biodiesel with users and equipment companies• There are now three BQ-9000 designations: – Producer (make it to spec) – Marketer (buy spec, keep it in spec, blend it right) – Certified Laboratories (test it to ensure it is in spec)• Many OEMs are now either requiring or strongly encouraging BQ-9000
BQ Current StatusThe latest numbers show that 81% of biodieselproduced is by BQ-9000 accredited companies. • 44 Producers • 28 Marketer Terminals • 7 Laboratories
Legislative Updates ImpactingBiodiesel Demand & OEM Support
Volume Standards as Set Forth in EPA’s RFS-2 ( TotalConventional Total Renewable + Advanced = Renewable Fuel Fuels Non -Cellulosic Advanced Biomass Based Diesel + Advanced + Cellulosic = Advanced Total Advanced
Legislative Incentives for BiodieselOther Federal Legislative Incentives for Biodiesel that are Important to OEMs:• EPACT Credits – (Energy Policy Act) – Incentive for Fleets for B20+ Use; most economical option for EPACT compliance• CAFÉ Credits – (Corporate Avg. Fuel Economy) – Incentive for Automakers for B20+ approval 33
State Mandated & Incentivized MarketsState Mandates • In Effect: Consumption Incentives • Minnesota (B5), rising to B10 in May 2013; rising to • Illinois/Iowa/New York sales tax B20 in May 2015 - 40 exemption: 70-120 MGPY MGPY • Washington (B2), 12 MGPY • Oregon (B5), 14 MGPY Total • Pennsylvania (B2), 26 mandated/incentivized MGPY • Misc. Fleets, 15 MGPY volume: 180-230 MGPY in • Total: 107 MGPY 2012 • Next to Implement: • Massachusetts, Louisiana, Connecticut, Vermont, • 430-490 MGPY in 2015 New Mexico (July 2012) • B2 requirements: 34 MGPY
Illinois Tax Incentive• All U.S. fuels are taxed by the federal government• Most states also have an additional state tax – Both are flat taxes, cents per gallon• Illinois also has a state sales tax on fuel – 6.25% of sales price, not a flat tax• Sales tax removed on entire gallon if at least 10% biodiesel is incorporated• Incentive in place since 2003, just extended until 2018• With removal of sales tax, B11 is cheaper than diesel• IL Dept. of Revenue projects half of diesel market is B11 35
OEM Warranty Statements• All major OEMs selling diesel equipment in the U.S. support at least B5 and lower blends, provided they are made with biodiesel meeting ASTM D 6751 – Most OEMs are also recommending use of a BQ-9000 supplier• 10 new OEM statements of B20 support so far in 2012, with more expected soon!• Now 77% of U.S. manufacturers (30 brands) support B20 or higher blends in at least some of their equipment;• More than 95% of the medium- and heavy-duty truck markets now support B20• For a complete listing of OEM position statements on biodiesel, as well as the current U.S. Diesel Vehicles List, visit: www.biodiesel.org/using-biodiesel/oem-information
OEMs Supporting B20+• New OEM B20 Support Statements in 2012: 39
OEM Support Summary OEMs Supporting B100 OEMs Supporting B20 OEMs Supporting B5Case IH Arctic Cat Audi *Deutz AG Buhler BMWFairbanks Morse Caterpillar MazdaNew Holland Chrysler / Ram (in Ram for fleets) Mercedes Benz Cummins Mitsubishi Daimler Trucks - Including: PACCAR - Including: - Detroit Diesel (upon - Kenworth request) - Freightliner / FCC - Peterbilt - Thomas Built Buses UD Trucks * - Western Star Volkswagen * Ferris Ford (2011+ models) General Motors / Chevy (2011+ models) HDT USA Motorcycles Hino Trucks (2011+ models) International / Navistar Isuzu Commercial Trucks (2011+ models) John Deere Kubota Mack Perkins TomcarRed type = New in 2012 Toro * = Currently completing B20 research Volvo Trucks Yanmar
New in 2012: Volvo Trucks & Mack Support B20Volvo & Mack B20 warranty statements:• “Use of biodiesel up to a maximum of 20% (B20) in and of itself, will not affect the manufacturers mechanical warranty as to engine and emissions system related components, provided the bio fuel used in the blend conforms to ASTM D6751, B1 to B5 blends conform to ASTM D975, and B6 to B20 blends conform to ASTM D7467.• Engine and aftertreatment emissions system component warranties are valid providing the B20 blend meets the respective ASTM standard. Customers will need to utilize oil sampling to establish appropriate drain interval(s) for their specific application(s).” 41
New in 2012: Daimler Trucks NA• All DTNA truck models equipped with Cummins engines are approved for use with B20 biodiesel blends.• DTNA truck models equipped with Detroit Diesel engines are currently approved for B5, however B20 is allowed upon request. For those customers wishing to use B20 in Detroit Diesel engines, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
B20 Approved Ford approves B20 in all its 2011 MY and beyond Class 2 - 5 Super Duty & Class 6,7 Medium Duty Trucks 2010 and prior models approved for use with B5 under warranty.
B20 Approved for Fleets• Chrysler currently supportsthe use of B20 in the 6.7L Ram2500/3500 pickup forgovernment, military andcommercial fleets• Chrysler plans to extend fullB20 support for all their dieselvehicles equipped withCummins engines by January2013• New diesel Jeep GrandCherokee coming in 2013(biodiesel blend TBA)
B20 ApprovedAll 2011 MY and beyond GM Heavy Duty Products are approved for B20: Chevrolet Silverado GMC Sierra Chevrolet Express GMC Savana
B20 ApprovedNew Chevy Cruze diesel passengercar coming in 2013 • Biodiesel blend approval TBA • We are working with GM to confirm B20 support for this vehicle upon launch
Current B5 PositionsApprove B5: – Audi ** – BMW – Mazda – Mercedes – Mitsubishi ** – PACCAR: – Peterbilt/Kenworth – UD Trucks ** – Volkswagen **** Actively researching B20
Why Support B20?• ASTM specifications (ASTM D7467) are in place and being enforced for B6-B20 blends, providing OEMs and consumers with greater production controls and quality assurance• BQ-9000 biodiesel quality program is robust and growing, currently accounting for more than 81% of biodiesel in marketplace with goal of 100%• The Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS-2) calls for significantly increased volumes of biodiesel to be used in U.S.• State Mandates and Incentives are driving consumers toward use of higher biodiesel blends• CAFÉ Credits – Incentive for Automakers for B20+ approval• Consumers and Fleets want the option to use B20 blends to reduce their environmental impacts with optimal vehicle performance• Differentiates your organization with a “green” competitive advantage 48
Using Biodiesel:Biodiesel Use and Handling Guidelines:• Ensure the biodiesel meets the ASTM specification for pure biodiesel (ASTM D 6751) before blending with petro diesel.• Purchase biodiesel and biodiesel blends from companies that have been registered under the BQ-9000 fuel quality program when possible.• Ensure your biodiesel blend supplier provides a homogenous product.• Avoid long term storage of B20 and higher blends to prevent degradation. Biodiesel should be used within six months.• Prior to transitioning to B20, it is recommended that tanks be cleaned and free from sediment and water. Check for water and drain regularly if needed. Monitor for microbial growth and treat with biocides as recommended by the biocide manufacturer. 50
Using Biodiesel:• Biodiesel and biodiesel blends have excellent cleaning properties. Fuel filters on the vehicles and in the delivery system may need to be changed more frequently upon initial B20 use; after that, system runs cleaner with no issues.• Be aware of the biodiesel blend’s cold weather properties and take appropriate precautions. When operating in winter climates, use winter blended diesel fuel. Make sure the biodiesel blend cloud point is adequate for the geographical region and time of year the fuel will be used. – New biodiesel grade #1-B ASTM specifications now available for winter-blend biodiesel fuel• Perform regularly scheduled maintenance as dictated by the engine operation and maintenance manual. 51
Cold Weather PerformanceB20 has been used Cold weather can cloud and even gel anysuccessfully in climates diesel fuel, including biodiesel.below -20ºF Users of a B20 with #2 diesel will usually experience an increase of the cold flow properties (cold filter plugging point, cloud point, pour point) approximately 2 to 10° Fahrenheit. Similar precautions employed for petroleum diesel are needed for fueling with 20 percent blends. • blending with #1 diesel / #1 biodiesel • using fuel heaters and parking indoors • and using a cold-flow improvement additive
B20 vs. Diesel: In the shop• With in-spec B20 and lower, the issues you can expect to see in your shop are the same as you will see with petrodiesel• Except: – Expect to see fewer lubricity related issues – Expect to see fewer problems with after-treatment – Filter related issues may be related to cleaning effect upon first use, or are likely normal diesel issues or out of spec or imposter biodiesel – Less black smoke from exhaust!
ASE Certified Training• To see our curriculum of ASE-Certified continuing education courses on Biodiesel for Diesel Service Technicians, visit www.BiodieselAutomotive.org 54
Biodiesel Training Webinar OpportunitiesAugust:• Thurs. 8/9: Introduction to Biodiesel – An Overview for Dealers & Users• Mon. 8/13: Key Biodiesel Industry Updates for Medium/Heavy Duty Truck Dealers & Drivers• Wed. 8/29: Biodiesel Selling Points & Service Advisories for DealersSeptember:• Wed. 9/12: Key Biodiesel Industry Updates for Light Duty Vehicle Dealers & Drivers• Tues. 9/25: Voice of the Customer – Fleet Experience with BiodieselRegister Now at www.biodiesel.org/register or contactJennifer_Weaver@me.com to schedule a customized training session 55
Biodiesel Resourceswww.biodiesel.org •Biodiesel Training Toolkit •News Releases & Information Resources •Technical Library, Spec Sheets & Videos •OEM Warranty Positions on Biodiesel • U.S. Diesel Vehicle Listwww.nbb.org •Official site of National Biodiesel Boardwww.BQ-9000.org •Listing of BQ-9000 Certified Companieswww.allthingsbiodiesel.com 56 •Biodiesel merchandise, literature, pump labels and more!
2012 Biodiesel TrainingToolkit – Online version
Training & Promo MaterialsBiodiesel Training Toolkitflash drives are available uponrequest for your dealershipstaff and/or interestedcustomers.Biodiesel Air Freshenershave been a big hit amongOEM Dealers and customers.They feature a QR code thatcan be scanned to tell youwhich biodiesel blend yourOEM supports. To order, contact Jennifer_Weaver@me.com