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Week 2 - Europe
 

Week 2 - Europe

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    Week 2 - Europe Week 2 - Europe Presentation Transcript

    • Course Requirements
      PaperA 2000 word paper (+/- 10%) page research paper, topic to be of students choosing in consultation with professor Due Thursday 5th November 
      Children’s Story critical thinking paper.
      A 1500 word paper (+/- 10%) Due Thursday 19th November
    • Portfolio
      Each student will keep a portfolio for the class which will be split into two blocks. The first block to be handed in on Thursday 15th October the second block to be handed in on Tues 8th December
      There will be 2 sections within your portfolio
    • 1: This section will relate to the readings from – Reading the American Past – And the end of each set of readings from this text are a number of comparative questions. The student shall select one (1) question from each set of readings and write a one (1) page answer.
      2: Video quiz. On numerous occasions during the class I will show movies, documentaries, and several video clips. Questions will be set before the showing. Your answers to each set of video quiz’s will also be kept in the portfolio.
    • Week 2: Portfolio VideoQuestions
      1. How was Cabeza de Vaca’s Experience in America different from most other Spanish Conquistadors?
      2. In the video, Professor David Weber reminds us that in frontier regions
      A) people tend to develop a new culture.
      B) democracy always emerges among settlers.
      C) indigenous culture is totally destroyed.
      D) expansion moves almost invariably from east to west.
    • Final Due Thursday December 17th 9:30 AM
      A take home essay. The question for the take home essay will be “America did not exist until 1877: discuss using evidence from the class readings and lectures”
      p.s. I am available for favorite Professor dinner’s
    • Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but
      not to his own facts.
      Class covers chronological era up to 1877 the period of reconstruction
      An “are” to an “is”
      The United States “are”
      The United States “is”
    • Early attempts at colonization
    • Beringa
    • 1798 Philadelphia
      French aristocrat Constantin-Francois de Chasseboeuf
      meets Miami Chief Little Turtle
      Chasseboeuf notices facial similarities between Little Turtle and Asians and points out small gap between continents
      ‘Isn’t it possible’ asked Little Turtle that the Tartars, who resemble us so closely, came from America? Why shouldn’t we have been born here?’
    • Much mystery surrounds the travels of St. Brennan
      7th century Catholic Missionary
      He and crew of 60 are given credit for discovering North America.
      Artifacts have been found testiying to their exploration of Maine and Nova Scotia.
      St. Brennan returned to Ireland and died at age 92
    • First (?) European transatlantic colonizers
      Norse or Vikings
      From Norway, via Iceland and Greenland to Newfoundland
      L'Anse aux meadows
    • Some traditions recalled dreams, premonitions, and prophecies that foretold the coming of powerful strangers
    • Europe’s Expansion
    • Reconquista
      Beginning in 711
      Catholics began an attempt to retake Spain from the Muslims (Moors)
      Finally completed in 1492 with the marriage of
      Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille
    • 1400 Venice dominated the trade of the Eastern Mediterranean.
    • Plague hit Europe in in mid 14th century
      Black Death
      Changed structure of society
      1/3rd population dead
      Result
    • More food for those still alive
      Survivors inherit property
      Peasants began to move around
      15th century a dangerous place
      Big challenges lead to some taking big risks
    • Genoese and Florentines looked west
      Brought sailing know-how, mercantile instincts, and banking practices to cities of Spain and Portugal.
      The commercial community of fifteenth century Lisbon hoped they could find a way to outflank Muslims and Venetians,
      i.e. those who still held the keys to the doors of African gold and Asian Luxury goods
    • Portugal
      Worked with Spain on the Reconquista
      1415 Portuguese forces conquered Ceuta, the Muslim bastion at the mouth of the strait of Gibraltar that blocked Portugal's access to the Atlantic coast of Africa
      Ideal of Reconquista allowed for expansion into ‘heathen’ lands
    • Prince Henry the Navigator, son of the Portuguese King
      from 1415 until death in 1460 acted as an important conduit for bringing together technology, money, and prestige
      pushed for greater expansion down Africa’s coast
      New ship design the caraval allowed them to take advantage of winds and tacking against the winds
      It was sturdier and larger than earlier European sea going ships
      • Portugese came first to the Canary Islands
      • Appealing because of their inhabitants
      • The Guanche
      • had livestock, which could supply hides, tallow, and wool,
      • early visitors found they could extract orchil, a valued purple dye, from Lichens found on the island.
      But the Guanche themselves made colonization of the Island difficult
    • After the Canary Islands were taken Portuguese moved on to Madeira
      Planted Cane Sugar
      Like all planters Madeira’s new landlords wanted workers that were
      plentiful,
      robust,
      long lived
      inexpensive.
    • First, they brought to the islands a few Jews and Moors who still resided in Portugal
      Many more Madeiran slaves were Guanche, however, captured during the most aggressive period of warfare in the Canaries.
      Also Africans enslaved by Portuguese explorers from the African coast.
    • Cane took root in Madeira’s fertile soils
      Owned and managed by Europeans with social as well as economic aspirations
      Worked by men and women totally denied such aspirations
    • This mechanism developed into
      European dominance
      plantation agriculture
      and a slave system to support both
      This system fell into gear with a loud clunk that would echo on every continent bordering the ocean
    • Despite success of Portuguese exploring eastern Atlantic
      Spain first country to head west looking for the east
    • Christopher Columbus
      Background
      Born sane year as Isabella 1451
      Genoa
      Freelance Sailor
      Father raised in household of Prince Henry the Navigator
      Sailed to central Africa
      Convinced Asia was 2,500 miles to west
      (actually 11,000)
    • Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
      1469 Unified Kingdom of Spain
      1492Defeated Moors at Grenada
      Ends Islamic presence in Spain
      Sponsor Columbus
      Tried to persuade
      Portugal
      England
      France
      Spain
      To let him sail West to China
    • Columbus’s First Voyage, 1492
    • Niña, Pinta, Santa María
      San Salvador (Watling’s Island)
      Tainos (Arawaks) & Caribs
      Cuba & Hispaniola
    • Claimed land in name of Spain
      Called locals “Indians”
      Actually Taino’s (good - noble)
      No religion
      Actually worshipped Zemis- Ancestral Spirits
    • The people of these lands do not understand me nor do I, nor anyone else that I have with me [understand] them. And many times I understand one thing said by theses Indians . . . For another, its contrary
      Columbus talking about Taino
    • The world before Columbus
    • Cabinets of curiosity,
      Intellectuals and modern/ changing world
    • The unknown adventurer
      June 24, 1497
      John Cabot stepped onto North American soil
      Claimed the land for Henry VII and England
    • Spain major player in Americas in 16th C
    • Major impact on Europe appears to be and was the wealth
      Another important aspect
      Continued exploitation of local population
    • Limited number of migrants to the Spanish New World
      From 1492 – 1592 approx 225,000
      Still only 1-2% of population
      The majority of people to move to “New Spain” were male
      1 women in twenty in 1519
      To 1 women in three 1589
    • Leads to intermarriage
      Very few women to keep the Spanish bloodlines “pure”
      Limpieza de Sangre – clean blood
      All people categorized and assigned a fixed position in New Spain
    • After Columbus’s voyage
      And increasing Spanish presence in European activities
      Others begin to follow
      But first I want to stay with Spain as they headed north
    • Principal Spanish Explorations of North America
    • Juan de Ponce de Leon Florida 1521 Killed by Calusa Indians
      Lucas Vázquez de Ayellón 1521 explores Atlantic coast north of Florida – 1526 set up a short lived colony in Georgia
      1528 Pánfilo de Narváez surveyed Gulf coast – ended in shipwreck
      Cabeca De Vaca
      Spain in North America
    • 1539 Hernando de Soto
      ex conquistador from Peru spent three vicious years in southeast then died in 1542 buried in the Mississippi
      Francisco Vásquez de Coranado
      southwest and great plains in 1540 looking for the fabulous wealth of the seven cities of Cíbola
      1542 turned back
      Juan Rodríguiz Cabrillo
      1542 along the coast of California died on Santa Catalina Island off coast from LA.
      Men sailed on to Oregon before storm turned them back
    • 1565 French begin to show interest in North America
      Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founds St Augustine in Florida,
      by 1600 population of about 500
    • Second region of Spanish settlement
      Southwest
      1598 Juan de Oñate received Kings permission for settlement on Rio Grande
      Hoped to find mines
      Farming and ranching also drew Spaniards into the region
    • Oñate never found the vast wealth he wanted
      1605 the viceroy in Mexico City recommended that Spanish withdraw from region
      Isolation
      Distance from centre
      Made New Mexico to expensive
      Especially with Peru’s Silver and Mexico’s gold
    • Franciscan priests intervened
      Oñate didn’t find gold
      Priests found souls
      Told crown either
      we stay or you will have to move thousands of converts
      1608 Crown gave New Mexico reprieve
      As it did to Spanish Florida
      New Mexico changed from a proprietary colony to a crown colony
    • Early French Explorers
      Giovanni da Verrazano
      explored Atlantic coast from Carolinas to Nova Scotia in 1534
      Jacques Cartier
      explored St. Lawrence Valley between 1534 and 1543
    • Samuel de Champlain led eleven voyages to Canada by 1645
    • Established colony at Acadia (Nova Scotia)
      Founded Quebec in 1608
      Sought friendly relations with Native Americans
      Efforts were made to restrain fur trade in the colony’s population
      Population 3,000 by 1750
      Catholicism only acceptable religion in 1625
    • Important role of Jesuit Missionaries
      Believed the Indians could retain their traditions while still accepting Catholicism
      Concentrated attention on five confederated Huron nations
      Mastered Indian languages and cultures
      Only Europeans who measured up to Indian standards of bravery
    • ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.
      New France and the Jesuit Missions
    • VideoBlack Robe
      Churchlost ground around 1640s
      especially after the crown assumed control of New France after 1663
    • New France Under Louis XIV
      Tried to transform colony into model absolutist society
      Frenchmen also settled in the Caribbean
      Founded sugar colonies on
      Saint-Domingue,
      Guadeloupe
      Martinique