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The Crusades William Page Adam Warren
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The Crusades William Page Adam Warren


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  • 1. The Crusades William Page Adam Warren
  • 2. The Crusading Legacy Major Players Major Battles Organizations Reasons for Joining Routes Causes
  • 3. Causes
  • 4. Feudalism
    • Growing class of landless knights made up of second sons, mercenaries, and disinherited nobles.
    • Higher nobility could more easily fund armor, weapons, and transportation due to developments in agricultural technology.
  • 5.
    • Occupied Jerusalem since 1073
    • Stopped allowing Christians to make pilgrimage to the Holy City
    • Threatening Byzantine Empire
    The Seljuq Turks
  • 6. Emperor Alexius I Komnenus
    • Seljuq Turks had taken much of Asia Minor, and were threatening Constantinople.
    • Sent a letter to Pope Urban II, asking for assistance from Europe.
      • Promised to place Byzantine church under Roman authority.
  • 7. Urban II’s Speech At Clermont
    • 1095: Urban II receives letter from Alexius I
      • Preaches a Sermon at Clermont calling for liberation of the Holy Land
      • Crowd replies with a cry of “ Deus le vult ” (God Wills It!)
  • 8. Reasons for Joining
  • 9. Land
      • Gave landless knights an opportunity to gain land and wealth and establish themselves as nobles in new Latin kingdoms in the Holy Land.
  • 10. Wealth
    • The Muslim world was the medieval center of trade and wealth.
    • Rumored to be overflowing with wealth, the Crusaders expected to return to Europe rich, by plundering the treasuries of centuries old Muslim mosques and Orthodox churches.
  • 11. Penance
    • For a Christian to exit Purgatory and get to Heaven they had to perform some form of penance .
    • The Medieval clergy told Christians that if they went on Crusader their sins would be forgiven, and they could obtain absolution for themselves as well as their families.
  • 12. Christian Fervor
    • Pope Urban II’s disclosure that Muslims controlled Christianity’s most holy place, Jerusalem, made European Christians itch to take the city.
    • Christians were angry because the Turks had refused to let Christian pilgrims enter the city.
  • 13. Routes to the Holy Land
  • 14. The World of Islam
    • The various Islamic empires stretched from Spain to modern-day Afghanistan before the Crusades.
  • 15. Europe circa 1095
    • Crusaders came from all lands in Europe, however, the vast majority came from the Frankish kingdoms. (Where Urban preached his original Crusade Sermon)
  • 16. Uncle Urban wants YOU!!!
    • After Urban’s sermon, clergymen traveled around to recruit armies to take up their cross and free the Holy Land from the “infidels.”
    • One of the largest recruiters was Adhemar, Bishop of Le Puy
  • 17. Onward Christian Soldiers
    • Traveled via land through Constantinople
    • Traveled across the Mediterranean through Messina
  • 18. Major Players
  • 19. Muslim Warlords
    • The leaders of the Muslim armies were Kilij Arslan I, Sultan of Rüm, and later, Kerbogha, Atabeg (Governor) of Mosul.
    • The Fatamid Muslims of Egypt and North Africa (Shi’ites) were ruled by Caliph Ahmad al-Musta’li.
    • Not only were they fighting the Crusaders, but they were also fighting amongst themselves, which led to the Christian victories.
  • 20. Peter the Hermit
    • A priest of Amiens, Peter went around preaching the crusade to the peasantry, to whom he promised wealth, land, absolution, and victory if they marched with him to the Holy Land.
    • Peter and his “Peasant’s Crusade” made it to Nicaea (modern-day Turkey), where Kilij and the Turks utterly decimated the marching serfs.
  • 21. Urban II
    • Urban II, pope from 1088-1099, preached the sermon that started the First Crusade, as well as gave the need for further crusades.
    • He saw much opportunity to expand the power of the papacy in the crusades.
  • 22. Godefroi de Bouillon
    • One of the first nobles to take up the cross at Clermont.
    • Led an army from Lorraine to the Holy Land, numbering 40,000 troops.
    • Godefroi was elected first King of Jerusalem upon the fall of the city in 1099 and ruled until his death in 1100.
    • His brother, Baldwin of Boulogne, succeeded him as King of Jerusalem until 1118.
    Baldwin of Boulogne
  • 23. Bohemond of Taranto
    • Another noble to take up the cross, Bohemond was in effect the true leader of the First Crusade.
    • Upon the Siege and capture of Antioch, Bohemond established himself as Prince.
    • He traveled with his nephew, Tancred de Hauteville, who later became Prince of Galilee.
  • 24. Robert II of Normandy
    • Also known as Robert Curthose, for his short, squat appearance.
    • The son of William the Conqueror, Robert gave up his claim to the Duchy of Normandy to his brothers, William Rufus and Henry I of England in order to pay for his funds to go on the crusade in 1096.
    • Robert led troops throughout the battles of the Crusades, most notably at the Siege of Jerusalem.
  • 25. Raymond IV of St. Gilles
    • Count of Toulouse, Raymond IV was one of the very first to take the cross to the Holy Land.
    • Raymond IV marched along with the papal legate Adhemar of Le Puy.
    • Very religious, Raymond’s goal was to die on pilgrimage and he did die in the Holy Land in 1105.
  • 26. Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy
    • Following Urban II’s original call for a crusade at Clermont, many priests throughout Europe began to preach the crusading ideal. One of the most important was Adhemar.
    • Urban II elected Adhemar as the papal legate (representative) of the First Crusade.
      • Adhemar was not only on the crusade, but he was often to be found in the front lines of battle.
  • 27. Organizations
  • 28. Templars and Hospitallers
  • 29. The Knights Templar
    • The Poor Fellow Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, or the Knights Templar for short, were founded in 1096 by Hughes de Payens.
    • They took oaths of poverty, obedience, and chastity, and defended the Holy Land for Christians on pilgrimage.
  • 30. The Knights Hospitaller
    • The Knights of the Hospital of St. John, or the Knights Hospitaller were founded in 1113 by Blessed Gerard.
    • Their primary task was to provide medical services to Christians in the Holy Land.
  • 31. The Latin Kingdoms
    • During and after the First Crusade, the Latin, or Crusader, kingdoms were established.
    • Four Kingdoms set up in the same feudal style as Europe entered the Holy Land
      • Kingdom of Jerusalem
      • Principality of Edessa
      • Principality of Antioch
      • County of Tripoli
  • 32. Major Battles
  • 33. The Siege of Nicaea
    • The siege and capture of Nicaea took place from May 14 - June 19, 1097.
    • Nicaea was a Byzantine city under Turkish control since 1077.
    • During the siege, the Turks inside the city called for help from Kilij Arslan. The Sultan of R ü m arrived but was defeated by the Crusaders.
    • Once the Crusaders had claimed the city, the Byzantines took possession of it.
  • 34. Battle of Dorylauem (click for re-enactment)
    • Following the Siege of Nicaea, the Crusaders moved on towards Antioch.
    • En route, Bohemond’s force (ahead of the main army) was attacked by Turks under Kilij Arslan.
    • The timely arrival of the forces under Godefroi, Raymond, and Robert, as well as European heavy cavalry, allowed the Crusaders to crush Kilij’s lightly-armed Seljuqs.
  • 35. Click the mouse to activate each phase of the battle. Kilij Godefroi Raymond Robert Bohemond
  • 36. Battle of Dorylauem (click for re-enactment)
    • Following the Siege of Nicaea, the Crusaders moved on towards Antioch.
    • En route, Bohemond’s force (ahead of the main army) was attacked by Turks under Kilij Arslan.
    • The timely arrival of the forces under Godefroi, Raymond, and Robert, as well as European heavy cavalry, allowed the Crusaders to crush Kilij’s lightly-armed Seljuqs.
  • 37. The Siege of Antioch (click for video clip)
    • The Crusader siege of Antioch lasted from October 21, 1097 to June 2, 1098. The Crusaders had it about as bad as the people inside the city. Lack of water and food caused many Christian soldiers to desert.
    • The Crusaders took the city by trickery.
      • Bohemond of Taranto made a deal with an Armenian Christian inside Antioch.
      • One night the Armenian let down a ladder and let the Crusaders in.
    • After they took the city, Kerbogha arrived to besiege the Crusaders.
    • The Crusaders sallied out of the castle to challenge the Muslims.
    • On June 28, 1098 the Crusaders, with the Holy Lance (a Christian relic found in the city) before them, defeated Kerbogha.
  • 38. The Siege of Jerusalem (click to see a battle map)
    • The Crusaders arrived in Jerusalem on May 7, 1099 and began their siege.
    • An army of 7,000 crusading knights attacked Jerusalem and by the end of the siege, only 1,500 remained.
    • Jerusalem was taken by the Crusading army on July 15, 1099. Upon entering the city, the Europeans slaughtered everyone inside (Muslim, Jew, and Christian alike).
  • 39.  
  • 40.
    • After the First Crusade, there were several more CRUSADES that resulted in little or no success for the Christians.
    • In 1291, the last remaining Crusader city of Acre fell to the Mameluks (the Muslim slave army) under Sultan Qalawun.
    • To this day, peace remains elusive in the Middle East.
    The Legacy of the Crusades
  • 41. Later Crusades
    • Second Crusade (1144-1150)
    • Third Crusade (1189-1192)
    • Fourth Crusade (1201-1204)
    • Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229)
    • Children’s Crusade (1212)
    • Fifth Crusade (1217-1221)
    • Sixth Crusade (1228-1229)
    • Seventh Crusade (1248-1254)
    • Shepherd’s Crusade (1251 and 1320)
    • Eighth Crusade (1270)
    • Ninth Crusade (1260-1272)
    • Northern Crusades (1193-1500s)
    • Spanish Reconquista (718-1492)