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  • 1. Medieval Europe
    Chapter 8 & 9
  • 2. Western Europe
    Small area on the western end of Eurasia
    A frontier – sparsely populated, undeveloped area on the outskirts of civilization
    Untapped potential
    Dense forests, fertile land, rich mineral resources, and many rivers/ seas for travel, trade, and power
  • 3. Early Medieval Europe(The Middle Ages/Dark Ages)5th to 12th Century
    Fall of the Western Roman Empire (A.D. 476)
    Germanic tribes form independent kingdoms
    Time of violence, illiteracy, isolation
    Majority of population is poor and uneducated
    Little/no trade
    Decrease in population
    – warfare, raids, disease
    Christianity – single unifying force
    A blend of Greco-Roman, Germanic,
    and Christian Traditions
  • 4. The Franks
    Merowig – Unites the Frank’s  warrior society
    Clovis (486) – Conquers and unites Gaul
    Preserves Roman customs
    converts to Christianity
    Hereditary rule land divided among son’s
    Charles “The Hammer” Martel
    Defeats invading Muslims at Battle of Tours (732)
    Pepin ‘The Short” – reunites Gaul
    Fights for Pope driving Lombards out of Rome (754)
    Anointed “Protector of the Church” by Pope
  • 5. The Age of Charlemagne
    Charles the Great – Carlos Magnus
    Father of Europe – Reunites much of Europe for a brief time
    Frankish Empire – Aachen (Capital) time of war
    Bureaucracy counties/counts, missi dominici
    Improves education and economy
    Missionaries
    Crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope
    Christmas Day 800
    Dies in 814
    Treaty of Verdun (843)
  • 6. Time of InvasionsA. D. 800 - 1000
    Threats from the Muslims (south), Slavs (east), Magyars (east), and Vikings (North)
    Vikings most dangerous and biggest threat to safety
    Effects Europeans way of life - raid and loot towns (brutal)
    Warrior society
    Great seafarers – explore new lands and begin to trade
    Long boats – sail up stream and in open waters
  • 7. Vikings effect on Europe
    Increase isolation, decrease in unity
    Decrease power of central government
    Increase power of nobles
    Increase dependency on agriculture
    Decrease in trade
    Little or no interdependence
    Decrease in education/literacy
    Development of Feudalism and Manorialism
  • 8. Feudalism
  • 9. Feudalismloosely organized system of rule in which powerful local Lords pledge service and loyalty to a greater Lord
    A political system with a weak central government based on a hierarchy (decentralized)
    An alliance of mutual protection between the king and his nobles (Lords) is formed
    Vassal – lower lord serving a greater lord
    1st developed by Charles Martel but takes hold in Europe in the 900’s
    Knights (Cavalry) given land in exchange for loyalty
    Training - page/squire
    Tournaments
    Chivalry
  • 10. The Feudal Contracta complex system of obligations and benefits
    An agreement between a Lord and his Vassal
    The Lord provides the Vassal with a fief
    The Vassal gives homage
    Vassal creates a Manor
    The higher Lord has very little power or influence
    Local Lord must provide an army, serve on the royal court, provide shelter/education, and pay taxes to the higher Lord
    Local Lord (vassal)
    Raise private army, set up local court, create local laws and currency
    Noblewoman (Lady of the Manor) –active role running estate
  • 11.
  • 12. The Manor
    The Lord’s estate
    The heart of the Medieval economy
    Based on agricultural production (self sufficient)
    Includes the castle, church, town(s), farms, gazing land, and river(s)
    Manoralism – links Lord and serfs together by mutual obligations
  • 13. The Manor System
    Based on agricultural production
    Self sufficient - Subsistent
    Use of barter system
    Serfs – peasants tied to the land responsible for agricultural production/laborers
    Pay fees for certain rights
    Able to produce for self (very little)
    Lord provides shelter and protection
    Harsh life no luxuries
    Church provides salvation
    festivals only time of rest/enjoyment
    Inefficient – wooden plow, ox yoke, 2-field system
  • 14. The Medieval Church
    Village Church – Parish Priest
    Both a religious and social center
    Sacraments leads to salvation
    Tithe tax (10 %)
    Monastic Life
    nuns and monks withdraw from worldly life
    Benedictine Rule (530) – regulates life (harsh)
    Francis of Assisi and Dominic (friars) – preach to the poor
    Monasteries/convents – centers of learning and social services
    Unifying force in Europe Papal Supremacy
    Patriarchal
    Cannon laws
    Excommunication/interdict
    Corruption, abuses, anti-Semitism
    Cluny Reforms-revive Benedictine Rule, nobles forbidden to interfere with monastery affairs, accept only those perusing religious propose
  • 15. Expansion and Change leads to Economic RevivalA.D. 1000
    Agricultural Production increase in population
    New technology – drain land, iron plow, harness, 3-field system
    Change in Climate
    Trade – diffusion within Europe and with the East
    Decrease in violence – safe to travel
    Desire/need for more goods raw materials/luxury goods
    Fairs  trade route (rivers) – provide goods/entertainment
  • 16. Expansion and Change leads to Economic RevivalA.D. 1000
    Commerce
    Money system (capital) – bill of exchange, insurance, usury
    Growth of middle class – partnerships, guilds
    Growth of Towns – sites of trade fairs
    Trade centers merchants/artisans settle into one area
    Charters right and privileges granted by King
  • 17. The High Middle Ages1050 – 1300’s
    The Rise of Nation-States in Europe
    Monarchies begin to consolidate and strengthen power
    The economy, education, and art begin to flourish
    Cause
    Expansion of royal domain
    Justice system
    Loyal/efficient bureaucracy
    Royal taxes
    Royal army
    Ties with the middle class
    Ties with the church
  • 18. The Growth of Royal Power in Western Europe:strong central governments with organized bureaucracy
    England - united by a limited (Parliamentary) Monarchy
    King Edward – king of England (Anglo-Saxon)
    William, Duke of Normandy
    Battle of Hasting (1066)
    Feudalism
    Domesday book
    Royal Exchanguer
    Henry II – energetic/edu.
    Common Laws/Traveling Justice
    Jury System
    Conflict with Church
    King John – corrupt/poor leader
    Losses to France
    Interdict Fief of Papacy
    Magna Carta (1215)
    Parliament
    France – united by an Absolute Monarchy
    Hugh Capet
    Founder of 300 yr. dynasty
    Consolidates power and forms ties with church
    Philip II (“Augustus”)
    Middle class bureaucracy (charters)
    Royal army/Royal Tax
    Gains land from England (1223)
    Louis IX – devoted & religious
    Crusades
    Royal inspectors
    Outlaws private wars & serfdom
    Philip IV – ruthless
    Clash with the church (successful)
    Avignon Papal Court
    Estate General (1302) – representatives from the 3 classes (no real Power)
  • 19. High Middle Ages
    England
    France
  • 20. The Holy Roman Empire and the Church:Remains Fragmented
    Duke Otto of Saxony – King Of Germany
    Close ties with Rome Crowned Holy Roman Emperor (962)
    Later rulers lose power to nobles (Feudalism)
    Conflicts with church over Cluny Reforms
    Pope Gregory VII - Ends practice of secular leaders appointing Bishops (lay investitures)
    Henry IV – nobles side with church and Henry excommunicated (1076)
    (1122) Concord of Worms
    Fredrick Barbarossa – desire to expand empire (Frankish)
    Defeated by Lombards and Papal forces in Northern Italy
    Fredrick II – attempts to expand (unsuccessful)
  • 21. The World in 1050
    W. Europe – end of Isolation, little technology or education beginning of diffusion (High Middle Ages)
    Byzantine Empire – united and prosperous trade center
    Islamic Civilization – intellectual and scientific advancements united by religion
    India – thriving urbanization united by religion
    China – strong central government(dynastic rule) with great technological advancements
    Africa – kingdoms and trading empires (diffusion)
    Americas (Mayans) – engineering and architectural advances
  • 22. The End of the Middle Ages
    The High Middle Ages can be described as a period of transition between what is known as the “Dark Ages” (Early Middle Ages) and The Renaissance. Four events played a role in ending the Middle Ages. They are:
    The Crusades
    The Black Death
    Papal /Church Corruption
    The Hundred Years War
    Evaluate the events and explain how each changed Europe forever ending the time known as Medieval Europe.
  • 23. The Crusades – Holy WarEuropean Christians attempt to retake Holy Land
    Pope Urban – “God wills it” (1095) Council of Clermont
    Expand Rome’s power
    Reasons for participation
    Religious zeal
    Wealth and land
    Escape/opportunity
    Adventure
  • 24. The Crusades
    1st Crusade (1096)
    dominated by French Nobles
    Recapture Jerusalem and set up Crusader States
    2nd Crusade (1147)
    reestablish lands lost to Muslims
    Unsuccessful
    3rd Crusade (1187)
    King’s Crusade
    Saladin takes Jerusalem
    4th Crusade (1202)
    No religious goal
    Lay siege and loot Constantinople
  • 25. Effects of the Crusades on Europe
    Religious Schism between East and West
    Rise in Anti-Semitism and Inquisition
    Decline in Feudalism
    Rise in Monarchy and Papal power
    The Reconquista in Spain
    Muslim Rule (A.D. 700’s) – Religious tolerance
    Ferdinand & Isabella unite Spain as a Christian Kingdom (1492)
    Diffusion with East - Venetian Merchants
    technology/education
    Increase in luxury goods
    Increase in long distance trade
    Exploration
  • 26. Trade Routes
  • 27. Learning, Literature, & the Arts during the High Middle Ages
    1100’s – dynamic changes take place
    Political Stability
    Economic Prosperity (Trade routes/towns)
    Agricultural Revolution
    A need for better Education
    Universities
    Academic Guilds
    Rediscover Greco-Roman Culture
    Scholasticism
    Sciences
    Literature – Latin language of the Scholars
    Vernacular
    Arts and Architecture
    Romanesque vs. Gothic
    Flying buttresses, sculptures, and stain glass windows
    Illuminated Manuscripts
  • 28. The End of the Middle AgesA Time of Crisis
    The Black Death – bubonic plague (1348)
    Arrives from the east carried by fleas on rats travelling on merchant ships
    Epidemic – 1/3 of the European population dies
    Social upheaval – no explanation, no cure
    Turn to witchcraft, pleasures, or the church
    Viewed as a punishment from God
    Normal life breaks down
    Economic Effects – loss of workers decrease in production
    Survivors demand higher pay  inflation
    Restrictions on land, guilds  revolts
    The Church – division of the church
    Loss of leadership (plague) no answers
    Pope Clement V – moves papal court to Avignon (Fra.) ”Babylonian Captivity”
    1378  Pope elected in Rome (two popes)
    Challenges to canon law
    John Wycliffe Bible is source of Christian Truth
    Jan Has – calls for reforms
    The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)
    Series of conflicts b/t England and France
    Political/economical rivals
    National pride
    England’s desire for land on the continent
    Edward III – claims French Crown
    War erupts
    Early English victories – longbow
    Joan of Arc – French victories
    Rallies France-raises morale
    Martyr
    The Cannon
    The Feudal System become obsolete