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Medieval Europe
 

Medieval Europe

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    Medieval Europe Medieval Europe Presentation Transcript

    • Medieval Europe
      Chapter 8 & 9
    • Western Europe
      Small area on the western end of Eurasia
      A frontier – sparsely populated, undeveloped area on the outskirts of civilization
      Untapped potential
      Dense forests, fertile land, rich mineral resources, and many rivers/ seas for travel, trade, and power
    • Early Medieval Europe(The Middle Ages/Dark Ages)5th to 12th Century
      Fall of the Western Roman Empire (A.D. 476)
      Germanic tribes form independent kingdoms
      Time of violence, illiteracy, isolation
      Majority of population is poor and uneducated
      Little/no trade
      Decrease in population
      – warfare, raids, disease
      Christianity – single unifying force
      A blend of Greco-Roman, Germanic,
      and Christian Traditions
    • The Franks
      Merowig – Unites the Frank’s  warrior society
      Clovis (486) – Conquers and unites Gaul
      Preserves Roman customs
      converts to Christianity
      Hereditary rule land divided among son’s
      Charles “The Hammer” Martel
      Defeats invading Muslims at Battle of Tours (732)
      Pepin ‘The Short” – reunites Gaul
      Fights for Pope driving Lombards out of Rome (754)
      Anointed “Protector of the Church” by Pope
    • The Age of Charlemagne
      Charles the Great – Carlos Magnus
      Father of Europe – Reunites much of Europe for a brief time
      Frankish Empire – Aachen (Capital) time of war
      Bureaucracy counties/counts, missi dominici
      Improves education and economy
      Missionaries
      Crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope
      Christmas Day 800
      Dies in 814
      Treaty of Verdun (843)
    • Time of InvasionsA. D. 800 - 1000
      Threats from the Muslims (south), Slavs (east), Magyars (east), and Vikings (North)
      Vikings most dangerous and biggest threat to safety
      Effects Europeans way of life - raid and loot towns (brutal)
      Warrior society
      Great seafarers – explore new lands and begin to trade
      Long boats – sail up stream and in open waters
    • Vikings effect on Europe
      Increase isolation, decrease in unity
      Decrease power of central government
      Increase power of nobles
      Increase dependency on agriculture
      Decrease in trade
      Little or no interdependence
      Decrease in education/literacy
      Development of Feudalism and Manorialism
    • Feudalism
    • Feudalismloosely organized system of rule in which powerful local Lords pledge service and loyalty to a greater Lord
      A political system with a weak central government based on a hierarchy (decentralized)
      An alliance of mutual protection between the king and his nobles (Lords) is formed
      Vassal – lower lord serving a greater lord
      1st developed by Charles Martel but takes hold in Europe in the 900’s
      Knights (Cavalry) given land in exchange for loyalty
      Training - page/squire
      Tournaments
      Chivalry
    • The Feudal Contracta complex system of obligations and benefits
      An agreement between a Lord and his Vassal
      The Lord provides the Vassal with a fief
      The Vassal gives homage
      Vassal creates a Manor
      The higher Lord has very little power or influence
      Local Lord must provide an army, serve on the royal court, provide shelter/education, and pay taxes to the higher Lord
      Local Lord (vassal)
      Raise private army, set up local court, create local laws and currency
      Noblewoman (Lady of the Manor) –active role running estate
    • The Manor
      The Lord’s estate
      The heart of the Medieval economy
      Based on agricultural production (self sufficient)
      Includes the castle, church, town(s), farms, gazing land, and river(s)
      Manoralism – links Lord and serfs together by mutual obligations
    • The Manor System
      Based on agricultural production
      Self sufficient - Subsistent
      Use of barter system
      Serfs – peasants tied to the land responsible for agricultural production/laborers
      Pay fees for certain rights
      Able to produce for self (very little)
      Lord provides shelter and protection
      Harsh life no luxuries
      Church provides salvation
      festivals only time of rest/enjoyment
      Inefficient – wooden plow, ox yoke, 2-field system
    • The Medieval Church
      Village Church – Parish Priest
      Both a religious and social center
      Sacraments leads to salvation
      Tithe tax (10 %)
      Monastic Life
      nuns and monks withdraw from worldly life
      Benedictine Rule (530) – regulates life (harsh)
      Francis of Assisi and Dominic (friars) – preach to the poor
      Monasteries/convents – centers of learning and social services
      Unifying force in Europe Papal Supremacy
      Patriarchal
      Cannon laws
      Excommunication/interdict
      Corruption, abuses, anti-Semitism
      Cluny Reforms-revive Benedictine Rule, nobles forbidden to interfere with monastery affairs, accept only those perusing religious propose
    • Expansion and Change leads to Economic RevivalA.D. 1000
      Agricultural Production increase in population
      New technology – drain land, iron plow, harness, 3-field system
      Change in Climate
      Trade – diffusion within Europe and with the East
      Decrease in violence – safe to travel
      Desire/need for more goods raw materials/luxury goods
      Fairs  trade route (rivers) – provide goods/entertainment
    • Expansion and Change leads to Economic RevivalA.D. 1000
      Commerce
      Money system (capital) – bill of exchange, insurance, usury
      Growth of middle class – partnerships, guilds
      Growth of Towns – sites of trade fairs
      Trade centers merchants/artisans settle into one area
      Charters right and privileges granted by King
    • The High Middle Ages1050 – 1300’s
      The Rise of Nation-States in Europe
      Monarchies begin to consolidate and strengthen power
      The economy, education, and art begin to flourish
      Cause
      Expansion of royal domain
      Justice system
      Loyal/efficient bureaucracy
      Royal taxes
      Royal army
      Ties with the middle class
      Ties with the church
    • The Growth of Royal Power in Western Europe:strong central governments with organized bureaucracy
      England - united by a limited (Parliamentary) Monarchy
      King Edward – king of England (Anglo-Saxon)
      William, Duke of Normandy
      Battle of Hasting (1066)
      Feudalism
      Domesday book
      Royal Exchanguer
      Henry II – energetic/edu.
      Common Laws/Traveling Justice
      Jury System
      Conflict with Church
      King John – corrupt/poor leader
      Losses to France
      Interdict Fief of Papacy
      Magna Carta (1215)
      Parliament
      France – united by an Absolute Monarchy
      Hugh Capet
      Founder of 300 yr. dynasty
      Consolidates power and forms ties with church
      Philip II (“Augustus”)
      Middle class bureaucracy (charters)
      Royal army/Royal Tax
      Gains land from England (1223)
      Louis IX – devoted & religious
      Crusades
      Royal inspectors
      Outlaws private wars & serfdom
      Philip IV – ruthless
      Clash with the church (successful)
      Avignon Papal Court
      Estate General (1302) – representatives from the 3 classes (no real Power)
    • High Middle Ages
      England
      France
    • The Holy Roman Empire and the Church:Remains Fragmented
      Duke Otto of Saxony – King Of Germany
      Close ties with Rome Crowned Holy Roman Emperor (962)
      Later rulers lose power to nobles (Feudalism)
      Conflicts with church over Cluny Reforms
      Pope Gregory VII - Ends practice of secular leaders appointing Bishops (lay investitures)
      Henry IV – nobles side with church and Henry excommunicated (1076)
      (1122) Concord of Worms
      Fredrick Barbarossa – desire to expand empire (Frankish)
      Defeated by Lombards and Papal forces in Northern Italy
      Fredrick II – attempts to expand (unsuccessful)
    • The World in 1050
      W. Europe – end of Isolation, little technology or education beginning of diffusion (High Middle Ages)
      Byzantine Empire – united and prosperous trade center
      Islamic Civilization – intellectual and scientific advancements united by religion
      India – thriving urbanization united by religion
      China – strong central government(dynastic rule) with great technological advancements
      Africa – kingdoms and trading empires (diffusion)
      Americas (Mayans) – engineering and architectural advances
    • The End of the Middle Ages
      The High Middle Ages can be described as a period of transition between what is known as the “Dark Ages” (Early Middle Ages) and The Renaissance. Four events played a role in ending the Middle Ages. They are:
      The Crusades
      The Black Death
      Papal /Church Corruption
      The Hundred Years War
      Evaluate the events and explain how each changed Europe forever ending the time known as Medieval Europe.
    • The Crusades – Holy WarEuropean Christians attempt to retake Holy Land
      Pope Urban – “God wills it” (1095) Council of Clermont
      Expand Rome’s power
      Reasons for participation
      Religious zeal
      Wealth and land
      Escape/opportunity
      Adventure
    • The Crusades
      1st Crusade (1096)
      dominated by French Nobles
      Recapture Jerusalem and set up Crusader States
      2nd Crusade (1147)
      reestablish lands lost to Muslims
      Unsuccessful
      3rd Crusade (1187)
      King’s Crusade
      Saladin takes Jerusalem
      4th Crusade (1202)
      No religious goal
      Lay siege and loot Constantinople
    • Effects of the Crusades on Europe
      Religious Schism between East and West
      Rise in Anti-Semitism and Inquisition
      Decline in Feudalism
      Rise in Monarchy and Papal power
      The Reconquista in Spain
      Muslim Rule (A.D. 700’s) – Religious tolerance
      Ferdinand & Isabella unite Spain as a Christian Kingdom (1492)
      Diffusion with East - Venetian Merchants
      technology/education
      Increase in luxury goods
      Increase in long distance trade
      Exploration
    • Trade Routes
    • Learning, Literature, & the Arts during the High Middle Ages
      1100’s – dynamic changes take place
      Political Stability
      Economic Prosperity (Trade routes/towns)
      Agricultural Revolution
      A need for better Education
      Universities
      Academic Guilds
      Rediscover Greco-Roman Culture
      Scholasticism
      Sciences
      Literature – Latin language of the Scholars
      Vernacular
      Arts and Architecture
      Romanesque vs. Gothic
      Flying buttresses, sculptures, and stain glass windows
      Illuminated Manuscripts
    • The End of the Middle AgesA Time of Crisis
      The Black Death – bubonic plague (1348)
      Arrives from the east carried by fleas on rats travelling on merchant ships
      Epidemic – 1/3 of the European population dies
      Social upheaval – no explanation, no cure
      Turn to witchcraft, pleasures, or the church
      Viewed as a punishment from God
      Normal life breaks down
      Economic Effects – loss of workers decrease in production
      Survivors demand higher pay  inflation
      Restrictions on land, guilds  revolts
      The Church – division of the church
      Loss of leadership (plague) no answers
      Pope Clement V – moves papal court to Avignon (Fra.) ”Babylonian Captivity”
      1378  Pope elected in Rome (two popes)
      Challenges to canon law
      John Wycliffe Bible is source of Christian Truth
      Jan Has – calls for reforms
      The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)
      Series of conflicts b/t England and France
      Political/economical rivals
      National pride
      England’s desire for land on the continent
      Edward III – claims French Crown
      War erupts
      Early English victories – longbow
      Joan of Arc – French victories
      Rallies France-raises morale
      Martyr
      The Cannon
      The Feudal System become obsolete