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Information Systems: Creating Business Value


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  • 1. Information Systems: Creating Business Value by Mark Huber, Craig Piercy, and Patrick McKeown Field Guide C: The Details of Networking
  • 2. What We Will Cover:
    • Network Architecture
    • Network Layer Model
    • Local Area Networks
    • The Internet: A Network of Networks
    • The World Wide Web
  • 3. Student ROI (Return on Investment)
    • Your investment of time and effort in this course will result in your being able to answer these questions:
    • What is the client/server architecture, and how does it work?
    • How does the network layer model describe a wide area network?
    • How are local area networks configured?
    • How does the Internet work?
    • What makes the World Wide Web valuable to knowledge workers?
  • 4. Client/Server Computing
    • The most common network architecture is the client/server architecture. 1
    1 R. T. Watson, Organizational Memory, 5 th ed. (New York: John Wiley, 2006, p. 360
  • 5. Client/Server
    • Processing is shared among multiple small computers known as clients that are connected via a network to a host computer known as a server .
    • Clients - typically PCs, a type of high-powered small computer built for specialized applications called a workstation , or a network computer.
    • Server - typically dedicated to a specific type of processing, such as providing files with a file server, responding to database queries with a database server, or handling high-speed processing with an application server.
    • Because both the client and the server are capable of processing, processing is shared between the two computers depending on the capability of each.
  • 6. Three-Tiered Architecture
  • 7. Types of Servers Sends and receives faxes for entire organization Fax Sends and receives e-mail for entire organization Mail Handles requests for Web pages Web Handles high speed processing Application Handles queries to a large database and returns matching records Database Provides both software and data files to users File Purpose Server Type
  • 8. Servers on a Network
  • 9. Client/Server Advantages and Disadvantages Loss of client does not stop other clients from accessing server Upgrading system can be done in small steps System upgrades require that all clients and servers be upgraded regardless of location Servers can be specialized to one particular type of task Programming relationship between clients and servers is more complex Computing burden can be shared among servers and clients Disadvantages Advantages
  • 10. Peer-to-Peer Networks
    • It is possible to set up a peer-to-peer network, where each computer in the network is on the same level as other computers, and each computer is equally responsible for overseeing the functions of the network.
    • Any two computers in a peer-to-peer network may communicate directly with one another, or they may communicate through intermediate peer computers.
    • Peer-to-peer networks may be easier to setup, but are not as efficient as client/server networks.
  • 11. Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks
  • 12. 3 Software Layers on the Computer
    • Computer
    • Operating System / Environment
    • Applications
    • You
  • 13. Black Boxes and Layers Applications Operating System/ Environment Hardware 3-Layer Model Applications Redirector OS Network OS Local H/W Network H/W 4-Layer Model
  • 14. Network Layer Model
  • 15. Network Standard: OSI Architecture Application Layer: User software (e.g. spreadsheet). Presentation Layer: Operating system functionality. Session Layer: Connection between user & network (e.g. logins). Transport Layer: Find best path for transmission. Network Layer: Routing (to which host, etc.) Data Link Layer: Error checking (parity, etc). Physical Layer: Packets on the media (T/P, Fiber, etc). Seven OSI Layers
  • 16. The Internet’s TCP/IP Standard Application or Process Layer Internet Protocol (IP) Host-to-Host Transport Layer Network Interface Physical Layer Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer OSI Model
  • 17. Application Software Layer
    • Application software is the software on each computer on the network that the user sees and uses to send and receive messages and data between computers.
      • Web browsers, e- mail, etc.
    • Application layer protocols: simple mail transfer protocol ( SMTP ) for e-mail, hypertext transfer protocol ( HTTP ), Electronic data interchange ( EDI )
    • The message may also be encrypted .
  • 18. Network Connection Layer
    • The message from the application software layer is formatted according to whatever protocol will actually be used to send it over the network.
    • Commonly used protocols:
      • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).
      • Ansi X 12 or EDIFACT for EDI.
  • 19. Converting Data into Packets
    • IP Address – a unique identifier given to each device directly connected to the network.
    • Consists of four groups of numbers in the range 0 to 255 separated by periods or decimal points.
    • The message is divided into smaller digital units called packets, each of which contains a specific number of bytes.
  • 20. Packet Switching
    • The physical layer sends packets over telephone lines, or other media, using packet switching.
    • Packet switching - individual packets are routed through the network based on the destination address contained in each packet. With packet switching, the same data path can be shared among many computers in the network, and if a computer on the network is inoperable, the packet finds another way to reach its destination.
    • A router is a special type of computer that has the sole purpose of accepting packets and determining the best way to send them to the destination computer--that is, the router specializes in switching the packets.
    • The sequence order allows the receiving computer to reconstruct the message.
  • 21. Sending Data Between Computers on the Internet
  • 22. Data Components Layer
    • Twisted pair - consists of twisted pairs of copper wires and is similar to the wiring used in much of the existing telephone system.
    • Coaxial cable - used to transmit cable television signals into your home. It is also widely used in networks.
    • Fiber optic cable - consists of hundreds of glass fiber strands that can transmit a large number of signals at extremely high rates of speed.
    • Microwaves - high-frequency radio transmissions that can be sent between two stations
    • Wireless – several technologies that allow data to be transmitted without wires
  • 23. Copper Wire Compared to Fiber Optics
  • 24. Data Component Media 2 2 Source: Jerry Fitzgerald and Alan Dennis, Business Data Communications and Networking , 8th ed., p. 85, New York: John Wiley, 2005. Moderate Low- Moderate Moderate Satellite Moderate Low- Moderate Moderate Microwave Low Moderate Low Infrared Low Moderate Low Radio High - very High Very Low High Fiber Optics Low-high Low Moderate Coaxial Cable Low-high Low Low Twisted Pair Speed Error Rates Cost Media
  • 25. Data Rate and Bandwidth Issues
    • The data rate is measured in bits per second (bps).
    • A digital subscriber line (DSL) transmits computer data in a digital form along the same telephone line that is used for analog voice communications.
    • T-carrier circuits are dedicated digital lines that are leased from a telecommunications company to carry data between specific points.
    • The term bandwidth is often used in relationship to data rate and is a measure of how fast data flows on a transmission path.
      • Baseband - only a single digital signal is carried through the media.
      • Broadband - variety of different analog signals are being transmitted.
  • 26. Baseband Compared to Broadband
  • 27. Maximum Data Rates Leased lines used for commercial telecommunication 1.544 Mbps - 274 Mbps T-1 to T-4 Cable must support two-way communication; available in many locations but slows down as more people use it in a specific location As high as 55 Mbps but averages between 200 Kbps and 2 Mbps Cable Becoming more available. Does not slow down as more people sign up. 6 Mbps in; 640 Kbps out Digital Subscriber line (DSL) Available everywhere 56 Kbps Standard telephone service Comments Maximum Data Rate Transmission Method
  • 28. Local Area Networks
    • Local Area Networks (LAN) – a network connected over a small geographic area. LANs are popular for
      • Sharing information
      • Sharing resources
      • Sharing software
      • Sharing hardware
    • Most LANs are client/server networks
    • LANs can also be implemented through peer-to-peer networks
  • 29. LAN Terminology
    • Ethernet protocol – technology standards for connecting computers into a LAN.
    • A bus network uses a a main cable, called a bus , to connect all clients and servers on the network.
    • A gateway is the combination of hardware and software that connects two dissimilar computer networks.
    • A bridge connects two similar networks.
  • 30. Wireless LANs
    • Wireless LANs (WLANs) – replaces cabling with wireless transmissions that use radio frequencies to transmit information between individual computers
    • The individual computers do not communicate directly with each other; instead they communicate with a wireless network hub or router, which is also used to bridge the wireless network to traditional ethernet or provide a shared Internet connection.
    • Wi-Fi (for Wireless Fidelity) – also called IEEE 802.11b standard, the current popular standard for wireless networking supports data rate of 11 megabits/second, with a typical range through open air of about 220-1100 yards (200-1000 meters).
  • 31. Laptops Connected to a Wireless LAN
  • 32. Bluetooth and PANs
    • Personal Area Network (PAN) - a technology that enables wireless devices such as mobile telephones, computers, and PDAs to communicate over a short distance—less than 33 feet (10 meters).
    • Bluetooth - embeds a low-cost transceiver chip in each device, making it possible for wireless devices to be totally synchronized without the user having to initiate any operation.
    • The overall goal of Bluetooth might be stated as enabling pervasive connectivity between personal technology devices without the use of cabling.
  • 33. The Internet: Network of Networks
    • Originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s as a way of sharing information and resources among universities and research institutions, the Internet began its dramatic growth in 1991.
    • Today, the Internet is growing so fast that no one can say exactly how many people are using it, with estimates ranging as high as over 1.10 billion in 2005.
    • A primary reason for the explosive growth of the Internet is the tremendous amount of data, information, and resources that people can access.
  • 34. What is the Internet?
    • The Internet is a network of networks.
    • To connect to the Internet, your computer will usually first connect to a LAN through a network interface card (NIC) or to an ISP through a modem and telephone line.
    • The LAN, mainframe, or ISP is, in turn, connected to a regional network via a high-speed (T-1) telephone line. The regional network in turn links into the backbone of the Internet.
    • With each network, there is at least one host computer that is connected to the Internet with full two-way access to other computers on the Internet and with a unique Internet address.
    • Each host computer that connects to the Internet uses the TCP/IP protocol for assigning addresses and uses packet switching for exchanging information.
  • 35. Connecting to the Internet
  • 36. Addresses
    • An e-mail address is composed of two parts: the user name and the server address .
    • The user name is assigned to a person or organization that is connected to a server, and it is separated from the server address by the at symbol (@).
    • Server address (a.k.a. domain name) – the IP address of the email host. The right-most part of the address is known as the top level domain .
    • Server addresses are easy-to-remember versions of the numeric IP addresses.
  • 37. Top Level Domains (U.S. Treasury Department) .gov Government (Netscape) .net Network provider (The Red Cross) .org Nonprofit organization (eBay Auctions) .com Commercial company (Broadway theater shows) .pro Professionals* .name Various* (Moscow House of Photography in Russia) .museum Museums* (Information on Sri Lanka) .info Various* (Crédit Coopératif Group in France) .coop Cooperatives* (, an e-commerce company) .biz Businesses* (British Airways) .aero Aerospace organizations* (The U.S. Marine Corps) .mil Military (The University of Georgia) .edu Educational institution Example Designation Type of Organization
  • 38. Internet Operations Synchronously exchange electronic messages with other Internet users Internet Relay Chat Transfer text, images, video, and sound to your computer; search for information on Internet World Wide Web Work on a computer elsewhere on the Internet Telnet Participate in a wide variety of online discussion groups Newsgroups Download files (software, documents, or data) from or upload files to a server located on the Internet FTP Asynchronously exchange electronic messages with other Internet users E-mail Purpose Internet Operations
  • 39. The World Wide Web
    • The Web is a body of software and a set of protocols and conventions based on hypertext and multimedia that make the Internet easy to use and browse.
    • Hypertext is a method of linking related information in which there is no hierarchy or menu system.
    • Multimedia is an interactive combination of text, graphics, animation, images, audio, and video displayed by and under the control of a computer.
  • 40. Using a Browser
    • The Web is a special type of client/server network. To access the Web, the client computer uses software called a browser that initiates activity by sending a request to a Web server for certain information. The Web server responds by retrieving the information from its disk and then transmitting it to the client.
    • Browser – application layer software used for sending requests and displaying the results
    • Hypertext markup language (HTML) - tags in World Wide Web documents that are part of a special publishing language
    • Documents on the Web are referred to as Web pages, and their location is a Web site .
  • 41. A Web Page and Source Code
  • 42. Web Pages vs. Physical Pages Can be created using word processor and printer Can be created with HTML and saved to a server Creation Can be linked only through a separate index Can be linked to other pages through hypertext Links to other pages Restricted to text and images Can include text, images, audio, and video information Types of information Restricted to single piece of paper Can extend beyond single screen Amount of information Ink on paper Electronic Form Physical Page Web Page Characteristics
  • 43. Web Technology
    • IP Address
      • Four numbers that identify a node on the Internet
      • e.g. (a.k.a.
    • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
      • Communication protocol used to transfer pages from Web server to browser
      • HTTPS is a more secure version
    • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
      • Mnemonic Web address corresponding with IP address
      • Also includes folder location and html file name Communication Protocol Domain Name Folder Path Web Page HTML File
  • 44. Internet Protocols Display news group news Send outgoing e-mail mailto Download or upload files from an Internet FTP server ftp Log on to a remote computer connected to the Internet telnet Retrieve files from local hard disk file Retrieve Web pages http Purpose Protocol
  • 45. Wireless Networks
    • The fastest growing trend in networks is wireless networks, both WANs and LANs.
    • Primary advantage: devices connected to the network can go virtually anywhere
    • In the case of wireless WANs, a mobile telephone client is the most popular method of connecting to the Internet and Web.
    • A number of mobile telephone companies have collaborated to create a special protocol, called Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) , just so their telephones can connect to the Internet.
    • Short Message Service (SMS ) is a service for sending text messages up to 160 characters long to mobile telephones.
    • Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) protocol is the most widely used standard mobile telephone protocol in the world, with the exception of the United States where it is gaining ground.
  • 46. How we make phone calls…
    • Changing due to VOIP
      • Voice over Internet Protocol
      • Vonage, Time-Warner (and others)
    • How you call
      • ATA
        • analog/digital converter to translate your voice into digital for transmission over the Internet.
      • IP-Phones
        • Have the circuitry necessary to do the A/D conversion onboard.
      • Your Computer
        • Any multi-media computer with a network connection and the necessary software (actually one can get the software for free at
  • 47. Advantages & Issues
    • For the user, flexibility – one can take their softphone, or ATA, or software on a laptop anywhere there’s a network connection
    • For businesses, it should be cheaper (should be for individuals too)
    • For the available bandwidth, a more efficient way to allocate space to phone calls (see arguments about circuit versus packet switching)
    • See for more details
    • FCC doesn’t have clear rules yet – for example, current traditional telecoms pay for stuff like 911 and associated services.
    • How will pricing eventually pan out?