European Politics and EconomicsPresentation Transcript
Beyond the Cold War 1945-2001 The ABRIDGED VERSION European Politics and Economics
Western Renaissance A divided and economically weak Europe made a huge turn-around within a generation after 1945. The postwar challenge Effects of WWII New leaders take charge Fourth Republic Labour Party West Germany leads the way to economic recovery by 1963
Western Renaissance continued Toward European unity Not ready for political unity, but make inroads toward economic unity European Coal and Steel Community (reduce tariffs) European Economic Community (Common Market) Treaty of Rome (1957) – coordinate the development atomic energy and eliminate tariffs Hopes of further unity was spoiled by France. de Gaulle wants France to lead the Common Market Withdraws from NATO and vetoes Britain’s admittance to the Common Market
Western Renaissance continued Decolonization Causes Weaken Europe after the war Self-determination Nations in Africa and Asia begin to fight for independence to various success India (Britain) Palestine/Israel (British Mandate) Vietnam (France) Algeria (France) Britain include many former colonies into the Commonwealth Neocolonialism
Economic Uncertainty 1968-1985 Troubled economy Economic crisis of the 1970s OPEC oil embargo on the U.S. caused the world’s economy to collapse. Western Europe most severely effected Society in a time of economic uncertainty Welfare system provided political stability Government increased budget leading to higher deficits Thatcher (Britain) slows government spending and privatizes state-owned industries, with moderate success. Mitterrand (France) attempts to move toward more government ownership of industry, but fails
Building a new Europe in the 1990s German unification East Germans feared unification – “Third way” Gorbachev’s approval was key to unification Germany unified in 1993 Still major differences existed between the former East and West Germamy Common patterns and problems Many European nations adopt the American model Poland and Hungary Liberal democracy united Europe in a common political-cultural ideology. Most European nations desired to become member of the Economic Community.
Building a new Europe in the 1990s continued Recasting Russia Yeltsin drove Russia to economic liberalization Private ownership increased Inflation increases Gap between rich and poor increases Life expectancy fell Criminal organizations had a more prominent role Russian politics Weak political parties Inefficient court system Intervention into Chechnya
Building a new Europe in the 1990s continued Rise of ethnic nationalism Progress and tragedy in east central Europe (Poland, Hungary, Czech Rep.) Market economies Western-style political structure Social/economic inequality increased Slovakia, Romania, and Bulgaria lagged behind
Building a new Europe in the 1990s continued The tragic post-communist experience in Yugoslavia Nation split following the fall of Communism Serbia, Slovenia, and Croatia Serbia and leader Slobodan Milosevic were the aggressors Bosnia declares independence War develops between Serbs, Croats, and Bosnians Nasty war of destruction and ethnic cleansing U.S. and NATO intervenes and eventually brings an end to the war.
Building an new Europe in the 1990s continued Unity and identify in Western Europe Single European Act (1986) Set the groundwork for a single market, which develops in the European Union Maastricht Treaty (1992) officially creates the European Union and led to the creation of a single currency (euro). Some nations were apprehensive on joining and later apprehensive in allowing some countries as members.