Europe and its future … February/March 2007
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  • 1. Europe and its Future An intensive teaching programme organized by Sciences Po In partnership with Keio University Sophia University, Waseda University and Hokkaido University Hosted by the Asia-Pacific Centre of Sciences Po Programme Academic Dean : Dr Jérôme Creel1 18 February - 14 March 20081 Deputy-director, Research Department, Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (OFCE),Fondation nationale des sciences politiques (FNSP), 69, quai d’Orsay, 75340 Paris cedex 07, France ; tel. + 33 144 18 54 56 ; fax + 33 1 44 18 54 78 ; email : jerome.creel@sciences-po.fr ; and Professor of Economics, ESCP-EAP European School of Management, 79, avenue de la République, 75011 Paris, France. 1
  • 2. Academic Principles of the Programme: - A 3 Blocs Programme. Courses are divided into 4 blocs: One bloc is common to all enrolled students whereas the other 3 blocs are elective courses. Enrolled students have to choose and participate in 2 blocs out of the 3 elective blocs. Enrolled students will therefore follow 3 blocs of classes: one compulsory and two electives. - A Teaching Team of Experts on their field. All courses will be given in English by scholars and young researchers who are specialists in the field. - Grading: Enrolled students will have to pass a short test (10 minutes) at the end of the common bloc (multiple choice questions) and they will prepare a short paper (10 pages, 1.5 spacing, Arial 12) on a topic related to one of the two elective blocs they will have chosen. Papers will be delivered at the end of the programme. Students will graduate unless their average grade is below C+. Participation in the 3 blocs (common and optional) is compulsory and checked - Tutorship: In preparing their papers, enrolled students will receive the advice of Programme tutors. Tutors will regularly meet enrolled students after classes and will assist them when necessary. - French Language Courses: In addition to the academic programme on European Studies, the programme offers 3 levels of French class and 16 hours of French language teaching. Students will have to fill in a French language test before their arrival to be enrolled in classes accordingly with their level. - Visit of the European Institutions: A guided visit to the European Institutions based in Strasbourg (East of France) is included in the programme. This two-days trip will be the occasion to experiment European daily political issues. 2
  • 3. Description of the blocs - The common bloc :“Europe: what are we talking about?” The bloc will be comprised of 8 courses of 2 hours each. It will present a short but comprehensive view of Europe and of its different facets: a long history, quite diverse values and identities, heterogeneous economic records, and different views on politics and the environment. Four disciplines will thus be involved: history, sociology, economics and political science. - The elective blocs: 1. “Economics of the Euro area” (elective bloc A) There has been a long tradition in Economics of studying monetary unions, but the Euro area is specific in many respects: these include economic policies, labour markets, finance, etc. This bloc will be dedicated to understanding the extent to which the Euro area has been so specific. The reasons why the European Union lags behind the United States and Japan and is being caught up by emerging economies will also be discussed. 2. “Europe and its External relations” (elective bloc B) At its birth, European construction was meant to tackle security issues and not only economic issues. In fact, Europeans had to wait until the end of the 1980s to see their governments try to promote a coordinated strategy in this field. Coordination in other fields, like trade and the budget, came earlier, although European governments and institutions still face difficulties speaking with a single voice. Cultural issues are also at stake: some countries, like France, urge the maintenance of art subsidies. 3. “Migration and identities” (elective bloc C) “Union in diversity” is the European Union motto. This diversity stems from the heterogeneity of member countries: different spoken languages, different habits, different levels of development, etc. explain this heterogeneity. Two main angles will be focused on: the ten newcomers of 2004 (eight Central and Eastern European countries, Cyprus and Malta), which have formed the latest enlargement wave, and Turkey. 3
  • 4. 2008 List of Courses Common bloc: “Europe: what are we talking about?”1. “The History of Europe: Once upon a time…” 5. “The economic performances of European economies”2. “Contemporary history and institutions of Europe” 6. “European welfare states and the dynamics of generations”3. “The European identities” 7. “Democracy at the European level”4. “Europe and environmental issues” 8. “National political parties in Europe: Do they have a European vision?” Elective blocs : choose two among the three “Economics of the Euro area” (A) “Europe and its external relations” (B) “Migration and identities” (C)1. “Economics of integration” 1.“The European security strategy” (two 1. “The common immigration policy”2. “Single currency, single monetary courses) 2. “The latest EU enlargement”policy” 2. “European trade policy, partnerships and 3. “Turkey: the identity and political issues”3. “Fettered fiscal policies: the Stability and World Trade Agreements” 4. “Turkey: the economic and institutionalGrowth Pact” 3. “The European budget: promoting issue”4. “Structural reforms on the labour, goods agriculture or innovation?” 5. “North-South relationships”and financial markets” 4. “The European cultural policies”5. “Is there a European capitalism?” 4
  • 5. Short CVs of the Professors (to be confirmed)Luc Champarnaud is assistant professor at the Artois University and he belongs to aresearch department of Lille3 University. He is working mainly as a cultural economist andintroduced the issue of balancing cultural capital and physical capital as two main componentsof welfare in growth economic models. He also addressed questions of administrative designand showed how to enhance speed of intervention of slow cultural bureaucracies. He is thecoordinator of a research program “Economics art and culture” at the MSH Erasme, with ateam of economists, sociologists and Art historians. The latest operation he was in charge ofwas a conference entitled “Culture, politics and policies” in March 2007 at Lille3 university.Louis Chauvel is Full Professor of sociology at Sciences Po Paris and Research Fellow at theObservatoire Français des Conjonctures Economiques. He is specialised in the economics ofinequality and in the sociology of institutional, structural and political changes by generationsin a comparative perspective. He has devoted more than sixty academic papers to thesequestions and his generational method, presented in his book (Le Destin des Générations,Structures Sociale et Cohortes en France au XXe siècle, Presses universitaires de France,1998 and 2002) is being applied now to an international comparison. His recent book on thedynamics of middle classes launched a large debate on the future of Welfare state (LesClasses Moyennes à la Dérive, Le Seuil, 2006). He is involved in many European andinternational research networks on inequality, social policies, and generations. Born in 1967,he earned (1991) the joint Master (DEA) of Social Sciences of Ecole Normale Superieure(ENS) et Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), his PhD of Sociology(1997) at the Université de Lille I, his Habilitation at Sciences-Po Paris (2003).Jérôme Creel has been the Academic Dean of the Program since 2006 and a Deputy directorat Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Economiques (Sciences Po) in Paris since 2003.He has been Professor of Economics at ESCP-EAP European School of Management sinceSeptember 2007. He had previously been a Junior and then Senior economist at OFCE since1998. He has been a Lecturer at Institut d’études politiques de Paris since 1999. He holds aPhD from University Paris-Dauphine in macroeconomics. His works have dealt witheconomic policies in the European monetary union, including monetary and fiscalcoordination, the economics of European Union enlargement and institutional economics,notably related to the Constitutional Treaty and delegation issues.Guillaume Daudin completed his PhD at the LSE and the Université de Paris I-Sorbonne onthe role of trade in economic growth based on the study of 18th century France in 2001. Hehas spent a year in as a post-doctorate and a lecturer before becoming part of the Economicsof Globalization department at the OFCE, Sciences-Po. He was a lecturer in EconomicHistory at the University of Edinburgh in 2006/2007.Renaud Dehousse holds a law degree from the University of Liège (Belgium) and a Ph.Dfrom the European University Institute in Florence. Before joining Sciences Po, he has heldappointments in the Law Department of the European University Institute and at the Facultyof Political Science of the University of Pisa, Italy. He has acted as adviser for the EuropeanCommission and the French government. He currently holds a Jean Monnet Chair at theInstitut d’études politiques de Paris (Sciences Po), and is Research Fellow at “Notre Europe”,a Paris-based think-tank founded and directed by Jacques Delors. His main work has been onlaw and politics in the European Union. His recent work has focused in particular ontransformation of European governance, with specific reference to the growing importance of 5
  • 6. transnational bureaucratic structures (comitology, European agencies), as well as on theinfluence of the European Court of Justice on European policies and on the policy process.Anton Granik was born in Moscow, Russia. He is currently Professor of Economics andApplied Econometrics at Reims Management School. He obtained a B.A. with Honors inEconomics from New York University in 1995, with his undergraduate thesis receiving theaward for the best thesis in microeconomic theory. In 2003 he obtained a Ph.D. in Economicsfrom Columbia University where he specialized in macroeconomics and econometrics.Entitled "Essays in Monetary Policy and Banking", his dissertation analyzed the connectionbetween the implementation of monetary policy and financial health of commercial banks inthe US.Eric Heyer, Ph. D. in Economics, has been, since January 2002, Deputy director in theDepartment “analysis and forecast” at OFCE. He is especially in charge of co-ordinating theFrench economy forecast within the Department. He is also lecturer at the Ecole NationaleSupérieure des Techniques Avancées (ENSTA) and he is the Editor of the regular issue of“Economie française” published at Paris: La Découverte.Gunes Kamber is a Phd. student in economics at the University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne. He received his B.A. in economics from Galatasaray University, Istanbul, Turkeyand his M.A. in economics from University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, Paris, France. Hismain areas of interest are macroeconomics and monetary economics. He was a visitingscholar at the OECD and the IMF and was participating in the “Determinants of Inflation inRussia” project.Jacques Le Cacheux has been Professor of Economics at University of Pau-Pays de l’Adoursince September 1996. He has been working at OFCE (Sciences Po) since 1983 and has beenthe Director of its Economics Research Department since 1993. He also teaches at Institutd’études politiques de Paris, Stanford University in Paris, European Online Academy, andCollège des Hautes Etudes Européennes. He studied economics and political science in Parisand has the Diploma of the IEPP (Sciences Po) and the Maîtrise d’économie of the Universityof Paris I-Panthéon-Sorbonne. He took his Ph.D in economics at the European UniversityInstitute (Florence) He works on European integration issues, taxation and internationalmacroeconomics. He has been a member of the INGENUE team since the launching of theproject in 1999, and he has been a member of various European research projects andnetworks financed by the European Commission (EUROMOD, MOCHO, EUROCAP,CONNEX, CONSENT). He has published articles in many journals and collective volumes:Editor of Europe : La nouvelle vague – Perspectives économiques de l’élargissement, (1996),Collection « Références/OFCE », Presses de Sciences ; Co-author and co-editor, with Jean-Paul Fitoussi of the annual L’état de l’Union européenne, Fayard and Presses de Sciences Po,now also published in English by Palgrave (Report on the state of the European Union); Co-author, with Christian Saint-Etienne, of a tax reform proposal published with the titleCroissance equitable et concurrence fiscale, by the CAE (Council of Economic Advisers ofthe Prime Minister) (CAE Reports, n°56, La Documentation française, October 2005).Anne-Marie Le Gloannec is a senior research fellow at CERI, one of the research centers ofthe National Foundation for Political Science, Paris. She has taught at the Johns-HopkinsUniversity European campus in Bologna, at the Freie Universität in Berlin, at the EuropeanViadrina University, Frankfurt-an-der-Oder; she is currently teaching at the Institut d’Etudes 6
  • 7. Politiques, Paris and Dijon, and at the Universität Stuttgart. She has recently worked on abook on European foreign policy.Sandrine Levasseur, French, holds a PhD in Economics on the introduction of the Euro(University of Rouen, France, 2000). She was research assistant from 1995 to 1999 at theUniversity of Rouen; she held a postdoctotal position at the University of Athens in 2000, andwas Visiting Fellow at the European Commission in 2005. Since 2001, she has beeneconomist at OFCE (Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Economiques). Her main fieldsof research are the enlargement to Central and Eastern European countries, foreign directinvestment and, more generally, all issues related to Economic and Monetary Union.Francesco Saraceno was born in Rome, Italy. He majored in Economics at the University ofRome "La Sapienza" with a thesis on Money and Economic Growth. In 1994 he enrolled inthe PhD program of the University of Rome, where he specialized in disequilibriummacroeconomics. He obtained his PhD in economic theory in July 1999, with a thesis onDemand Complementarities in a Trade Model. In 1995 he was awarded the Bonaldo StringherScholarship from the Bank of Italy, and was accepted for a PhD in Economics in thedepartment of Economics at Columbia University. There he specialized in macroeconomicsand industrial organization. He obtained the PhD at Columbia University in May 2003, with athesis entitled Essays in Disequilibrium Macroeconomics. In 2000 he became part of theCouncil of Economic Advisors for the Italian Prime Ministers Office. He has been on leavesince March 2002, when he moved to Paris to work in the French Observatory on EconomicConditions (Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Économiques), a prestigious think tankheaded by Jean Paul Fitoussi.Catherine Wihtol de Wenden is director of research at CNRS (CERI) and doctor in PoliticalScience (Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris). She is both a political scientist and a lawyer.She has been working for twenty years on various topics relating to international migrations.She has also led many field studies and directed collective research on comparative topics,mostly European. She was a consultant for OECD, the European Council, the EuropeanCommission and "external expert" for the UNHCR. 7
  • 8. Abstracts of Courses Taught in 2007Luc Champarnaud “The European Cultural Polices”Cultural policies in Europe are a prominent topic. Of course, cultural goods are exchangedthrough the European customs union, as any other goods, but cultural exceptions may play aspecial role because the diversity of cultures has to be taken into account in the generalagenda of nations and of the European commission policies. Topics to be dealt with duringthis session are: quotas, the circulation and transmission of cultural goods in Europe; theexpensive languages diversity; cultural exceptions and protection of cultural goods.Louis Chauvel “European Welfare States and the Dynamics of Generation”The year of birth strongly influence the life chances, notably in terms of education attainment,access to cultural capital, as well as to work and income opportunities, and also economiccapital, both in terms of intracohort stratification and in terms of intercohort inequalities. Theprocess of socio-historical fluctuation means strong bifurcation in the model of socializationof successive social generations (Chauvel, 2002) and produce, sometimes, strong generationalfractures, in terms of economic means, social homogeneity or inequality. First, thispresentation will develop a general scheme of social impact of historical fluctuations about totransform birth cohorts into social generations. The impact of the “transitional socialization”on the long term of birth cohorts is analyzed in terms of “Mathew effect” (Robert Merton[“For unto every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him thathath not shall be taken away even that which he hath.” (Matthew XXV:29)2]) and in terms of“scaring effect” (long term consequences of early difficulties). Then, in a second period, theFrench stratification system will be analyzed in comparative perspective, to understand theirconsequences on middle classes.Jérôme Creel “Economics of Integration”This session will briefly review the history of economic and financial integration and willemphasize the questions of exchange rate regimes throughout European economic history.The course will finally be devoted to the rise of the Single Currency and to the reasons whichled to it; then, the emergence of “stability-oriented institutions” will appear clearly. Theliterature on optimal currency areas will be used as theoretical benchmark.Jérôme Creel “Single Currency, Single Monetary Policy”This session will present the monetary architecture of the Euro area: the statutes, strategy andperformance of monetary policy implemented by the independent European Central Bank willbe discussed in comparison with the Federal Reserve, the Bank of England and the Bank ofJapan. Reforms of the ECB, evoked in the context of the French elections, and the questionsof “accountability” will be dealt with.Jérôme Creel “Fettered Fiscal Policies: The Stability and Growth Pact”This session will be dedicated to the implementation of fiscal policies in Europe, with greatemphasis on the reasons which have led to limiting the scope of public finances in this part ofthe world. Mainstream economics and political economy arguments can be advocated toexplain the emergence of strict fiscal rules in Europe.2 “For to everyone who has, more shall be given, and he will have an abundance; but from the one who does nothave, even what he does have shall be taken away” (Matthew XXV:29) 8
  • 9. Guillaume Daudin “North-South Relationship”Europe has a special relationship with developing countries because it has been the colonialmaster of most of them at some point or the other. This course will study the causes, shapeand effects of the economic relations between Europe and the South: aid, trade and migrations.Is Europe really the best Northern economic ally of the South ?Renaud Dehousse “Democracy at the European level” & “National political parties inEurope: Do they have a European vision?”The European Union is a hybrid political system, half-way between state structures andtraditional international organizations. This class will be organized in two parts: in the firstone, I will expose the basic principles underlying its functioning and discuss the main changesit has undergone since its inception. In a second part, we will analyse the impact of Europeanintegration on the domestic political systems.Anton Granik “Is there a European capitalism?”The main objective of this course is to present a brief overview of the current state ofEuropean capitalism. The easiest way to appreciate the peculiarities of European capitalism isto compare it, as a starting point, to the American variety of capitalism. By focusing on therole of the state , the organizational structure of industries (both financial and non-financial),and the nature of labour relations, we will attempt to identify the elements that not only makethe European Capitalism differ from its American counterpart, but also result in importantdivisions within the European Union.Eric Heyer “A comparison between the performances of European economies”Since 2002, the Euro zone has been the area where economic growth is the weakest in theworld. This results mainly from overly moderate responses on the part of economic policiesafter the e-bubble burst in 2000 in the United States, then spreading over the global economy.Even within the Euro zone, some countries are completing their convergence and experiencehigher growth rates (Spain). Others adopt a non-cooperative strategy (Germany). This leadsthem to experience a short-term growth rate which is higher than their partners’, butjeopardises the steadiness of growth within the Euro zone.Günes Kamber “Turkey: The Economic and Institutional Issue”This lecture surveys the major economic developments in Turkey since the financialliberalization in 1980 and gives some explanations for Turkey’s unstable economicperformance during three decades. A special interest is given to the 2001 economic crisis andto the economic recovery which followed the crisis. The lecture ends with a close look to thechallenges and the opportunities of Turkey’s European Union Accession - Candidacy.Jacques Le Cacheux “The History of Europe: Once upon a time…”The course is meant to give an overview of the making of the European economy, starting well beforethe treaty of Rome (1957). It is also designed to put the major features of the European integrationprocess and trends into a broader, global perspective, in order to identify a number of characteristics.These elements of historical perspective and global context frame the understanding of Europe in themaking. 9
  • 10. Jacques Le Cacheux “The European Budget: Promoting Agriculture or Innovation?”The European budget is notoriously small and dominated by two major common policies:CAP and structural/regional policies. The agreement reached in 2006 about the new financialperspectives for the period 2007-2013 has been criticized by almost everybody, from theCommission to the EU Parliament. The course analyzes the many defects of the currentbudget and its funding, and raises questions on the possible reforms on both sides.Anne-Marie Le Gloannec “The European identities », « The European Security Strategy I&II”, & “Turkey: The identity and Political Issues”The class will be made up of four sessions. The first one will attempt to look at Europe’sidentity: how can we analyze it? Two will be devoted to the European Security Strategy (ESS)and to the development of a European defense capacity: a comparison will be made betweenthe ESS and the National Security Strategy of the United States. The students will be requiredto read the ESS. One session will ponder the questions that Turkey’s possible accession to theEU raises.Sandrine Levasseur “The latest EU enlargements »The course will deal with the process of integration of Central and Eastern European countries(CEECs) to the European Union. The main focus are on real aspects (foreign directinvestment, trade and their consequences on catching up), budgetary aspects (constraintsresulting from the Growth and Stability Pact and the Maastricht criteria) and monetary aspects(costs and benefits due to euro area membership).Francesco Saraceno “Contemporary History and Institutions of Europe”The course traces the main events that characterized the forming of the European Union. Itbegins by emphasizing the needs and aspirations behind the first steps of European integrationthat emerged from the ruins of World War II. It then continues by outlining the issues behinda number of turning points of the process, and highlighting the national issues of largeEuropean countries like the UK, France or Germany. The last part of the seminar is devoted tothe more recent history of the Union and to the current institutional setting.Francesco Saraceno “European Trade Policy, Partnerships and World Trade Agreements”The course is split in two parts. In the first it gives a quick sketch of Ricardos principle ofcomparative advantages, the foundation for the argument in favour of free trade; it then showshow the impressive increase in trade, in the past half century has been coupled withunprecedented growth, but also with a strong deepening of inequality: Globalization works,but it creates winners and losers. This is the main rationale behind the attempt of creatingrules that guarantee fair trade. This brings to the second part, in which the course describesthe working of the WTO, and traces its ups and downs. The WTO is also particularlyinteresting because it is one of the few instances in which Europe is represented as a whole.The conclusion deals with the Doha round, with the issues at stake, the reasons for its failure,and the future perspectives.Francesco Saraceno “Structural Reforms on the Labour, Goods and Financial Markets”The course attempts to clarify the debate on the economic performance of Europe, mainly incomparison with the United States. It describes the major arguments behind the two mainhypotheses that are advanced to explain the poor growth and unemployment record of Europein the past three decades: On one side, the widespread "structural reforms" argument, whichimputes the slow growth to rigidities in both product and labour markets, that need to be 10
  • 11. reduced to increase growth and competitiveness. On the other, the arguments of those whoremark that economic policy in Europe has been much more ideological than in the US,where monetary and fiscal authorities have proven to behave pragmatically. According to thisexplanation, the rigidities lie in the public rather than in the private sector. The seminarhighlights theoretical and empirical strengths and weaknesses of these two conflictingexplanations.Catherine Wihtol de Wenden “The common immigration policy”Since the end of the XXieth century, Europe has become the first destination of immigration inthe world. In spite of this striking phenomenon, and because European countries have notbeen fully conscious of it, regulations of flows and adaptations of living standards have notbeen organised. The course will deal with these issues using a global approach – theEuropeanisation of immigration policies –, and a comparative approach by country. Last, afocus on the attitude of Europe vis-à-vis foreigners will be undertaken. 11