Significance of the Sea Most of Europe lies within 300 miles of a seacoast. Being this close influences people greatly. Netherlands: 25% below sea level Built dikes, large banks of earth and stone, to hold back water. Reclaimed lands are called polders. Let’s see it…
Europe the PeninsulaNorthern Peninsulas The far north of Europe in the Scandinavian Peninsula (Norway, Sweden) along with Finland and Denmark are a result of: Glaciation, where glaciers formed and spread over the continent, carved out long, narrow, steep-sided inlets called fjords.
Southern Peninsulas Iberian Peninsula: extends off southwestern edge of Europe. Spain & Portugal Isolated by Strait of Gibraltar and Pyrenees Mountains. Apennine Peninsula: boot in the Mediterranean. Italy Apennines forming the peninsula
Southern Peninsulas Cont. Balkan Peninsula: Between the Adriatic/ Ionian Seas on the west, and the Aegean and Black seas on the east. Possess a multitude of mountains and valleys stretching from the Danube River. Historically people have moved along rivers and seas.
Europe’s Islands Iceland: with volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and glaciers next to each other…
Europe’s Islands British Isles in the northwest: Great Britain and Ireland along with thousands of smaller islands Britain has mountain ranges, plateaus, and deeps valleys in the north and west, but low hills and gentle plains in the south. Ireland has lush green land with cool temperatures and abundant rainfall.
Islands Cont. Many lie south of the mainland in the Mediterranean. Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Crete, and Cyprus Frequent volcanic and earthquake activity Spain’s Balearic Islands Malta’s 5 islands Greece’s nearly 2,000 islands
Mountain Regions Europe’s northwest mountains have some of the earth’s most ancient rock formations. Extending from the Iberian Peninsula to eastern Europe, the central lowlands consist of low, rounded mountains and high plateaus with scattered forests. Younger mountains in the south are more high and jagged. The Alps
Plains Regions The North European Plain, or Great European Plain, stretches from southeastern England and western France eastward to Poland, Ukraine, and Russia. Coal, iron ore, and other minerals along with fertile soil are found here.
Water Systems Most water systems flow from inland mountain and highland areas to the coasts. Used for transportation and irrigation by linking waterways. The Rhine is the most important river in western Europe, flowing from the Swiss Alps through France and Germany and into the Netherlands through major cities.
Natural Resources An abundance of coal and iron ore. Fueled the industrial revolution Many coal fields are depleted or too expensive to mine. Alternatives are being used for power such as: Pete Oil Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric