Divorce, regional family cultures, and childcare by grandparents ...
Divorce, regional family norms and childcare by grandparents in Europe<br />Maaike Jappens & Jan Van Bavel<br />Interface Demography<br />
Family cultures in Europe<br />Great diversity of norms & attitudes about family life<br />in Europe<br />Northern Europe <br />weak family ties, individualistic, liberal<br />Southern Europe<br />strong family ties, familialistic, traditional<br />But: heterogeneity between countries & within countries<br />
‘Traditional family norms’<br />ESS2:<br /><ul><li>A woman should be prepared to cut down on her paid work for the sake of her family.
When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.
When there are children in the home, parents should stay together even if they don’t get along.</li></ul>Principal components analysis<br />Scores of respondents aged 55 or older averaged per NUTS 1<br />region<br />(Regional classification harmonized with Eurostat’s NUTS system)<br />
Mean component scores for ‘traditional family norms’<br />
Grandparents and childcare<br /><ul><li>Grandparents are important childcare providers everywhere in Europe
Divorce: weakening of family ties? Less exchange of support?</li></ul> To what extent do mothers rely on children’s grandparents as their main source of childcare?<br /> &<br /> Is this influenced by the mother’s marital history and by the normative climate of the region they live in?<br /><ul><li>‘Mothers’: ESS2, aged 20-54, child(ren) <13 in household</li></li></ul><li>Multilevel logistic regression model <br />Y= grandparents are main source of childcare for youngest child<br />Baseline model:<br />Random effects of NUTS 1 region & country<br />Individual covariates:<br /><ul><li>Age
On the regional level: are positively related to childcare by grandparents
Not a significant effect on the individual level
Interaction family norms in region * marital history of mothers: in more traditional regions, being divorced is slightly positively related to childcare by grandparents (but not significant)
No effect of GDP</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions<br />The probability that European mothers rely on<br />grandparents as their main source of childcare<br />is influenced by:<br /><ul><li>Various individual covariates</li></ul>i.a. marital history (smaller for divorced single mothers)<br /><ul><li>The childcare coverage rate of their country, but also by
The normative climate of the region they live in</li></ul>Living in a more traditional normative climate does not<br />significantly affect the probability for divorced mothers<br />to mainly rely on grandparents for childcare<br />