Chapter 14- Europe at War


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Chapter 14- Europe at War

  1. 1. Chapter 14- Europe at War<br />1555-1648<br />
  2. 2. “War is one of the scourges with which it has pleased God to afflict men.”- Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)<br />War was a fact of everyday life in Europe<br />1555-1648- war was more brutal, expensive and on a large scale<br />Introduction<br />
  3. 3. “un roi, unefoi, uneloi”<br />Peace of Augsburg (1555)- religion of the ruler= religion of the state<br />Toleration was a foreign concept<br />French Wars of Religion- Huguenots- St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1572<br />One king, 2 faiths- politiques and the League<br />1585- war of the three Henrys (Henry III, Henry of Navarre, Henry Guise)<br />1598- Edict of Nantes<br />Crisis of the Western states<br />
  4. 4. King of Paper<br />Problems with England (Spanish Armada- 1588)<br />Burgundian Inheritance<br />Revolt of the Netherlands- 1566<br />Duke of Alba<br />Protestants rebel<br />1576- Pacification of Ghent<br />P. 422 and 424- maps of Europe<br />Spain- Philip II (1556-1598)<br />
  5. 5. Poland-Lithuania and Muscovy<br />1601- Time of Troubles<br />Rise of Sweden- GustavusAldophus<br />1621- captured Riga<br />Eastern Europe<br />
  6. 6. Bohemia Revolts- election of Ferdinand (1617)<br />Defenestration of Prague (1618)<br />Frederick V , the “winter king”<br />War widens- Frederick vs. Ferdinand<br />Protestant Gains- <br />Louis XIII and Richelieu decide to help<br />Peace of Westphalia<br />Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)<br />
  7. 7. 1559- death of Henry II<br />1562- first battle of French wars of religion<br />1563- Catholic duc de Guise assassinated<br />1572- St. Bartholomew Day’s Massacre<br />1574- accession of Henry III<br />1585- war of the Henrys<br />1588- duc de Guise murdered by order of Henry III<br />1594- Henry IV crowned<br />1598- Edict of Nantes<br />Timelines- French wars of Religion<br />
  8. 8. French genealogy- p. 415<br />HRE genealogy- p. 419<br />Timeline- revolt of Netherlands- p. 424<br />Genealogy of Poland- p. 426<br />Genealogy of Sweden- p. 429<br />Chronology of Thirty years’ war- p. 430<br />Important charts<br />
  9. 9. Guise family- a strongly Catholic faction arose under the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine- they had large landholdings- also sought control of Scotland<br />Montgomery-Chatillons- Admiral Gaspard de Coligny led the French Protestant resistance<br />Bourbons- this powerful family with extensive lands in the south and west had strong Huguenot sympathies, and eventually won the throne in 1589<br />French families<br />
  10. 10. Civil war in Bohemia- (1618-1625)“defenestration of Prague- Ferdinand was elected Emperor and Frederick V lost his crown a few months later<br />Danish phase- (1625-1629)Ferdinand sent Albert of Wallerstein swept through Denmark<br />Swedish phase-(1630-1635)- GustavusAdolphus- prompted the French to enter the war on the side of the Protestants<br />French phase (1635-1648)- Peace of Prague- favorable to Catholics <br />Thirty years’ war- 4 phases<br />
  11. 11. Treaties recognized the sovereign, independent authority of the German princes- destroyed the HRE as a real state- not an empire<br />Independence of the United Provinces of Netherlands was recognized, Swiss cantons were acknowledged as sovereign and independent- French also picked up territories of Alsace-Lorraine-allowed French to intervene in German affairs<br />Religion- Augsburg Agreement of 1555- allowed Calvinism as a legally permissible creed- northern states remained Protestant…<br />Peace of Westphalia-1648<br />
  12. 12. -blocked the Counter-Reformation<br />Restricted power of the Habsburgs<br />Germany was left in pieces<br />France, England, Netherlands take the lead in European affairs<br />End of Wars<br />