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Chapter 14- Europe at War
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Chapter 14- Europe at War


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  • 1. Chapter 14- Europe at War
  • 2. “War is one of the scourges with which it has pleased God to afflict men.”- Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)
    War was a fact of everyday life in Europe
    1555-1648- war was more brutal, expensive and on a large scale
  • 3. “un roi, unefoi, uneloi”
    Peace of Augsburg (1555)- religion of the ruler= religion of the state
    Toleration was a foreign concept
    French Wars of Religion- Huguenots- St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1572
    One king, 2 faiths- politiques and the League
    1585- war of the three Henrys (Henry III, Henry of Navarre, Henry Guise)
    1598- Edict of Nantes
    Crisis of the Western states
  • 4. King of Paper
    Problems with England (Spanish Armada- 1588)
    Burgundian Inheritance
    Revolt of the Netherlands- 1566
    Duke of Alba
    Protestants rebel
    1576- Pacification of Ghent
    P. 422 and 424- maps of Europe
    Spain- Philip II (1556-1598)
  • 5. Poland-Lithuania and Muscovy
    1601- Time of Troubles
    Rise of Sweden- GustavusAldophus
    1621- captured Riga
    Eastern Europe
  • 6. Bohemia Revolts- election of Ferdinand (1617)
    Defenestration of Prague (1618)
    Frederick V , the “winter king”
    War widens- Frederick vs. Ferdinand
    Protestant Gains-
    Louis XIII and Richelieu decide to help
    Peace of Westphalia
    Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
  • 7. 1559- death of Henry II
    1562- first battle of French wars of religion
    1563- Catholic duc de Guise assassinated
    1572- St. Bartholomew Day’s Massacre
    1574- accession of Henry III
    1585- war of the Henrys
    1588- duc de Guise murdered by order of Henry III
    1594- Henry IV crowned
    1598- Edict of Nantes
    Timelines- French wars of Religion
  • 8. French genealogy- p. 415
    HRE genealogy- p. 419
    Timeline- revolt of Netherlands- p. 424
    Genealogy of Poland- p. 426
    Genealogy of Sweden- p. 429
    Chronology of Thirty years’ war- p. 430
    Important charts
  • 9. Guise family- a strongly Catholic faction arose under the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine- they had large landholdings- also sought control of Scotland
    Montgomery-Chatillons- Admiral Gaspard de Coligny led the French Protestant resistance
    Bourbons- this powerful family with extensive lands in the south and west had strong Huguenot sympathies, and eventually won the throne in 1589
    French families
  • 10. Civil war in Bohemia- (1618-1625)“defenestration of Prague- Ferdinand was elected Emperor and Frederick V lost his crown a few months later
    Danish phase- (1625-1629)Ferdinand sent Albert of Wallerstein swept through Denmark
    Swedish phase-(1630-1635)- GustavusAdolphus- prompted the French to enter the war on the side of the Protestants
    French phase (1635-1648)- Peace of Prague- favorable to Catholics
    Thirty years’ war- 4 phases
  • 11. Treaties recognized the sovereign, independent authority of the German princes- destroyed the HRE as a real state- not an empire
    Independence of the United Provinces of Netherlands was recognized, Swiss cantons were acknowledged as sovereign and independent- French also picked up territories of Alsace-Lorraine-allowed French to intervene in German affairs
    Religion- Augsburg Agreement of 1555- allowed Calvinism as a legally permissible creed- northern states remained Protestant…
    Peace of Westphalia-1648
  • 12. -blocked the Counter-Reformation
    Restricted power of the Habsburgs
    Germany was left in pieces
    France, England, Netherlands take the lead in European affairs
    End of Wars