Chapter 14- Europe at War
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Chapter 14- Europe at War






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    Chapter 14- Europe at War Chapter 14- Europe at War Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 14- Europe at War
    • “War is one of the scourges with which it has pleased God to afflict men.”- Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)
      War was a fact of everyday life in Europe
      1555-1648- war was more brutal, expensive and on a large scale
    • “un roi, unefoi, uneloi”
      Peace of Augsburg (1555)- religion of the ruler= religion of the state
      Toleration was a foreign concept
      French Wars of Religion- Huguenots- St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1572
      One king, 2 faiths- politiques and the League
      1585- war of the three Henrys (Henry III, Henry of Navarre, Henry Guise)
      1598- Edict of Nantes
      Crisis of the Western states
    • King of Paper
      Problems with England (Spanish Armada- 1588)
      Burgundian Inheritance
      Revolt of the Netherlands- 1566
      Duke of Alba
      Protestants rebel
      1576- Pacification of Ghent
      P. 422 and 424- maps of Europe
      Spain- Philip II (1556-1598)
    • Poland-Lithuania and Muscovy
      1601- Time of Troubles
      Rise of Sweden- GustavusAldophus
      1621- captured Riga
      Eastern Europe
    • Bohemia Revolts- election of Ferdinand (1617)
      Defenestration of Prague (1618)
      Frederick V , the “winter king”
      War widens- Frederick vs. Ferdinand
      Protestant Gains-
      Louis XIII and Richelieu decide to help
      Peace of Westphalia
      Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
    • 1559- death of Henry II
      1562- first battle of French wars of religion
      1563- Catholic duc de Guise assassinated
      1572- St. Bartholomew Day’s Massacre
      1574- accession of Henry III
      1585- war of the Henrys
      1588- duc de Guise murdered by order of Henry III
      1594- Henry IV crowned
      1598- Edict of Nantes
      Timelines- French wars of Religion
    • French genealogy- p. 415
      HRE genealogy- p. 419
      Timeline- revolt of Netherlands- p. 424
      Genealogy of Poland- p. 426
      Genealogy of Sweden- p. 429
      Chronology of Thirty years’ war- p. 430
      Important charts
    • Guise family- a strongly Catholic faction arose under the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine- they had large landholdings- also sought control of Scotland
      Montgomery-Chatillons- Admiral Gaspard de Coligny led the French Protestant resistance
      Bourbons- this powerful family with extensive lands in the south and west had strong Huguenot sympathies, and eventually won the throne in 1589
      French families
    • Civil war in Bohemia- (1618-1625)“defenestration of Prague- Ferdinand was elected Emperor and Frederick V lost his crown a few months later
      Danish phase- (1625-1629)Ferdinand sent Albert of Wallerstein swept through Denmark
      Swedish phase-(1630-1635)- GustavusAdolphus- prompted the French to enter the war on the side of the Protestants
      French phase (1635-1648)- Peace of Prague- favorable to Catholics
      Thirty years’ war- 4 phases
    • Treaties recognized the sovereign, independent authority of the German princes- destroyed the HRE as a real state- not an empire
      Independence of the United Provinces of Netherlands was recognized, Swiss cantons were acknowledged as sovereign and independent- French also picked up territories of Alsace-Lorraine-allowed French to intervene in German affairs
      Religion- Augsburg Agreement of 1555- allowed Calvinism as a legally permissible creed- northern states remained Protestant…
      Peace of Westphalia-1648
    • -blocked the Counter-Reformation
      Restricted power of the Habsburgs
      Germany was left in pieces
      France, England, Netherlands take the lead in European affairs
      End of Wars