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Absolutism and Revolution

Absolutism and Revolution






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    Absolutism and Revolution Absolutism and Revolution Presentation Transcript

    • Absolutism and Revolution
      UNIT 2
    • Absolute Monarchs in EuropeChapter 5
    • Section 1
      Spain's Empire and European Absolutism
    • Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
      1500’s Spain first modern European power
      Unified country, religion
      Huge New World Empire
      Silver and gold from new world fueled Spanish economy
      1519Charles V (Charles I) ruled Spain and Hapsburg Empire (HRE, Netherlands)
      1556Charles gives empire to son- Philip II (Spain, New World colonies, Netherlands) and brother Ferdinand (Hapsburg Empire)
      Philipp was very religious and very aggressive
      Took control of Portugal and all of their territory in the East Indies, Africa and India
      Spanish king now controlled an empire across the globe
    • Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
      Empire provided Philipp with great wealth
      Gold and silver from the Americas poured into Spain
      It allowed Philipp to keep a huge army
      Philipp was also deeply religious
      Reformation was going on in Europe and Philipp was a devout Catholic
      He believed it was his duty to defend the Catholic faith from Protestants and Muslims
      Fought against Ottomans and Protestant armies across Europe, used wealth to pay for army and navy
      Used Inquisition to enforce religious unity
    • Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
      Golden Age of Spanish Art and Literature
      Wealth allowed Spanish to support the arts
      Two great painters El Greco and Velazquez
      El Greco- paintings reflected Catholic faith of Spain, his paintings were very emotional
      Velazquez- painting reflected the pride of the Spanish monarchy, he was the official painter of the royal family
      Don Quixote called the first modern European novel
      Written by Miguel de Cervantes
      About a Spanish nobleman who went crazy after reading too many books
      About a person stuck in the past and frustrated with the changing world
    • Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
      The Spanish Empire Weakens
      Netherlands was Protestant and had a prosperous middle class involved in international trade
      Netherlands controlled by Spain and Philipp taxed them and took steps to crush Protestantism
      Dutch fought them for 11 years and in 1579 they declared independence from Spain
    • Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
      Defeat of the Spanish Armada
      1580’s main rival to Spain was England
      England Protestant country
      England supported Dutch against Spain, attacked Spanish treasure ships
      Philip II builds huge navy to defeat English (Armada)
      1588 Armada defeated by English
    • Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
      1600’s Spanish power declines
      Wars drained wealth
      • Philipp borrowed money to fight wars from Italian and German bankers, caused country to have a huge debt
      Treasure from Americas led to neglect of farming, commerce, caused inflation (too much gold and silver a problem, money not worth as much)
      Expulsion of Muslims and Jews deprived economy of skilled artisans, merchants, scholars
      Philips successors not as able
      Spain’s rulers also taxed the lower classes, nobles did not have to pay taxes
    • Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
      Independent Dutch Prosper
      United Provinces of the Netherlands were different than other European states
      Had an elected governor that depended on support of merchants and landholders for power
      During 1600’s Dutch had best banks and artists
      Rembrandt greatest artist of period
      Jan Vermeer painted pictures of Dutch domestic life
    • Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
      Dutch Trading Empire
      Stability of government allowed Dutch to focus on economic growth
      Dutch had largest fleet of ships in the world and used the Dutch East India Company to control the spice trade in the East Indies and Asia
      Replaced the Italians as bankers of Europe
    • Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
      Absolutism in Europe
      During the 1400’- 1700’s European rulers claimed they had the authority to rule without limits
      Rulers called absolute monarchs, their goal was to control every aspect of society
      Believed in divine right, God created monarchy and they were God’s representative on Earth
      Rulers did not have to answer to their subjects
    • Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
      Monarch gained power because of the growth of cities and the growth of the economy
      Because of this there was a need for strong central authority
      Middle class backed monarch because a strong government was good for business
      Monarchs allowed businessmen to use the wealth of the colonies to grow the countries economy
      1600’s century of change in Europe
      Religious and territorial conflicts led to continuous warfare
      Governments had to build huge armies and increase taxes to pay for wars
      Monarchs had to increase power
      • They regulated religion, social gatherings
      • Created new governments to control the countries economic life
    • The Reign of Louis XIV
      Section 2
    • The Reign of Louis XIV
      Religious Wars and Power Struggles
      1562-1598Huguenots and Catholics fought 8 religious wars, during this time chaos spread through France
      Huguenots were French Protestants
      1572St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre sparked 6 week war between Catholics and Protestants
      1589 Henry IV (a Protestant king) takes throne and gives up Protestantism and becomes Catholic to bring peace
      1598 Henry issues the Edict of Nantes that allowed Huguenots to live in peace across France and set up their own churches
      After a generation of war people welcomed peace and Henry began to restore French monarchy and prosperity
    • The Reign of Louis XIV
      After the death of Henry his son, Louis XIII took over
      1624 he appointed Cardinal Richelieu as his minister
      Richelieu was the real power in France
      Took steps to increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy in France
      Took power from Huguenots, dictated their living conditions
      Took power from nobles, made them more dependent on the king for protection
      Put middle class in more powerful government positions
      Richelieu also became involved in wars with the most powerful European dynasty the Hapsburgs (the Thirty Years War)
    • The Reign of Louis XIV
      Writers turn toward Skepticism
      New French intellectual movement grew at this time, they had witnessed the religious wars
      Many turned to the idea of skepticism (nothing can be known for certain), and the began to doubt the teaching of the church
      Montaigne- developed new for of literature, the essay, to express a writers thoughts and feelings
      Believed that humans could never have an absolute knowledge of what is true
      Descartes used observations to determine that we could never know what was true
      Influenced modern thinkers by developing the scientific method
    • The Reign of Louis XIV
      Louis XIV Comes to Power
      Louis became king at age 4 in 1642 and ruled for 72 years
      Believed that he and France were one (“I am the state”)
      When Louis was young the real power behind the throne was Cardinal Mazarin
      The nobles hated him because he raised their taxes and made the central government stronger
      1648- 1653 many riots broke out across France protesting Mazarin’s policies
      Louis felt threatened and he never forgot about this, he decided to make the monarchy so strong that this would not happen again
      Rebellions failed because peasants and townspeople grew tired of the fighting
      Because they were tired of wars they accepted Louis oppressive laws
    • The Reign of Louis XIV
      When Mazarin died Louis took control of the government himself
      Weakened power of the nobles by removing them from his government
      Increased the power of government agents who collected taxes and administered justice (intendants), they were not part of the nobility
      Louis made sure local officials kept in touch with him regularly
    • The Reign of Louis XIV
      Louis surrounded himself with luxury at his palace Versailles
      Palace became a symbol of wealth, seat of government, home for nobles
      Made nobles dependent on Louis
      Kept intendants in power in other parts of the country
      By keeping nobles at Versailles it kept them from fighting each other, they fought for favor of Louis
      Louis was a patron of the arts and he made ballet and opera more popular
      The purpose of art was to glorify the king and promote his absolute rule
    • The Reign of Louis XIV
      Economic Growth
      Louis used finance minister Jean Baptiste Colbert to help France attain economic and political power
      Colbert wanted France to become self sufficient and used mercantilist policies to meet his goals
      • Expanded manufacturing
      • Placed a high tariff on goods from other countries
      • Recognized importance of colonies to help economy
      After Colbert’s death in 1685 economic progress slowed
      Louis also canceled Edict of Nantes
      Many Huguenot businessmen and artisans left France and it took many skilled workers out of the economy