Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800


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Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800

  1. 1. Aim/Goal: How did monarchs in different regions of the world exercise absolute power?<br />Do Now: Define the word “absolutism.” Give one example of how an absolute ruler exercises his/her power.<br />Homework:Write a thematic essay that discusses the rule between a leader from the west and non-west. What are the similarities and differences? (This is an excellent review for the regent’s exam.) Choices are listed in the Aim; however you can use any ruler from your global studies knowledge as long as you pick one from the west and one from the non-west. Please read handout provided in Lesson #45. <br /> <br />
  2. 2. Europe Developed Into Absolute Monarchies<br />Feudalism had collapsed.<br />National monarchies replaced.<br />Intense competition for land and trade lead to many wars.<br />Religious differences sparked civil wars.<br />Absolute monarchy emerged to protect the nation and preserve order.<br />“Gunpowder Revolution” began.<br />
  3. 3. MAP: The Hapsburg ruler, Charles V, ruled his empire as a family estate, <br />rather than a united kingdom. Each part kept its own languages, customs, laws <br />and forms of government. Charles traveled round, holding court in different capitals.<br />Note how France is surrounded by the Hapsburg Empire.<br />www.theotherside.co.uk/tm-heritage/ background/flanders.htm<br />http://www.tudorhistory.org/people/charles5/charlesv.jpg<br />
  4. 4. Philip IIKing of Spain (1556-1598) <br />Inherited Spain from father.<br />Sought to strengthen power by war, colonies, and the Catholic Reformation.<br />Weakened Spain by incessant wars and poor economic choices.<br />www.tudorhistory.org/ people/<br />
  5. 5. France was wracked by religious warfare until Henry of Navarre agreed to be king (1589-1610) <br />First of Bourbon dynasty<br />Issued Edict of Nantes which promised religious toleration.<br />Began to rebuild French economy.<br />Assassinated leaving 9-year old son to rule.<br />http://www.kfki.hu/~arthp/html/p/pourbus/frans_y/<br />
  6. 6. Cardinal Richelieu created a strong monarchy.<br />Regent (1624-1642) for Louis XIII (1610-1643)<br />Richelieu broke the power of nobles and Protestants by destroying walled cities and castles.<br />Used the middle class for government jobs.<br />Challenged Hapsburg power by intervening in Thirty Years War.<br />http://home.nyu.edu/~rgr208/richelieu.jpg<br />
  7. 7. When Louis XIII died leaving his five year-old son as king Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661).<br />Continued Richelieu policies. <br />Generally disliked by the French people because of increased taxes and continued consolidation of royal power.<br />Fronde Revolt by nobles harshly suppressed.<br />http://www.ac-strasbourg.fr/pedago/lettres/Victor%20Hugo/Notes/Mazarin.htm<br />
  8. 8. Louis XIV becomes the most powerful king in Europe (1643-1715)<br />When Mazarin died, Louis assumed full control at age 23. <br />Worked long hours to strengthen France.<br />Broke power of nobles and Protestants.<br />Restored economy via mercantilism.<br />Builder of the Palace of Versailles.<br />http://www.royalty.nu/Europe/France/LouisXIV.html<br />
  9. 9. <ul><li>Louis XIV, The Sun King
  10. 10. The best and worst example </li></ul> Of absolute monarchy.<br /><ul><li>“L’Etat c’est moi!”
  11. 11. Crippled France by fighting </li></ul> a series of losing wars and <br /> revoking the Edict of Nantes<br /><ul><li> On his deathbed he urged his</li></ul> young grandson and heir <br /> to avoid wars.<br />
  12. 12. Ferdinand IIHoly Roman Emperor (1619-1637)<br />Wanted greater control of his Protestant nobles.<br />Touched off the Thirty Years War, which eventually involved most of western Europe.<br />Took German States 100 years to rebuild.<br />http://www.kaisergruft.at/anhang/ezhferdi.htm<br />
  13. 13. The arrival of King Gustavus <br />Adolfus’ Swedish forces.<br />Next slide:<br />Soldiers sack and loot a home.<br />The Hanging Tree<br />The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)<br /><ul><li>Hapsburgs v. German Protestants
  14. 14. Sweden v. Hapsburgs
  15. 15. France v. Hapsburgs
  16. 16. Peace of Westphalia, 1648 - created modern Europe.</li></ul>Musketeers prepare to fire a volley<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. The Thirty Years War<br />Many cities were destroyed and an estimated 4 million <br />Germans died. This is the Sack of Magdeburg<br />www.millikin.edu/history/ civilconflict/photo4.htm<br />
  19. 19. Eastern Europe <br />Slower to develop due to the many ethnic minorities and lack of development—primarily agricultural.<br />Feudalism still strong.<br />Hapsburg Family in control.<br />Maria Theresa, Queen of Austria. (1740-1780)<br />http://www.batguano.com/VLBmcaroline.jpg<br />
  20. 20. Frederick the Great (1740-1786) of Prussia was determined to make Prussia the dominate power.<br />Created a strong aggressive military.<br />“ Most nations have an army, Prussia is an army with a nation”.<br />Promoted religious toleration and education at home. <br />Successfully made Prussia dominate power by defeating Austrians. <br />( Seven Years War)<br />www.ncl.ac.uk/~nhistory/ german.htm<br />
  21. 21. Russia centralized under the leadership of the tsars<br />
  22. 22. Ivan III<br />The Great<br />Ivan IV<br />The Terrible<br />Peter the Great<br />1672-1725<br />1462-1505<br />1533-1584<br />www.xenophongi.org/rushistory/ rusinwax/wax28s.jpg<br />www.ronaldbrucemeyer.com/ archive/peter.gif <br />
  23. 23. English monarchs attempted to establish absolute system<br />James I (1603-1625) fought with Parliament over his authority.<br />Puritans wanted Anglican Church to reflect a Calvinist view.<br />James refused to cooperate, except for a new Bible translation.<br />www.bbc.co.uk/history<br />
  24. 24. Charles loses his head in an argument<br />Charles I (1625-1649) pursued an aggressive foreign policy with Spain.<br />Continually sought new funds from Parliament, members checked his power by forcing him to sign the Petition of Right, 1628.<br />When Charles dissolved Parliament and tried to raise money, civil war resulted.<br />: www.mdarchives.state.md.us/.../ 01glance/images/charles1.jpg<br />
  25. 25. Oliver Cromwell defeats king’s forces and became Lord Protector<br />Charles executed for treason.<br />On paper, England was a republic but in practice a dictatorship.<br />Cromwell suppressed revolt in Ireland.<br />Imposed Puritan ideals on English.<br />http://www.graham.day.dsl.pipex.com/civilwar-cromwell.gif<br />
  26. 26. Monarchy Restored<br />When Cromwell died, so did his government.<br />English invited<br /> Charles II (1660-1685) to restore monarchy.<br />Reign was a period of calm marked by court decadence. <br />
  27. 27. Monarchy In Crisis<br />On Charles’ death, brother became king.<br />James II (1685-1688) was pro-Catholic, which angered many.<br />When his young wife produced an heir, Parliament feared a renewed period of turmoil and removed king from power.<br />www.bbc.co.uk/.../monarchs_leaders/ images/james_2_full.jpg<br />
  28. 28. The Glorious RevolutionWilliam and Mary Restore English Monarchy<br />Parliament invited Mary, daughter of Charles I, and a Protestant, to jointly rule with her husband, William of Orange. (1689-1702)<br />Both agreed to follow Parliamentary laws and accepted English Bill of Rights.<br />England became the only limited monarchy in Europe. Parliament in control.<br />www.camelotintl.com/heritage/ rulers/images/willmary.gif<br />