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Attitudes and values
 

Attitudes and values

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    Attitudes and values Attitudes and values Presentation Transcript

    • ATTITUDES &VALUESOrganizationalBehavior1
    • OrganizationalBehavior2Defining Attitudes Attitude is a hypothetical construct Cannot be directly observed – inferred from whatpeople say and do Attitude objects are concrete, abstract, about people,groups of people and inanimate objects Behaviour towards objects is dependent upon attitudetowards objects Attitudes tend to persist unless something is done tochange them Attitudes can fall anywhere along a continuum fromvery favourable to very unfavourable. Attitudes are directed towards some object about whicha person has feelings or affect and beliefs
    • OrganizationalBehavior3HOW MUCH DO YOU SEE OF AN ICEBERG?
    • OrganizationalBehavior4ONLY 10% OFANY ICEBERGIS VISIBLE.THEREMAINING90% IS BELOWSEA LEVEL.
    • OrganizationalBehavior5SEA LEVELBEHAVIORVALUES – STANDARDS – JUDGMENTSATTITUDEMOTIVES – ETHICS - BELIEFSKNOWNTO OTHERSUNKNOWNTO OTHERS
    • OrganizationalBehavior6Evaluative statements orjudgments concerning objects,people, or events.Three components of an attitude:The emotionalThe emotionalor feelingor feelingsegment of ansegment of anattitudeattitudeThe opinion orThe opinion orbelief segment ofbelief segment ofan attitudean attitude An intention toAn intention tobehave in a certainbehave in a certainway toward someoneway toward someoneor somethingor something
    • THREE COMPONENTS OFATTITUDES Cognitive Component – The opinionor belief segment of an attitude. Affective Component – Theemotional or feeling segment of anattitude. Behavioral Component – Anintention to behave in a certain waytowards someone or something.7OrganizationalBehavior
    • OrganizationalBehavior8Festinger’s Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility betweentwo or more attitudes or between behavior andattitudes People’s attitudes or beliefs can be consonant (in line),dissonant (at odds), or not related to each other If dissonant, we experience psychological discomfort Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, ordissonance, to reach stability and consistency Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes,modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization Desire to reduce dissonance depends on: Importance of elements Degree of individual influence Rewards involved in dissonance
    • MODERATING VARIABLES The most powerful moderators of the attitude-behavior relationship are: Importance of the attitude Correspondence to behavior Accessibility Existence of social pressures Personal and direct experience of theattitude.9OrganizationalBehavior
    • CHANGING ATTITUDES Barriers to changing attitudes:1. Prior commitment2. Insufficient information Methods to overcome barriers and changeattitudes:1. Providing new information2. Use of fear3. Resolving Discrepancies4. Influence of friends and peers5. The co-opting approach10OrganizationalBehavior
    • WHAT ARE THE MAJOR JOB ATTITUDES? Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about the job resulting from anevaluation of its characteristics Job Involvement Degree of psychological identification with thejob where perceived performance is important toself-worth Psychological Empowerment Belief in the degree of influence over the job,competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy11OrganizationalBehavior
    • ANOTHER MAJOR JOB ATTITUDE Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and itsgoals, while wishing to maintain membership inthe organization. Three dimensions: Affective – emotional attachment toorganization Continuance Commitment – economic value ofstaying Normative - moral or ethical obligations Has some relation to performance, especially fornew employees. Less important now than in past – now perhapsmore of occupational commitment, loyalty toprofession rather than a given employer. 12OrganizationalBehavior
    • AND YET MORE MAJOR JOB ATTITUDES… Perceived Organizational Support (POS) Degree to which employees believe the organization valuestheir contribution and cares about their well-being. Higher when rewards are fair, employees are involved indecision-making, and supervisors are seen as supportive. High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance. Employee Engagement The degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, andenthusiasm for the job. Engaged employees are passionate about their work andcompany.13OrganizationalBehavior
    • OUTCOMES OF JOB SATISFACTION Job Performance Satisfied workers are more productive ANDmore productive workers are more satisfied! The causality may run both ways. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptionsof fairness. Customer Satisfaction Satisfied frontline employees increase customersatisfaction and loyalty. Absenteeism Satisfied employees are moderately less likely tomiss work.14OrganizationalBehavior
    • MORE OUTCOMES OF JOB SATISFACTION Turnover Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Many moderating variables in this relationship. Economic environment and tenure Organizational actions taken to retain highperformers and to weed out lower performers Workplace Deviance Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize,abuse substances, steal, be tardy, and withdraw.Despite the overwhelming evidence of the impactof job satisfaction on the bottom line, mostmanagers are either unconcerned about oroverestimate worker satisfaction. 15OrganizationalBehavior
    • VALUESBasic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of conduct or end-state of existence is personallyor socially preferable to an opposite or conversemode of conduct or end-state of existence. Attributes of Values: Content Attribute – that the mode of conduct or end-state is important Intensity Attribute – just how important that content is. Value System A person’s values rank ordered by intensity Tends to be relatively constant and consistent 16OrganizationalBehavior
    • IMPORTANCE OF VALUES Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation,and behaviors Influence our perception of the world around us Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong” Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferredover others17OrganizationalBehavior
    • CLASSIFYING VALUES –ROKEACH VALUE SURVEY Terminal Values Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that aperson would like to achieve during his or her lifetime Instrumental Values Preferable modes of behavior or means of achievingone’s terminal values People in same occupations or categories tend to holdsimilar values But values vary between groups Value differences make it difficult for groups to negotiateand may create conflict 18OrganizationalBehavior
    • VALUES IN THE ROKEACH SURVEYOrganizationalBehavior19
    • VALUES Values differ across cultures. Hofstede’s Framework for assessingculture – five value dimensions: Power Distance Individualism vs. Collectivism Masculinity vs. Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation20OrganizationalBehavior
    • HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK:POWER DISTANCE The extent to which a society accepts that power ininstitutions and organizations is distributed unequally. Low distance Relatively equal power between those withstatus/wealth and those without status/wealth High distance Extremely unequal power distribution between thosewith status/wealth and those without status/wealth21OrganizationalBehavior
    • HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK:INDIVIDUALISM Individualism The degree to which people prefer to act asindividuals rather than a member of groups Collectivism A tight social framework in which people expectothers in groups of which they are a part to lookafter them and protect them22OrganizationalBehavior
    • HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK:MASCULINITY Masculinity The extent to which the society values work rolesof achievement, power, and control, and whereassertiveness and materialism are also valued Femininity The extent to which there is little differentiationbetween roles for men and women23OrganizationalBehavior
    • HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK:UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE The extent to which a society feels threatened byuncertain and ambiguous situations and tries toavoid them High Uncertainty Avoidance:Society does not like ambiguous situations and tries to avoidthem. Low Uncertainty Avoidance:Society does not mind ambiguous situations and embracesthem.24OrganizationalBehavior
    • HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK:TIME ORIENTATION Long-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes thefuture, thrift, and persistence Short-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes thepresent and the here and now25OrganizationalBehavior
    • HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK: ANASSESSMENT There are regional differences within countries The original data is old and based on only onecompany Hofstede had to make many judgment calls whiledoing the research Some results don’t match what is believed to be trueabout given countries Despite these problems it remains a very popularframework26OrganizationalBehavior