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this presentation explains about global warming and climatic changes...

this presentation explains about global warming and climatic changes...
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akash_4076@yahoo.com

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  • Breakup of the Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica January, 31 st 2002 3250 Sq Km, 200m thick
  • Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentrations (1750 to present) Preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentrations were approximately 275 parts per million. Today concentrations are approximately 367 ppmv, an increase of over 30 percent. Data Source : C.D. Keeling and T.P. Whorf, Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (ppmv) derived from in situ air samples collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, August 1998. A. Neftel et al, Historical CO2 Record from the Siple Station Ice Core, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland, September 1994. See http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/co2/contents.htm
  • Atmospheric Methane (CH4) Concentrations (1840 - present) Since 1840, atmospheric concentrations of methane has increased by about by more than 115 percent, to almost 1800 ppb. Data Source : D.M. Etheridge et al. Concentrations of CH4 from the Law Dome (East Side, "DE08" Site) Ice Core(a), Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia. September 1994. Available: http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/trends/methane/lawdome.259. M.A.K. Khalil, R.A. Rasmussen, and F. Moraes. "Atmospheric methane at Cape Meares: Analysis of a high resolution data base and its environmental implications." Journal of Geophysical Research 98:14,753-14,770. 1993. Available: http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/db1007/cmeares.mon
  • Per Capita Emissions of Carbon from Industrial Sources, 1996 In terms of per capita emissions of carbon from fossil fuel combustion, cement manufacturing and gas flaring, the United States emits more than 5 thousand tons per person each year, while developing countries like India and China emit about 0.29 and 0.76 thousand tons respectively. The US also emits about twice as much per capita as large European countries like Germany, the United Kingdom and France. Data Source : Marland et al, 1999. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.
  • Scientific uncertainties concerning global warming remain. For example, computer models disagree with one another on local and regional climate impacts. One issues of uncertainty is the effects on climate of increased cloudiness. Depending on their chemical properties, more clouds could magnify or offset some of the expected temperature rise from an increase in cloudy weather. Ecological and health impacts could be far reaching. They include more forest fires, outbreaks of deadly viruses, the northward spread of tropical diseases, flooding from storms, and so on. And there could be totally unforeseen atmospheric effects, as happened with the emergence of the ozone hole over Antarctica.
  • Global annual-mean surface air temperature anomaly (in degrees Fahrenheit) derived from the meteorological station network [an update of Figure 6(b) in Hansen, et al. (2001)]. The base period for calculating the anomaly is 1951-1980. Note the overall increase of almost 2 degrees F over the last 100 years. This temperature increase has occurred in two steps -from the turn of the century to 1940, and then from 1970 to the present, with a slight cooling period from 1940-1970. The trends in the Northeast USe are similar, and in thjs presentation we will focus on trends over the last 100 years and the last 30 years. REFERENCE: Hansen, J.E., R. Ruedy, Mki. Sato, M. Imhoff, W. Lawrence, D. Easterling, T. Peterson, and T. Karl 2001. A closer look at United States and global surface temperature change. J. Geophys. Res. 106 , 23947-23963, doi:10.1029/2001JD000354.
  • Trends in sea surface temperatures off the east and south coasts of New England over the past 150 years. Data comes from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS). REFERENCE: Smith, T.M. and R.W. Reynolds. 2003. Extended Reconstruction of Global Sea Surface Temperatures Based on COADS Data (1854-1997). Journal of Climate, 16, 1495-1510.
  • Relative sea level rise measure in Boston and New York measured with tidal gauges. Sea level has risen about 15 inches over the last 150 years. This is a result of both increasing volume of ocean water (due to the fact the water is getting warmer and therefore occupies more volume, and because glaciers around the world are melting, contributing more water to the ocean) and because the New England coast continues to subside in response to the retreat of the large ice sheet that was here 18,000 years ago.
  • Weather and climate in the Northeastern U.S. are arguably among the most variable in the world. This variability on time scales from hours to years is the result of several factors that relate to the physical geographical setting of the region, including its latitude, topography, and coastal orientation. Despite this variability, the indicators of the Northeast’s changing climate presented in this report provide a coherent set of evidence of a region that is warming, especially over the last thirty years. This evidence comes from a wide range of environments – the atmosphere, the biosphere, the oceans, and snow and ice. Additional research is required to better understand our changing climate, and to determine why it is changing. There are additional indicators that will be collected in the coming years that report not only on changes in the region’s climate, but also the impact those changes are having on the region’s environment, economy, and quality of life. However, the remarkably consistent signal of a warming trend across the region cannot and should not be ignored. We now have our canary in the coal mine.
  • Scientific uncertainties concerning global warming remain. For example, computer models disagree with one another on local and regional climate impacts. One issues of uncertainty is the effects on climate of increased cloudiness. Depending on their chemical properties, more clouds could magnify or offset some of the expected temperature rise from an increase in cloudy weather. Ecological and health impacts could be far reaching. They include more forest fires, outbreaks of deadly viruses, the northward spread of tropical diseases, flooding from storms, and so on. And there could be totally unforeseen atmospheric effects, as happened with the emergence of the ozone hole over Antarctica.

Global warming Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. GLOBAL WARMING & ITS EFFECTS
  • 3. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans. It has caused excessive heating up of earth and now a days is a tropic of concern.
  • 4. Global Warming Facts
    • • The 1990s were the warmest decade since 1861,
    • when thermometer records began.
    • • 1998 was the warmest year on record.
    • • The temperature increase of the 20th Century was
    • the largest of any century in the last 1,000 years.
    • • The ten hottest years since the beginning of the
    • last millennium have all occurred since 1983.
  • 5.  
  • 6. January 31 st 2002 March 7 th 2002 A most recent example Breakup of the Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica Images from NASA TERRA satellite 3250 sq km large and 200 m thick iceberg collapsed
  • 7. Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (1750 to present) Data Source: CDIAC, Oakridge National Research Laboratory, USA
  • 8. Atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations Data Source: CDIAC, Oakridge National Research Laboratory, USA
  • 9. Per capita emissions of carbon from industrial sources, 1996 Concept of per-capita emission introduced by Anil Aggarwal & Sunita Narain of Centre for Science and Environment (CSE); Source:CDIAC
  • 10.  
  • 11.
    • View of earth in the future due to global warming.
  • 12. Sectoral Impacts: Direct Agriculture Increased vulnerability over Tropics & Sub-tropics Crop Diseases Health Thermal Stress Increase in vector & water borne diseases Eco-systems Species become endangered Migration of biomes
  • 13. Sectoral Impacts: Direct Power Increased Power demand Water Resources Glacier retreat Stress on Water Supply Coastal Zone Salanization, Soil Erosion, Displacement of population Weather Monsoon Variability, Extreme Weather Events
  • 14. Sectoral Impacts: Indirect Almost all Sectors of Human Activities Cumulative Effect on Industrial Infrastructure and Economic Growth With Consequences on Societal Balance Impact of Monsoon variability on Agricultural demand and consequences on Industry
  • 15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector
  • 16. Global Average Annual Temperature Anomaly ( o F) From meteorological stations 1880-2005 Hansen et al. (2001) J. Geophysical Res. Vol 106, p. 23,947-23,963 Data from http://www.giss.nasa.gov/data/update/gistemp/
  • 17. Sea Surface Temperatures Gulf of Maine 1.1 o F warming over last 150 years 1.6 o F warming over last 150 years
  • 18. Sea Level Rise
  • 19. CLIMATIC CHANGES Climate Change in spite of Uncertainties, is a Reality
  • 20. Climate Change is a Direct Consequence of Unsustainable Consumption driven by wasteful, consumerist, energy intensive production & consumption systems
  • 21.  
  • 22. (1000 years) temperature records
  • 23. Projected Temperature Change, 1910 -2040
  • 24. Climate change and extreme climate events Weather regimes in ARPEGE-Climat Stretched grid, Variable Resolution ~ 60 Km over France and Spain ~ 600 Km over the Southern Pacific Data: -3 simulations of control (1960-1999) -3 simulations of scenario A2 from IPCC (2070-2099)
  • 25. Climate change and extreme climate events Weather regimes in ERA40 ( winter ) Greenland Anticyclone(GA) 7j 16% Atlantic Ridge (AR) 6j 16% Blocking (BL) 6j 17% Zonal (ZO) 8j 22%
  • 26. Climate change and extreme climate events Weather regimes in ERA40 ( summer ) Greenland Anticyclone(GA) 7j 11% Atlantic Ridge(AR) 6j 15% Blocking (BL) 6j 14% Zonal (ZO) 7j 12%
  • 27. Climate change and extreme climate events - Extreme events are identified by a threshold value (5%, 95% quantiles). - Variables: Tmax, Tmin, Precipitation, Storm Tracks Extreme climate events Change of probability: C = ( Px / 5 )-1) *100 Px=10; C=100% Px=15; C=200% Px=0; C=-100% !! Threshold value 5% P X %
  • 28.
    • To Conclude ….
    • Th ere is an urgent need to evolve an Umbrella mechanism to integrate relevant Scientific Knowledge Base to deal with Climate Change Issues.
    • Through S & T capacity building, nurture new technologies to generate user friendly products required by Stakeholders for initiating proactive actions and evolve new policies in National and International Context.
    • Considering India’s strength, a bright opportunity exists for us to take a lead role in the Tropical Asian region by giving the Centre an International dimension.
  • 29.
    • We should join our hands to save earth!!!