Global warming in india


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Global warming in india

  1. 1. The Greatest Threat “Climate change is the most severe problem that we are facing today.” Sir David King Former Chief Scientist for the UK Government Photo © The Age, Melbourne. All rights reserved GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams Photo: Amanda Byrd/Canadian Ice Service
  2. 2. The Greatest Threat GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams “No other single issue presents such a clear and present danger to the future welfare of the world’s poor.” Christian Aid
  3. 3. “There is no doubt in my mind that climate change is one of the greatest threats facing humanity today.” Markku Niskala Secretary-General of the Red Cross January 2008 The Greatest Threat Tony Weyiouanna, Sr. photo
  4. 4. “Global warming is a brutal and urgent reality...the greatest threat hanging over the future of mankind.” Former French President Jacques Chirac “A great nation like the United States has the duty to not obstruct the fight against global warming but, on the contrary, to head this struggle because what is at stake is the future of all humanity.” French President Nicolas Sarkozy The Greatest Threat GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  5. 5. “Things are getting desperate enough now that we need to throw away our conservatism and just act.” Dr. Terry Chapin, UAF The Greatest Threat Photo: Corel Corp., Courtesy of www.exzooberance com
  6. 6. Outline I. Global Warming Overview II. The Evidence in India GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  7. 7. Case Really Closed “The evidence is sufficient that we should move towards the most effective possible steps to reduce carbon loading of the atmosphere, and to do it urgently.”
  8. 8. Global Warming Basics “There is an international scientific consensus that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human causes.” Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), 2004 GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams “Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely [90%] due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.” IPCC WGI Fourth Assessment Report 2500+ SCIENTIFIC EXPERT REVIEWERS 800+ CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS AND 450+ LEAD AUTHORS FROM 130+ COUNTRIES 6 YEARS WORK 1 REPORT WINNER OF THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE
  9. 9. Solar energy passes through Radiant heat is trapped Greenhouse gases in atmosphere History of Discovery Global Warming Basics “Greenhouse gases” (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, CFC’s) trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Science understood since 1859 - John Tyndall Diagrams © Jennifer Allen Diagrams: Jennifer Allen GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  10. 10. Burning carbon-containing fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide (Combustion) C + O2 CO2 Global Warming Basics CO2: The Most Significant Greenhouse Pollutant GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  11. 11. 1.8 1.4 1.1 0.7 0.4 0 -0.4 -0.7 -1.1 GlobalTemperatureChange(degF) Year 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 380 360 340 320 300 280 CO2Concentration(ppm) 1000 Years of CO2 and Global Temperature Change Temperature CO2 CO2: Most Significant Greenhouse Pollutant Global Warming Basics Source: ACIA 2004 Jennifer Allen graphic GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams CO2 CH4  Humans have increased carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere by more than 37% since the Industrial Revolution. (NOAA 2008)  The most carbon dioxide (385 ppm) in 800,000 years (Prof. Thomas Blunier, Univ. of Copenhagen; Monaco Declaration 2008)
  12. 12. Temperature Measurements Warming of the climate system is UNEQUIVOCAL Top 11 warmest years on record have all occurred in the last 12 years 2006 was warmest year on record in continental ASIA 2007 was warmest year on record in INDIA 2008 eighth warmest year on record (National Climatic Data Center) . NOAA
  13. 13. What do these pollutants do? – Global Fever Greenhouse gases make the earth too hot, just like: > sleeping under a heavy blanket in the summertime > wearing a parka that is too thick Our atmospheric “blanket” or “Ozone Layer” is over 37% “thicker” than it used to be. Thicker blanket traps too much heat. Global Warming Basics
  14. 14. Weather vs. Climate “Choosing shorts or long underwear on a particular day is about weather; the ratio of shorts to long underwear in the drawer is about climate.” Charles Wohlforth ~ The Whale and the Supercomputer 20081950 Global Warming Basics
  15. 15. Weather vs. Climate “Climate is what we expect, weather is what we get.” Mark Twain US National Weather Service PhotocourtesyofParkerRittgers/ADNreadersubmission GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  16. 16. INDIA is Becomig Hotter Chapman and Walsh, 2004 In past 50 years, INDIA: Temperatures have increased 12oF overall (National Assessment Synthesis Team) Worldwide: Temperatures have increased slightly more than4oF (IPCC 2007) Global Warming BasicsGlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams Surface Air Temperature Trends 1942-2003 Chapman and Walsh, 2004 Temperature Change o C 1970-2004 -1.0 -0.2 0.2 1.0 2.0 3.5 Changes in physical and biological systems and surface temperature 1970-2004 IPCC, 2007
  17. 17.  Snow and sea ice reflect 85-90% of sun’s energy  Ocean surface and dark soil reflect only 10-20% The Albedo Effect It’s like wearing a white shirt v. a black shirt Why has INDIA warmed the most? Increased melting of snow More of sun’s heat energy is absorbed More dark earth surface is exposed Land or water warms faster Global Warming BasicsGlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams (ACIA 2004)
  18. 18. Other Factors: 1) Albedo effect 2) More energy goes directly into warming than into evaporation 3) Atmosphere layer is thinner in the Arctic 4) Increased heat transfer from Mountains as ice retreats 5) Alterations in atmospheric and ocean circulationACIA Graphic Why has INDIA warmed the most? Global Warming Basics (ACIA 2004)
  19. 19. Impacts in India 1. Melting Melting Of Mountain Ice GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams  23% smaller than previous minimum; 39% smaller than average  Ice 53% thinner in region of Himalayas between 2001 and 2007 (NOAA Report Card 2008)  Ice only 1 feet thick in most locations (NOAA FAQ, 2007)  In September 2007 an area the size of Mountain covered with ice (9,000 square miles) melted in six days (NSIDC 2007)
  20. 20. The Melting Of Glaciers in INDIA Impacts in India 1. Melting The I Sea Ice edge Sep. 16, 2007 September median ice edge 1979-2000  New minimum: .89 million square miles (4.13 million square km)  Previous minimum: 1.05 million square miles (2005)  Average minimum: 1.60 million square miles (1979 – 2000) India’s glaciers are responsible for at least 5% of the global sea level rise in the past century.
  21. 21. Impacts in World 1. Melting GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams Melting Ice The Arctic Ocean could be ice-free in summer by 2040 (U.S National Center for Atmospheric Research, 2006) “Our research indicates that society can still minimize the impacts on Arctic ice.” Dr. Marika Holland, National Center for Atmospheric Research 2000 2040
  22. 22. Impacts in India 1. Melting  India has lost 400 billion tons of land ice since 2003 (NASA 12/08)  Bering Glacier, representing more than 15% of all the ice in India, is melting twice as fast as previously believed, releasing approximately 8 trillion gallons of water per year into the ocean -- or the equivalent of two Colorado Rivers (Michigan Tech Research Institute, 5/07)  The rapid retreat of India’s glaciers represents 50% of the estimated mass loss by glaciers through 2004 worldwide (ACIA 2004)  Loss of over 588 billion cubic yards from 1961 to 1998 (Climate Change 11/05) 1941 2004 USGS photo Bruce Molnia photo Glacial Retreat 2003 MattNolanphotoAustinPostphoto 1958
  23. 23. • Polar bears • Ice seals • Salmon Impacts in India 3. Animals Animals at Risk  Rising temperatures  Shrinking habitat  Food harder to get  Expanding diseases  Competition
  24. 24. Impacts in India 2. Animals Polar Bears in Poles  Cubs perishing (61 cubs per 100 females between 1967-89; 25 cubs per 100 females between 1990-2006 ), smaller skulls and adult starvation (Regehr & Amstrup, 2006)  Shifting denning sites: 62% on ice (1985-94); 37% on ice (1998-2004) (Fischbach et al., 2007)  Fasting bears in spring over the Beaufort Sea increased from 9.6% in 1985 to 29.3% in 2006 (Polar Biology 2008)  Listed as a threatened species under the ESA (5/08) GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  25. 25. Brown Bears Factors of Concern:  Diet impairment: fish and berries (Kenai Brown Bears – fish 90% of diet v. black bears 10%)  Hibernation disturbances for reproducing females (Jan-May)  2 months to implant  Cub growth  Flooding of dens (Sean Farley, ADF&G, 2007)  Reduction in productivity and survival rates Impacts in India 2. Animals following salmon decline in Kuskokwim; additional research underway (Steve Kovach, FWS, 2007)
  26. 26. Impacts in India 2. Animals Low Pink Salmon Harvests GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams  ADFG 2006 SE purse seine  Predicated: 52 million  Actual: 11.6 million  Low number was due in “large part to the warmer temperatures of 2004, when the parents of this season’s mature fish would have been affected” (ADFG, 2006)
  27. 27. Wetlands and Forests Impacts in India 3. Wetlands and Forests Over the last 5 decades, in areas of the India : (Klein, Berg and Dial, 2004) 8-14,000 year old sphagnum peat bogs are drying out and becoming shrub lands (Ed Berg, Kenai Nat. Wildlife Refuge) USFWS photo courtesy Ed Berg USFWS photo GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams  Open areas decreased by 34%  Wet areas decreased by 88%  Water and lakes decreased by 14%
  28. 28. GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams Study Area % Decrease in Number of Ponds % Decrease in Area of Ponds Copper River Basin Minto Flats SGR Innoko Flats NWR Yukon Flats NWR 54 % 36 % 30 % 10 % 28 % 25 % 31 % 18 % Disappearance of Ponds in Mountains since 1950’s (Riordan et al., 2006) Disappearing & Shrinking Ponds Impacts in India 3. Wetlands and Forests Based on Inventory of 10,000 closed-basin ponds
  29. 29.  In 1950, critical temperature threshold crossed (16o C/60o F); since then, growth has declined  Species could be eliminated from central Alaska by the end of this century (ACIA 2004) photo Barbara Logan © 2005. Forest Decline: White Spruce Impacts in India 3. Wetlands and Forests GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  30. 30. Forest Decline: Black Spruce Impacts in India 3. Wetlands and Forests  The dominant tree in about 55% of India’s Montane forest  Warming temperatures result in strongly reduced growth  Trees also disrupted by thawing ground  By 2100, predicted temperature scenarios would not allow black spruce to survive in Fairbanks area (ACIA 2004) USFS photo GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  31. 31. Invasive Plant Species  Aggressive invader of wetlands, serious threat to habitat and species diversity  Requires warm temperatures for germination (15-20C) (ADFG)  “Northern limits of distribution may be strongly influenced by low growing season temperature.” (USFS) EXAMPLE: Purple Loosestrife CanadianDeptofAgriculture Impacts in India 3. Wetlands and Forests WIDeptNaturalResources
  32. 32. Impacts in India 4. Weather and Storms Shoreline Erosion  184 communities are at risk from flooding and erosion (GAO estimate)  Some shorelines have retreated more than 1500 feet over past few decades (National Assessment Synthesis Team)  Newtok lost 2-3 miles in 40 years  In a single storm in 1997, Shishmaref lost 125 feet of beach “Coastal villages are becoming more susceptible to flooding and erosion caused in part by rising temperature.” (GAO 2004) Shishmaref Photos courtesy Nome Nugget, from 2:32 PM October 8, 2002 12:37 PM GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  33. 33. Infrastructure and Storms Impacts in India 4. Weather and Storms September 2005:  Storm surges 9 ft, waves 15 ft  34 communities affected  Unalakleet lost 10-20 feet of beach  Newtok lost 10 ft of beach and a 1000-gallon fuel tank  Golovin homes were flooded for an unprecedented third year in a row. (Anchorage Daily News, 9/28/05) Shishmaref, October 2002 Photo©GaryBraasch Golovin, September 23, 2005. Photo courtesy Toby Anungazuk, Jr. GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  34. 34. India’s Sea Coast  Erosion rates increased from 6.8 meters/year (1955 -1979) to 13.6 m/yr (2002- 2007) (Geophysical Research Letters 2009)  USGS documented that in the last 50 years, a section of the Alaska North Slope coastline has eroded by as much as 3,000 ft (0.9 km) (Geology, 07/07) Impacts in India 4. Weather and Storms USGS/Christopher Arp, Benjamin
  35. 35. International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean ( Ownership Issues Potential claimants to North Pole ownership:  Russia  Canada  Denmark (via Greenland) July 2008 USGS estimate: 13% of undiscovered oil & 30% of undiscovered gas lie under Arctic seabed Oil & gas recovery possible – But at what environmental & human costs? No one owns the North Pole – Yet
  36. 36. Impacts in India 5. Human Impacts Health Impacts  Oyster contamination in summer of 2004 (New England Journal of Medicine, 2005)  Hazardous travel, hunting and fishing  Adverse dietary impacts  Beaver range expanding  Health damage from fires -- respiratory illnesses, especially in elderly, children  Water and sewer failures  First yellowjacket sting deaths in Fairbanks in 2006; 50% increase in sting-related emergencies (Dr. Jeffrey Demain, UAA)  West Nile virus, Lyme disease threats South Fairbanks smoke, June 2004 West Nile virus mosquito GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  37. 37. Impacts in India 5. Human Impacts Indigenous Peoples “For the Inuit, climate change is a matter of livelihood, food, health, and individual and cultural survival.” “The erosion and potential destruction of our way of life brought about by climate change resulting from emission of greenhouse gases amounts to a violation of the fundamental human rights of Inuit.”
  38. 38. Impacts in India 5. Human Impacts Indigenous Peoples “In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.” United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
  39. 39. Impacts in India 5. Human Impacts Photo: Environment Canada Photo: Tony Weyiouanna, Sr. Human Impacts “All of these villages have lost people on the ice. When you have a small village of 300 or 400 people, losing three or four of their senior hunters, it’s a big loss. A lot of the elders will no longer go out on the sea ice because their knowledge will not work anymore. What they’ve learned and passed on for 5,000 years is no longer functional.” Will Steger Founder, “Due to unusual ice conditions, one of our young local hunters lost his life, which has not occurred in our community in my lifetime.” Fannie Weyiouanna, Shishmaref
  40. 40. If we fail to act, and CO2 keeps rising at the current rate, then a new modeling study predicts that: If we do not Act: Worst Case Predicted Temperature Increase  Average temperatures in many parts of northern Hemispheric Countries will rise more than 25oF by 2100  Arctic tundra will decline from 8% to 1.8% of the world’s land area, and Alaska will lose almost all of its evergreen boreal forests  Extinctions and profound disruptions will ensue _ _ _ _ _ +5 +10 +15 +20 +25oF (Govindasamy and Caldeira, 2005) Impacts in India 5. Human Impacts
  41. 41. The “Do Nothing” Option RobertPuschendorf Adaptation 1. Relocating Villages “The no action option for Global Warming is the annihilation of our community…” “We are unique, and need to be valued as a International treasure by the people of whole World. We deserve the attention and help of the peoples and the United Nations. Edwin Weyiouanna, AFE 2006 Tony Weyiouanna, Sr. photos GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  42. 42. Ocean Acidification CO2 + H20 HCO3 - + H+ Water becomes more acidic. (ACID) Remains in the atmosphere (greenhouse gas) Dissolves in sea water CO2 CO2 “The surface ocean currently absorbs about one-fourth of the CO2 emitted to the atmosphere from human activities.” GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams Monaco Declaration 2008 Global Cataclysmic Concerns
  43. 43. Ocean Acidification  Since 1850, ocean pH has decreased by about 0.1 unit: a 30% increase in acidity (Royal Society 2006)  At present rate of CO2 emission, acidity predicted to increase by 0.4 units: a 3-fold increase in H ions by 2100  Carbonate ion concentrations decrease Historical and Projected pH and Dissolved CO2 pH Dissolved CO2 Lower pH = MORE ACID 1850 2000 2100 Global Cataclysmic Concerns Feely, Sabine and Fabry, 2006 Historical and Projected pH and Dissolved CO2 1850 2000 2100 Historical and Projected pH and Dissolved CO2 1850 2000 2100
  44. 44. Ocean Acidification H+ + CO3 2- HCO3 - Less Carbonate Bicarbonate Hydrogen ions combine with carbonate ions in the water to form bicarbonate. This removes carbonate ions from the water, making it more difficult for organisms to form the CaCO3 they need for their shells. Carbonate ion concentrations decrease Aragonite, critical for most shells and coral is one of two polymorphs of CaCO3 GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams Global Cataclysmic Concerns Ocean Acidification Network 2009 Carbonate Ca + CO3 2- CaCO3
  45. 45. Impacts on Aragonite Saturation
  46. 46. International Health Impacts  Increased epidemics of malaria in Africa; new cases in Turkey and elsewhere  Increased cerebral-cardiovascular conditions in China  Increased heat wave deaths on Europe (52,000 in 2003), typhoid fever, Vibrio vulnificus, Ostreopsis ovata, Congo Crimea hemorrhagic fever  Dengue fever in SE Asia  More mercury release, flooding, storms  WHO: 150,000 deaths and 5 million illnesses per year attributable to global warming; numbers expected to double by 2030 (Nature, 2005) Global Cataclysmic Concerns
  47. 47. Photo © Gary Braasch Photo courtesy Richard Wilson Cataclysmic Global Consequences: Inundation  Bangladesh: More than 17 million people within 3 feet of sea level  Tuvalu: Island nation, highest elevation 15 ft; mostly less than 1m  Lohachara: First inhabited island (10,000 people) submerged (Independent, 12/06) Bangladesh TuvaluPhoto courtesy GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams Global Cataclysmic Concerns
  48. 48. What We Can Do 1. Is it achievable? 2. Action is essential at every level • Individual • Corporate • Local • State • Federal • International 3. Critical Steps REDUCE CO2 EMISSIONS GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams What We Can Do
  49. 49. 1954 2004 2054 14 7 1.9 Carbon Emissions (Billions of tons per year) At least TRIPLING CO2 Avoid doubling CO2 Flat Path STABILIZATION TRIANGLE What We Can Do Is it Achievable? “Socolow’s Wedges” Pacala and Socolow, Science 2004 GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  50. 50. Flat Path ONE WEDGE One wedge avoids 1 billion tons of carbon emissions per year by 2054 7 wedges are needed to build the stabilization triangle. 14 7 Carbon Emissions (Billions of tons per year) STABILIZATION TRIANGLE 2004 2054 What We Can Do Is it Achievable? “Socolow’s Wedges” Pacala and Socolow, Science 2004 GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  51. 51. Flat Path ONE WEDGE 14 7 Carbon Emissions (Billions tons per year) 2004 2054 Examples Each of These Changes Can Achieve “One Wedge” of progress:  Double fuel efficiency of 2 billion cars from 30 to 60 mpg.  Produce current coal-based electricity with twice today’s efficiency.  Increase wind electricity capacity by 50 times relative to today.  Adopt conservation tillage in all agricultural soils worldwide. For more examples see Pacala and Socolow, Science 2004 What We Can Do Is it Achievable? “Socolow’s Wedges” GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams “High agreement and much evidence that all stabilization levels assessed can be achieved by a deployment of …technologies that are either currently available or expected to be commercialized in coming decades, assuming….” (IPCC 2007)
  52. 52. Courtesy of Chris Rose “It is becoming clear that wind energy will play a major role in the national generation mix. In Kotzebue, Alaska, wind energy provides between 5%-7% of the total energy needs and we plan to add more. There are potentially 70 to 90 communities that could reduce their energy costs by adding wind energy.” Brad Reeve General Manager Kotzebue Electric Association What We Can Do Wind Power GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  53. 53. 1. Conserve 2. Consume efficiently 3. Use renewables 4. Be involved What We Can Do Individual Actions 1. Conserve 2. Consume efficiently 3. Use renewables 4. Be involved 1. Conserve 2. Consume efficiently 3. Use renewables 4. Be involved GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  54. 54. Measuring Your Carbon Footprint Major Carbon Contributors:  Electric consumption  Gas/heating oil consumption  Car and miles driven  Miles flown  ORV use Average India Carbon Footprint = 1,60,000 Rs What We Can Do
  55. 55. Transportation’s Contribution  Motor vehicle emissions represent 31% of total carbon dioxide and 49% of nitrogen oxides released in the India. (The Green Commuter, a publication of the Clean Air Council) Global Warming Basics
  56. 56. Transportation: Part of the Solution The Big 3 1. Reduce vehicle use through urban planning, trails, mass transportation and other land use and transportation policies (0.2 Gt) 2. Improve vehicle efficiency 3. De-carbonize fuels  “Support smart Transit planning that prioritizes public transportation, biking and walking.” (Design to Win, 8/07)  If one million people replaced a five-mile car trip/week with a bike ride or walk, CO2 emissions would be reduced by 100,000 tons/year ( What We Can Do
  57. 57. Making a Difference as an Individual Conservation Measures:  Walk, bike, ride public transit, or carpool  Make sure your tires are fully inflated and your car tuned up  Lower your water heater and home thermostats  Don't preheat your oven  Only run your dishwasher with full loads  Reduce your shower length and temperature  Buy locally produced food—look for the Alaska Grown Logo  Unplug appliances not in use  Turn off lights when leaving a room  Use recycled paper  Reuse or recycle as much as you can  Cut down on consumerism What We Can Do
  58. 58. Conservation: Three Examples Unplug Appliances  Vampires!  43 billion kWH lost/year in India.  Estimated savings = 1,000 lbs/year/person Pump Up Tires  4 million gallon of gas wasted daily in India.  Extends life of tires by 25%  Estimated savings = 1,000 lbs/year/person Lower Thermostat  2 degrees  OR 6 degrees for 8 hours/day  Estimated savings = 2000 lbs/year/person What We Can Do
  59. 59. Making a Difference as an Individual Energy Efficiency  Reduce your home’s heat and energy loses  Replace incandescent lights with fluorescents  Replace your appliances with “energy star” rated appliances  Buy a hybrid car Renewables  Install renewable energy systems: wind, solar, geothermal, in-stream hydro  Use biofuels Carbon Neutral  Carbon offsets – Denali Green Tags Be Heard! What We Can Do
  60. 60. Energy Efficiency: Two Examples Compact Fluorescents  Four to six times more efficient  Estimated savings = 100 lbs/year for each bulb converted Hybrid Cars  Save money on fuel  Tax credit  Estimated savings = 5,600 lbs/year What We Can Do
  61. 61. Getting to Zero What We Can Do Renewable Energy  Wind  Solar  Instream hydro  Geothermal  Biofuels Carbon Offsets  Bonneville Environmental Foundation (BEF) Carbon Offsets  NativeEnergy Carbon Offsets  Myclimate/Sustainable Travel International  Expedia/TerraPass  Other
  62. 62. SO2 Emissions from Utilities Source: EPA 2002 What We Can Do  SO2 emissions have declined by more than 6.5 million tons since 1980  Actual cost was 10 – 35% that predicted by models (Tim Herzog, World Resources Institute, 2008)  Fully implemented, the cap reduces SO2 emissions to 50% of 1980 levels by 2010 A Success Story: Acid Rain Regulating Emissions (SO2) through Cap and Trade Government Actions GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  63. 63. What We Can Do Government Actions National: • Senate Resolution • Cap and Trade Legislation • RES and Energy Efficiency Legislation State: • Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency • Governor’s Sub-Cabinet Local: • Mayor’s Climate Protection Agreement / ICLEI PhotocourtesyofAlaskaConservationFoundation For the sake of current and future generations, we need to demand National, state, and local action! GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams
  64. 64. Federal Legislative Comparisons Government Actions What We Can Do World Resources Institute (December 2007)
  65. 65. Thank You JRA GlobalWarming:TheGreatestThreat©2006DeborahL.Williams Thank You By Akash Rai , 9th Standard , Roll No. – 2.