Introduction to Food Ingredients
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Introduction to Food Ingredients

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Introduction to various types of food ingredients commonly used in food products — chemistry, physical and functional properties and applications in food products.

Introduction to various types of food ingredients commonly used in food products — chemistry, physical and functional properties and applications in food products.

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  • 1. IMK 221: FOOD INGREDIENTS PROFESSOR ABD KARIM ALIAS! Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • 2. Learning Outcome! •  Describe the different types of food ingredients commonly used in the food industry •  Describe the structure, function and specific application of food ingredients •  Identify an appropriate ingredient that can be used in a given product Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:
  • 3. Learning Outcome! •  Describe the different types of food ingredients commonly used in the food industry •  Describe the structure, function and specific application of food ingredients •  Identify an appropriate ingredient that can be used in a given product Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:
  • 4. Learning Outcome! •  Develop an understanding of how the selection of an ingredient is related to the chemical, biochemical and physical changes in food during processing and storage •  Use the knowledge learned in this course as a guiding principles in formulating new product or improving quality of existing product and for broader application in food product development Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:
  • 5. Development of Food Ingredients! From hunters… to early farmers… …then to the agricultural revolution of the 18th century
  • 6. Development of Food Ingredients! Modern lifestyle has thoroughly changed in the last few decades.Activities away from home have reduced the amount of time consumers spend in the kitchen hence increase demand on “processed foods” (and convenient food ingredients!) From hunters… to a modern lifestyle…
  • 7. Development of Food Ingredients! The use of variety of food ingredients, combined with new technology, has made possible the large scale preparation of good wholesome food at economical prices. The use of food additives also allows us to have access to many convenience foods such as instant desserts, prepared dishes, snacks, etc.
  • 8. Development of Food Ingredients! High quality, safe & delicious food products are readily available to meet the ever-increasing demand of consumers in affluent modern society – and this is made possible with the availability of diverse types of… FOOD INGREDIENTS!
  • 9. Deciphering the ingredient list label! ! Do you usually read food labels when shopping? Do you know how to interpret most of the information printed on food labels?
  • 10. Deciphering the ingredient list label! ! White chocolate (85%), Cookies (15%);White chocolate contains : sugar, nonfat milk, cocoa butter, anhydrous milk fat, lactose, emulsifier (soya lecithin, E322 and polyglycerol poliricinoleate, E476), vanillin and preservative (tocopherol, E306); Cookies contain: Enriched flour (Enriched flour contains: wheat flour, niacin, reduced iron, thiamine mononitrate, riboflavin, and folic acid); sugar, vegetable oil (vegetable oil contains: partially hydrogenated soybean and/or cottonseed oils); cocoa processed with alkali, whey, cocoa mass, high fructose corn syrup, corn flour, leavening agent  (sodium bicarbonate), salt, emulsifier (soya lecithin, E322), and natural and artificial vanilla flavouring) HERSHEY’S CHOCOLATE KISSES ….can be bewildering for non-food technologist!
  • 11. Topics in Food Ingredients! Each topic will discuss about: classification, properties, function, & application. Selected examples will be highlighted. Gums & Stabilizers Emulsifiers Flavorings Spices & Seasonings Acidulants To prevent separation of food components during processing & storage. e.g., Sodium alginate – stabilizer in ice cream To prevent separation of immiscible phases (oil & vinegar) & form stable emulsion. e.g., Mono- and diglycerides in bakery products To impart the characteristic flavour of the flavouring:  e.g., vanillin to give the flavour of vanilla to ice cream To impart variety of characteristics spicy flavors to food. e.g.,Whole spice, essential oil, oleoresins Compounds that can serve as buffers, acids, alkalis & neutralizing agents. e.g., citric acid in jellies, carbonated beverages.
  • 12. Topics in Food Ingredients! Sweeteners Protein Ingredients Salts Dough Conditioners Colorings Each topic will discuss about: classification, properties, function, & application. Selected examples will be highlighted. To provide emulsification, foaming, water binding e.g., whey and casein isolate, soy protein concentrate Synthetic and natural colors confer attractive colors to foods. e.g., tartrazine, annato, caramel To provide saltiness, enhance/modify overall flavor. e.g., table salt (sodium chloride) To provide sweetness, enhance/modify overall flavor. e.g., sucrose, glucose syrup, aspartame, To improve processing & product quality during breadmaking. e.g., enzymes, raising & oxidizing agent
  • 13. Topics in Food Ingredients! Nutraceuticals Miscellaneous Each topic will discuss about: classification, properties, function, & application. Selected examples will be highlighted. To provide specific physiological benefit or protection against chronic disease. e.g., antioxidants, isoflavone, psyllium. Various small topics: humectants, firming agent
  • 14. Gums & Stabilizers! •  Used to control the consistency of liquid & semi-liquid foods and prevent separation of food components during processing and storage •  Other functional properties: suspending, setting, gelling and bulking properties •  Example: Sodium alginate – stabilizer in ice cream; Carrageenan – stabilizer in evaporated milk.
  • 15. Emulsifiers! •  To prevent separation of immiscible phases (oil & vinegar) & form stable emulsion •  Emulsifiers facilitate the dispersion of fat in a water-based systems. •  Foaming agents stabilize the dispersion of a gas in a liquid media •  Volume and texture of many baked products are improved by emulsifiers •  e.g., Mono- and diglycerides in margarine, bakery products.
  • 16. Flavorings! •  To impart the characteristic flavor of the flavoring: e.g., vanillin to give the flavor of vanilla to ice cream •  To augment, complement, or modify flavor: e.g., vanillin to modify the flavor of chocolate or cocoa •  To mask the original flavor: e.g., anise to cover bitter medicinals •  Various types of natural & synthetic flavor
  • 17. Acidulants! •  Compounds that can serve as buffers, acids, alkalis & neutralizing agents •  The degree of acidity is an important factor in the processing and preparation of many foods (in making fruit jam). •  The pH of foods may affect their color, texture & flavor •  e.g., fruit juices, jam, jellies, carbonated beverages, canned foods.
  • 18. Colorings! •  Before food is tasted, before a single bite is even taken, the quality of that food is judged by how it looks! •  Usually the primary attribute consumers consider in making purchasing decisions •  Synthetic and natural colours confer attractive colours to foods •  e.g., Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R, Carotena, Annato, caramel
  • 19. Dough Conditioners! •  Modify properties of protein & starch in cereal-based foods – result in improved properties such as reduced mixing time & increased loaf volume •  Produce more uniform bakery products with good crumb texture •  Examples: Various phosphates, sulfates, enzymes
  • 20. Anticaking Agents! •  To prevent caking, lumping & agglomeration during storage •  Added to dry ingredients such as salt, powdered sugar, finely ground spice blends •  Example: Calcium silicate in salt mixtures