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  • 1. IAP Textbook of Pediatrics 4th Edition
  • 2. Editor-in-Chief A Parthasarathy Professor of Pediatrics, Madras Medical College, and Deputy Superintendent, Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children, Chennai (Retired) National President, IAP 1997, Regional Advisor, APPA, 1997–99 Founding Editor-in-Chief, Indian Journal of Practical Pediatrics Contributory Editor, ColorAtlas of Tropical Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics 2009 IAP Textbook of Pediatrics Senior Editors Executive Academic Editor PSN Menon Sub-Dean, Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Officer in-Charge Genetic Unit, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (Retired) Consultant and Head, Department of Pediatrics Jaber Al-Ahmed Armed Forces Hospital, Kuwait RK Agarwal President, IAP 2008 Senior Consultant Pediatrician and Director RK Hospital Udaipur, Rajasthan, India Panna Choudhury President, IAP 2009 Editor-in-Chief, Indian Pediatrics 2005-7 Consultant Pediatrician Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India Naveen C Thacker President, IAP 2006 Senior Consultant Pediatrician and Director Deep Children Hospital and Research Centre Gandhidham (Kutch), Gujarat, India Deepak Ugra President Elect, IAP 2010 Consultant Pediatrician Lilawati Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai Guru Nanak Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai Senior Academic Editors Piyush Gupta Professor of Pediatrics University College of Medical Sciences New Delhi, India Editor-in-Chief, Indian Pediatrics 2008-10 MKC Nair Professor of Pediatrics and Clinical Epidemiology Director, Child Development Centre Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India President IAP 2004, President INDIACLEN 2005-7 Executive Editors Rohit C Agrawal Honorary Secretary General, IAP 2007-08 Director, Chandra-Jyoti Children Hospital Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Tanmay Amladi Treasurer, IAP 2007-8, Honorary Neonatologist Nowrosjee Wadia Maternity Hospital and NICU Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Academic Editor K Nedunchelian Editor-in-Chief, Indian Journal of Practical Pediatrics Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Madras Medical College Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India 4th Edition JAYPEE ®
  • 3. Published by Jitendar P Vij Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd Corporate Office 4838/24 Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002, India, +91-11-43574357 Registered Office B-3 EMCA House, 23/23B Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110 002, India Phones: +91-11-23272143, +91-11-23272703, +91-11-23282021, +91-11-23245672, Rel: +91-11-32558559 Fax: +91-11-23276490, +91-11-23245683 e-mail: jaypee@jaypeebrothers.com, Website: www.jaypeebrothers.com Branches  2/B, Akruti Society, Jodhpur Gam Road Satellite Ahmedabad 380 015 Phones: +91-79-26926233, Rel: +91-79-32988717 Fax: +91-79-26927094 e-mail: ahmedabad@jaypeebrothers.com  202 Batavia Chambers, 8 Kumara Krupa Road, Kumara Park East Bengaluru 560 001 Phones: +91-80-22285971, +91-80-22382956, +91-80-22372664, Rel: +91-80-32714073 Fax: +91-80-22281761 e-mail: bangalore@jaypeebrothers.com  282 IIIrd Floor, Khaleel Shirazi Estate, Fountain Plaza, Pantheon Road Chennai 600 008 Phones: +91-44-28193265, +91-44-28194897, Rel: +91-44-32972089 Fax: +91-44-28193231 e-mail: chennai@jaypeebrothers.com  4-2-1067/1-3, 1st Floor, Balaji Building, Ramkote Cross Road Hyderabad 500 095 Phones: +91-40-66610020, +91-40-24758498, Rel:+91-40-32940929 Fax:+91-40-24758499, e-mail: hyderabad@jaypeebrothers.com  No. 41/3098, B & B1, Kuruvi Building, St. Vincent Road Kochi 682 018, Kerala Phones: +91-484-4036109, +91-484-2395739, +91-484-2395740 e-mail: kochi@jaypeebrothers.com  1-A Indian Mirror Street, Wellington Square Kolkata 700 013 Phones: +91-33-22651926, +91-33-22276404, +91-33-22276415, Rel: +91-33-32901926 Fax: +91-33-22656075, e-mail: kolkata@jaypeebrothers.com  Lekhraj Market III, B-2, Sector-4, Faizabad Road, Indira Nagar Lucknow 226 016 Phones: +91-522-3040553, +91-522-3040554 e-mail: lucknow@jaypeebrothers.com  106 Amit Industrial Estate, 61 Dr SS Rao Road, Near MGM Hospital, Parel Mumbai 400012 Phones: +91-22-24124863, +91-22-24104532, Rel: +91-22-32926896 Fax: +91-22-24160828, e-mail: mumbai@jaypeebrothers.com  “KAMALPUSHPA” 38, Reshimbag, Opp. Mohota Science College, Umred Road Nagpur 440 009 (MS) Phone: Rel: +91-712-3245220, Fax: +91-712-2704275 e-mail: nagpur@jaypeebrothers.com USA Office 1745, Pheasant Run Drive, Maryland Heights (Missouri), MO 63043, USA, Ph: 001-636-6279734 e-mail: jaypee@jaypeebrothers.com, anjulav@jaypeebrothers.com IAP Textbook of Pediatrics , 4th edition © 2009, Indian Academy of Pediatrics, Kailas Darshan, 1st Floor, Kennedy Bridge, Nana Chowk, Mumbai 400 007, India Tel: (022) 23887906/23887922/23889565 Fax: (022) 23851713 E-mail: iapcoff@bom5.vsnl.net.in; centraloffice@iapindia.org Websites: www.iapindia.org/www.ijpp.org/www.indianpediatrics.net/www.iapdrugformulary.com All rights reserved. No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics and the publisher. This book has been published in good faith that the material provided by editors is original. Every effort is made to ensure accuracy of material, but the publisher, printer and Indian Academy of Pediatrics will not be held responsible for any inadvertent error(s). In case of any dispute, all legal matters are to be settled under Delhi jurisdiction only. First Edition: 1999, 2000 Second Edition: 2002, 2003 Third Edition: 2006 Revised Reprint 2007 Fourth Edition: 2009 ISBN 978-81-8448-580-6 Typeset at JPBMP typesetting unit Printed at Ajanta
  • 4. To The Children of IndiaThe Children of IndiaThe Children of IndiaThe Children of IndiaThe Children of India Whose Care, Survival andWhose Care, Survival andWhose Care, Survival andWhose Care, Survival andWhose Care, Survival and Development are Our ConcernDevelopment are Our ConcernDevelopment are Our ConcernDevelopment are Our ConcernDevelopment are Our Concern
  • 5. IAP Textbook of Pediatrics “… This textbook has covered all aspects of child health contributed by reputed authors, in addition to National Health Programs. Thus, it has fulfilled all the criteria of a ‘reader friendly’ treatise…” Dr Uday Bodhankar President, IAP 1995 President, ISTP 1999-2001 Nagpur “… Several luminaries who are past and present teachers have contributed their might which has made the present textbook a novel production in many aspects…” Prof YC Mathur President, IAP 2001 Hyderabad “… Indeed it is a millennium gift to students and practitioners in a well written and well presented comprehensive format covering A to Z in Pediatric care…” Dr Swati Y Bhave President, IAP 2000 New Delhi “… Teachers of Pediatrics will find in this book guidelines for the course contents in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. Medical students will find readable and reasonably detailed, yet concise information in this book, not only to complete the course and pass the final examination, but also to guide them during their clinical career as intern, house surgeon and medical practitioner…” Prof T Jacob John President, IAP 1999 Vellore “… I hope this textbook finds an appropriate place in the students' and practitioners' bookshelf. I sincerely wish that this book is also suitable for undergraduates and postgraduates…” Prof MR Lokeshwar President, IAP 1998 Mumbai
  • 6. Contributors Aditi Sinha Senior Research Associate Department of Pediatrics All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029 Residence 5B Srijan Apartments B 9/8 Sector 62 Noida Uttar Pradesh Email: aditisinha4@rediffmail.com Advani SH Director Department of Medical Oncology Jaslok Hospital, Peddar Road Mumbai Maharashtra Residence 201 Satyam Shivam Sunderam Ghatkopar Mumbai 400 077 Maharashtra Email: shadvani2000@rediffmail.com Agarwal DK D-115 Sector 36, Noida Gautam Budh Nagar 201 301 Uttar Pradesh Agarwal KN D-115 Sector 36, Noida Gautam Budh Nagar 201 301 Uttar Pradesh Email: kna_noida@hotmail.com; adolcare@hotmail.com Agarwal R Department of Pediatrics BJ Wadia Hospital for Children and Institute of Child Health Parel, Mumbai 400 012 Maharashtra Agarwal RK Consultant Child Specialist RK Hospital 5A Madhuban Opposite RSEB Window Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan Email: rk_hospital@hotmail.com; presidentiap2008@gmail.com Ajit Kumar 3/6/69/B/20/4/A Avanti Colony Near Skyline Theatre KB Lal Road, Bashirbag Hyderabad 500 029 Andhra Pradesh Amdekar YK 151 ‘Tushar’ 1st Floor 14th Road Chembur Mumbai 400 071, Maharashtra Email: ykasya@gmail.com Amit Upadhyaya Consultant Hematologist Sunflag-Pahuja Center for Blood Disorders Sunflag Hospital, Faridabad Haryana Email: dramit.upadhyay@yahoo.co.in Amrish Vaidya Consultant Pediatric Surgeon Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Andheri West Mumbai 400 053 Maharashtra Residence 5E Sundatta Apartments 10A Mount Pleasant Road Mumbai 400 006 Maharashtra Email: amrishvaidya@yahoo.com Anand N Pandit British Council Building 917/1 Fergusson College Road Pune 411 004, Maharashtra Email: kemhrc@vsnl.com Anand RK 55 Kavi Apartments, Worli Mumbai 400 018, Maharashtra Email: ishanand@rediffmail.com Anandam R Professor of Pediatric Neurology (Retd) Consultant Neurologist PRS Hospital, Killippalam Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala Residence ”RAJCOT” Thycaud Thiruvananthapuram 695 014 Kerala Email: anandam45@yahoo.com Anil Mokashi Ramabai Maternity General and Children’s Hospital Baramati, Pune 413 102 Maharashtra Anil Sachdev 63/12 Old Rajinder Nagar New Delhi 110 060, Delhi Email: anilcriticare@hotmail.com Anita Khalil The Heart Centre 2 Ring Road Lajpat Nagar IV New Delhi 110 024, Delhi Email: anitakhalil@yahoo.com
  • 7. X IAP Textbook of Pediatrics Anju Aggarwal Reader in Pediatrics University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Tegh Bahadur Hospital Delhi Residence Flat # 3C Block C2B, Janakpuri New Delhi 110 058, Delhi Email: aggar_anju@yahoo.com; aanju67@gmail.com Anju Virmani C 6/6477 Vasant Kanj New Delhi 110 070 Email: virmani.anju@gmail.com Anupam Sachdeva C-107 Neelambar Apartment Near Sainik Vihar Shakurbasti New Delhi 110 034 Email: anupamace@yahoo.co.in Anupama Borker Consultant Pediatric Hemato-Oncologist SL Raheja Hospital Mahim, Mumbai Maharashtra Residence 22 Kaustubh Plot # 8 Bandra Reclamation Bandra (West) Mumbai 400 050 Maharashtra Email: anupamasb@hotmail.com Anurag Tomar 4 Govind Marg Jaipur 302 004 Rajasthan Email: anurag@nimsr.com Archana S Kher 6/A Anand Bhavan 36th Road, TPS III Bandra (West) Mumbai 400 050 Maharashtra Email: kheras@bom8.vsnl.net Archana Sathe ’Om Padmalaya’ 1123/A Shukrawar Peth Opposite Hirabag Pune 411 002 Maharashtra Armida Fernandez 53 Sea Springs BJ Road, Band Stand Bandra (West) Mumbai 400 050 Maharashtra Email: drfernandez@snehamumbai.org Arun Gupta BP 33, Pitampura New Delhi 110 034, Delhi Email: ritarun@vsnl.com Arun Kumar Gupta Professor and Head Department of Radiodiagnosis All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029 Email: arun676@hotmail.com; arunk676@yahoo.com Arun Phatak 102 Ambica Apartments Shanker Tekri Dandia Bazaar Vadodara 390 001 Gujarat Email: atphatak@satyam.net.in Arunmozhi T Assistant Professor of Community Medicine Madras Medical College Residence 8I Block, 2nd Main Road Chennai 600 102 Tamil Nadu Arvind Bagga Professor of Pediatrics Division of Nephrology All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar New Delhi 110 029 Email: arvindbagga@hotmail.com Ashish R Bavdekar 11 Yeshwant Nagar Ganeshkhind Road Pune 411 007 Maharashtra Email: bavdekar@vsnl.com Ashok Gupta 25 Chetak Marg Near JK LON Hospital Jaipur 302 004, Rajasthan Email: dr_ashok_05@hotmail.com Ashok K Deorari Professor of Pediatrics Division of Neonatology All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 Residence D-II/22, Ansari Nagar New Delhi 110 029, Delhi Email: sdeorari@yahoo.com; ashokdeorari_56@hotmail.com Ashok K Gupta 50 B/D, Gandhinagar Jammu 180 004 Jammu and Kashmir Email: doc_ashokg@yahoo.com Ashok K Patwari Reader’s Flat # 4 LHMC Campus Bangla Sahib Road New Delhi 110 001 Email: akpatwari@hotmail.com; akpatwari@gmail.com Ashok S Kapse Kapse Children Hospital 1st Floor, Akshar Complex B/H Rang Upvan, Makkaipool Surat 395 001, Gujarat Email: ashokkapse@hotmail.com Babu George Medical Superintendent Child Development Centre Medical College Campus Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
  • 8. Contributors XI Balachandran A F/177 Plot # 235 Anna Nagar, Chennai 600 102 Tamil Nadu Email:dr_abalachandran@hotmail.com; drabalachandran@yahoo.com Baldev S Prajapati Aakanksha Children Hospital Opposite Tulsishyam Flats Nava Vadaj Road Ahmedabad 380 013 Gujarat Email: drbprajapati@yahoo.co.in Balvir S Tomar 4 Govind Marg Jaipur 302 004 Rajasthan Banapurmath CR DOOR # 176 3rd Main Road PJ Extension Devangere 577 002, Karnataka Email: crbanapurmath@hotmail. com Banerjee SR 8 Jessore Road, Dum Dum Kolkata 700 028, West Bengal Email: purnima@cal.bsnl.net.in; srbanerjee@vsnl.net Baskar PK Director Sri Viveka Institute of Dental Sciences 54, GN Chetty Road, T Nagar Chennai 600 017, Tamil Nadu Bhandari B 90/L Road, Bhupalpura Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan Bhandari NR C-32 Koh-e-Fiza BDA Colony Bhopal 462 001 Madhya Pradesh Email: bhandari33@rediffmail.com; nr_bhandari@yahoo.com Bharat Agarwal A1101 Jagat Vidya CHS Behind Guru Nanak Hospital Bandra-Kurla Complex Bandra (East) Mumbai 400 051 Maharashtra Email: parul@bom5.vsnl.net.in Bharat Dalvi Division of Pediatric Cardiology Department of Cardiology King Edward VII Memorial Hospital Mumbai, Maharashtra Bhaskar Raju B # 11 Sringeri Mutt Road Ramkrishna Nagar Chennai 600 028 Tamil Nadu Email: drbhaskarraju@yahoo.com Bhavuk Garg Senior Research Associate Department of Orthopedics All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 Residence 525 Masjid Moth Doctor’s Hostel Masjid Moth New Delhi 110 049 Email: drbhavukgarg@gmail.com Bina Ahuja Clinical Specialist National Polio Surveillance Project India-WHO RK Khanna Tennis Stadium Africa Avenue New Delhi 110 029 Residence E 285 Narain Vihar New Delhi 110 028, Email: ahujabina@rediffmail.com; ahujabi@npsuindia.org Brijesh Arora Associate Professor Pediatric Oncology Tata Memorial Hospital Ernest Borges Marg Parel, Mumbai 400 012 Maharashtra Residence House No 7 Anand Bhavan Bhula Bhai Desai Road Near Breech Candy Hospital Mumbai 400 026 Email: brijesharora@rediffmail.com Chandan J Das Senior Research Associate Department of Radiodiagnosis All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 Email: chandanjd@yahoo.com Choudhry VP A-26 Shivalik Malviya Nagar New Delhi 110 017, Delhi Email: vedpchoudhry@yahoo.co.in Dadhich JP 23 Canara Apartments Sector 13, Rohini New Delhi 110 085, Delhi Email: jpdadhich@gmail.com Dagar KS Consultant Department of Pediatrics and Congenital Heart Surgery Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre, Okhla Road New Delhi Dani VS Gandhi Sagar (East) Mahal Nagpur 440 002 Maharashtra Email: visadani@nagpur.dot.net.in
  • 9. XII IAP Textbook of Pediatrics Deepak Bansal House # 1334, Sector 19 Faridabad, Haryana Email: deepakkritu@yahoo.com Deepak Seth Department of Pediatrics Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences Post Doiwala, Dehradun 248 140 Uttarakhand Email: drdeepakseth@rediffmail.com Deepak Ugra A-402/403 Sausalito Kia Park Prathamesh Complex Veera Desai Road, Andheri (West) Mumbai 400 053 Email: deepakugra@hotmail.com Desai AB 1004 Panchtirth Jodhpur Char Rasta, Satellite Ahmedabad 380 015, Gujarat Email: drabdesai@hotmail.com Digant D Shastri Killol Children Hospital 303-304 Takshashila Apartments Majuragate, Surat 395 002 Gujarat Email: drdigant@hotmail.com Dilip Mukherjee 9/1 Ramnath Pal Road Kolkata 700 023 West Bengal Email: dilipmukherjee@rediffmail.com Divya Prabhat Ear Nose Throat Specialist and Head and Neck Surgeon Jeevak Hospital Opposite Asiad Bus Stand Dadar (East) Mumbai (East) Dubey AP 6E MS Flats Mint Road Complex New Delhi 110 002 Email: apdubey52@rediffmail.com; anand_dubey52@hotmail.com Dutta AK Flat # 8 Lady Hardinge Medical College Campus, New Delhi 110 001, Delhi Email: drdutta@gmail.com Gadadhar Sarangi Professor Department of Pediatrics Hitech Medical College, Pandara, Bhubaneswar, Orissa Residence C/o Dr Laxmi Kanta Mohapatro At Telisahi (Parijat Lane) Ranihat, Cuttack 753 001, Orissa Email: gdsarangi@sify.com; gdsarangi@hotmail.com Ganessan KM 13 Chinna Mudali Street Gudiyattam Gudiyattam 632 602, Tamil Nadu Email: dr_kmganessan@ rediffmail. com George Moses L Prof of Microbiology (Retd) Director Kilpauk Laboratory Services 27(12) Vasy Street Near Ega Theatre Kilpauk, Chennai - 600 010 Gowrishankar NC Assistant Professor Department of Pulmonology Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children Chennai 600 008 Residence 12/A Balasubramaniam Street Mylapore Chennai 600 004 Tamilnadu Gupta BD Vrandwan 120 Bhagat Ki Kothi Extension Near Asha Hospital Opposite New Campus Pali Road, Jodhpur 342 001 Rajasthan Email: Brahmadgupta@Hotmail.com Guruprasad G 2164 ‘Veda’ IV Main X Cross MCC A Block Devangere 577 004 Karnataka Email: gurug61@hot.com; dr_g_gp@yahoo.com Harish Kumar 12/406 Sunder Vihar New Delhi 110 041 Email: harishalwadhi@hotmail.com; hkumar@unicef.org Indra Shekhar Rao M Former Medical Superintendent Institute of Child Health and Niloufer Hospital, Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh Residence Indra Prastha Plot # 106 Abhinav Nagar Secunderabad 500 025 Andhra Pradesh Email: indramummulla@yahoo.co.in Iyer KS Senior Consultant and Head Department of Pediatrics and Congenital Heart Surgery Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre, Okhla Road New Delhi Jacob John T Thekkekara 439 Civil Supplies Godown Lane Kamalakshipuram, Vellore North Arcot 632 002 Tamil Nadu Email: vlr_tjjohn@sancharnet.in Jain MK Quarters # 2 Opposite District Hospital Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh Jayakar Thomas Senior Consultant Dermatologist Kanchi Kamakoti Childs TRUST Hospital and Mehta’s Hospital Chennai, Tamil Nadu Residence 2 West Mada Church Road Royapuram Chennai 600 013, Tamil Nadu Email: jayakarthomas@gmail.com
  • 10. Contributors XIII Jayashree A Mondkar 22/24 Vaibhav Apartments SK Bole Road, Dadar Mumbai 400 028 Maharashtra Email: jamond@vsnl.com; jayashreemondkar@hotmail.com Jayashree Muralidharan 127 Type V PGI Flats Sector 24-A Chandigarh 160 023 Email: mjshree@hotmail.com Jaydeep Choudhury Assistant Professor Department of Pediatrics Institute of Child Health Kolkata, West Bengal Residence 95/2 Ballygunge Place Kolkata 700 019 West Bengal Email: drjaydeep_choudhury@ yahoo.co.in Jnanindra Nath Behera Associate Professor of Pediatrics SCB Medical College Cuttack 753 007, Orissa Email:jnanindranathb@gmail.com Joshi NC 19-B Kumkum Apartments SV Road, Vile Parle (West) Mumbai 400 056, Maharashtra Jugesh Chhatwal Department of Pediatrics CMC Hospital Ludhiana 141 008, Punjab Email:pediatricscmcl@rediffmail.com Kabra SK Additional Professor Department of Pediatrics All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 Email: skkabra@rediffmail.com Kalpana D Assistant Professor Department of Pediatric Neurology SAT Hospital Medical College Thiruvananthapuram 695 004, Kerala Residence ‘KALPANA’ NSP Nagar Kesavadasapuram Thiruvananthapuram 695 004, Kerala Email: vijaykal@hotmail.com Kamath SS XL/5152 TD Road (North End) Kochi, Ernakulam 682 035 Kerala Email: sskamath@vsnl.net Karmarkar DP 1165 Harbhat Road Karmarkar Wada Sangli 416 416, Maharashtra Ketan Praveen Parikh Consultant Pediatric Surgeon and Pediatric Laparoscopist Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Andheri West Mumbai 400 053 Maharashtra Residence B-404 Kukreja Palace Vallabhbaug Lane Extension Ghatkopar (East) Mumbai 400 075 Maharashtra Email: ketan40@hotmail.com Keya R Lahiri Professor and Head Department of Pediatrics Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital Parel, Mumbai 400 012 Residence Vijay Kunj B/10 JN Road, Santacruz (East) Mumbai 400 055 Maharashtra Email: infopediatrics@gsmc.edu Kochupillai N Director, Medical Research MS Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, MSR Nagar, MSRIT PO Bengaluru 110 029, Karnataka Email: kochupillai@gmail.com Kotwal PP Professor and Head Department of Orthopedics All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 Residence C 1/19 Ansari Nagar New Delhi 110 029 Email: prakash_kotwal@hotmail.com Krishan Chugh J-5/169 Rajouri Garden New Delhi 110 027 Email: chughk2000@yahoo.co.in Kulkarni ML 2373 MCC ‘A’ Block Devangere 577 004 Karnataka Email: rajappanpillai@hotmail.com Kumud P Mehta Mother and Child Hospital Gita 2nd Floor P Ramabai Road Gamdevi Mumbai 400 007 Maharashtra Email: mehtakumud@hotmail.com Kundan Kumar Mittal 227-B Medical More Model Town Rohtak 124 001, Haryana Email: kundanmittal@yahoo.co.in Lokeshwar MR 19/54 Welfare Mansion Sion, Mumbai 400 022 Maharashtra Email: mrl123@roltanet.com; mrlokeshwar@gmail.com
  • 11. XIV IAP Textbook of Pediatrics Madhulika Kabra Additional Professor Genetic Unit Department of Pediatrics All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029, Delhi Email: mkabra_aims@yahoo.co.in; madhulikakabra@hotmail.com Madhusudhana SN Department of Virology National Institute of Mental Health and Neurological Sciences Bengaluru, Karnataka Mahadeviah M 518 Rajmahal Vilas Extension Sadashiv Nagar Bengaluru 560 080 Karnataka Email: rmv518@yahoo.com Maiya PP 343 25th Cross 9th Main Road Banashankari II Stage Bengaluru, Karnataka Email: p_maiya@hotmail.com Major K Nagaraju Senior Consultant in Pediatric Allergy Kanchi Kamakoti Childs TRUST Hospital 12 A Nageswara Road Nungambakkam Chennai 600 034 Email: majorknr@yahoo.co.in Malathi Sathiyasekaran # 16th Cross Street Indira Nagar Chennai 600 020 Tamil Nadu Email: mal.bwcs@gmail.com Mamta V Manglani A-202 Casuarina, Evershine Greens New Link Road, Andheri (West) Mumbai 400 102, Maharashtra Email: mmanglani@hotmail.com Manju Mehta Professor of Clinical Psychology Department of Psychiatry All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 Email: drmanju.mehta@gmail.com Manorama Verma 8 SF HIG Flats Bhai Randhir Singh (BRS) Nagar Ferozepur Road Ludhiana, Punjab Marwaha RK Professor of Pediatrics Incharge, Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Advanced Pediatric Centre Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh 160 012 Email: rammarwaha1@rediffmail.com Mathur RC 4-1-1233/5 Subhodaya Apartments Bogulkunta, ABIDS Hyderabad 500 001 Andhra Pradesh Email: rcmathur@hotmail.com Mayilvahanan Natarajan Professor and Head Department of Orthopedic Surgery Madras Medical College and Government General Hospital Chennai 600 003 Tamil Nadu Residence 4 Lakshmi Street Kilpauk Chennai 600 010 Tamil Nadu Meena P Desai 307 Samudra Mahal Dr AB Road, Worli Mumbai 400 018 Maharashtra Email: drmeenadesai@gmail.com Meena R Malkani F-6 Model House 158 Sion (East) Mumbai 400 022, Maharashtra Email: mmalkani@hotmail.com Meenakshi N Mehta Shaivali C/3 9, BMC Colony Kag Khan Road, Worli Mumbai 400 018, Maharashtra Meharban Singh A-47 Sector 31, Noida Gautam Budh Nagar 201 301 Uttar Pradesh Email: meharbans_singh@gsk.com Menon PSN Consultant and Head Department of Pediatrics Jaber Al-Ahmed Armed Forces Hospital, Kuwait Residence W1C 055 Wellington Estate DLF City Phase V Gurgaon 122 002, Haryana Email: psnmenon@hotmail.com Milind S Tullu Associate Professor Department of Pediatrics Seth GS Medical College KEM Hospital Parel, Mumbai 400 012 Residence 1 Sankalp Siddhi Service Road, Kher Nagar Bandra East Mumbai 400 051 Nagabhushana S Visiting Consultant Columbia Asia Hospital Hebbal, Bengaluru Residence ’Aditya’ # 37/22/1 2nd Cross 1st Main Sundarnagar Post Gokula Bengaluru 560 054, Karnataka Email:nagabhushana_s@rediffmail.com; respicon2005@yahoo.co.in
  • 12. Contributors XV Nair MKC TC 24/2049 Near Rose House Women’s College Junction Thycand Thiruvananthapuram 695 014, Kerala Email: nairmkc@rediffmail.com; nairkc@rediffmail.com Nammalwar BR 2 Main Road, Seetha Nagar Nungambakkam Chennai 600 034 Tamil Nadu Email: brn@biosys.net Nandini Mundkur Bangalore Children Hospital ’City Centre’ # 6 Chitrapur Bhavan 8th Main 15th Cross Malleswaram Bengaluru 560 055 Karnataka Email: bchrc@vsnl.com Naveen Thacker Past President, IAP Deep Children Hospital Plot 208, Sector 1-A Opposite Hero Honda Showroom Gandhidham, Kutch 372 201 Residence D-70 Shaktinagar Gandhidham Kutch 370 201, Gujarat Email: drnaveenthacker@gmail.com Neeraj Jain Associate Professor Department of Pediatrics Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences Jolly Grant, Dehradun 248 140 Uttarakhand Residence A1/2 Maa Ganga Vaatika Rishikesh, Uttarakhand Email: neerajjain@vsnl.net Niranjan Shendurnikar C/21 Nandigram # 2 Sindhwai Maata Road Vadodara 390 004, Gujarat Email: drnsps@gmail.com Nitin Chandra Mathur 4-1-1233/5 Subhodaya ABIDS Hyderabad 500 001 Andhra Pradesh Email: nitincmathur@gmail.com Nitin Shah 186-A Vaswani Villa 1st Floor Block # 3 Jain Society, Near Jain Temple Sion (West), Mumbai 400 022 Maharashtra Email: drnitinshah@hotmail.com Noel Narayanan S TC 1/1991 9(1) Keezhchira, Doctor’s Lane Kumarapuram Thiruvananthapuram 695 001 Kerala Nupur Ganguly Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Institute of Child Health, Kolkata 107 Garfa Pratapgarh Kolkata 700 075 Email: nupur_diya@yahoo.com Omprakash S Shukla 33-B Shilalekh Bunglows Opposite Nandanvan Society Behind Railway Station, Alkapuri Vadodara 390 007, Gujarat Email: opshukla2004@yahoo.co.in Pandian K 9B Medawakkam Road Adambakkam Chennai 600 088, Tamil Nadu Email: pandianking@yahoo.com Pankaj Hari Additional Professor Department of Pediatrics All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029 Email: pankajhari@hotmail.com Panna Choudhury Consultant Pediatrician Department of Pediatrics Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital New Delhi 110 002, Delhi Email: pannachoudhury@gmail.com; drpchoudhury@gmail.com Paramesh H Medical and Managing Director Lakeside Medical Center and Hospital 33/4 Meanee Avenue Road Near Ulsoor Lake Bengaluru 560 042, Karnataka Email: dr_paramesh1@yahoo.com Parang N Mehta 2/C Anjani Towers Parle Point Athwa Lines Surat 395 007 Gujarat Email: parang@rediffmail.com Parthasarathy A ’Brindavan’ 166 Park Road Western Extension Anna Nagar Chennai 600 101 Email: apartha2000@yahoo.com Phadke KD 707 14th Cross JP Nagar II Phase Bengaluru 560 078 Karnataka
  • 13. XVI IAP Textbook of Pediatrics Piyush Gupta Professor of Pediatrics University College of Medical Sciences New Delhi Editor-in-Chief, Indian Pediatrics Residence Block # R-6-A Dilshad Garden Near Telephone Exchange Delhi 110 095 Email: prof.piyush.gupta@gmail.com Potdar RD Laxmi Gruha 69 DV Pradhan Road Dadar (East) Mumbai 400 014 Email: rdpotdar@snehamrc.com Prahlad N 22/1 Poes Road, II Street Teynampet Chennai 600 018 Tamil Nadu Email: drprahlad@yahoo.com Pratibha D Singhi Chief Pediatric Neurology and Neurodevelopment Department of Pediatrics Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh 160 012 Email: pratibhasinghi@yahoo.com Prisca Colaco D-107 Gasper Enclave St John’s Road, Bandra Mumbai 400 050 Maharashtra Purna A Kurkure Professor-in-Charge Pediatric Endocrinology Division HOD, Departemnt of Medical Oncology Tata Memorial Hospital Dr Ernest Borges Marg Parel, Mumbai 400 012 Maharashtra Residence B 301 Greenfields Lokhandwala Complex Andheri West Mumbai 400 053 Email: purna.kurkure@gmail.com Purvish M Parikh 9 Neeta Building Above Computer Point Opposite Poddar Hospital 227 Annie Besant Road Worli, Mumbai 400 025 Maharashtra Raghupathy P # 39 6th Cross 35th Main KAS Officer’s Colony BTM Layout IInd Stage Bengaluru 560 068 Karnataka Email: p.raghupathy@gmail.com Rajeshwar Dayal Opposite Kidwai Park Rajamandi Agra 282 002, Uttar Pradesh Email: r_dayal123@rediffmail.com Rajniti Prasad Senior Lecturer Department of Pediatrics Institute of Medical Sciences Banaras Hindu University Varanasi 221 005 Residence 7 FF Kabir Colony Banaras Hindu University Varanasi 221 005 Email: rajaniti_prasad@hotmail.com Rajput CS C/o Dr Mrs MC Rajpur Department of OBGYN Wanless Hospital Miraj 416 410, Maharashtra Raju C Shah Ankur Children Hospital Behind City Gold Cinema Ashram Road Navarangpura Ahmedabad 380 009, Gujarat Email: rajucshah@rediffmail.com; rajucshah@lycos.com Rakesh Lodha Assistant Professor of Pediatrics All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 Residence A-5 Type # 5 IARI, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012, Email: rakesh_lodha@hotmail.com, rlodha1661@gmail.com Ramachandran P Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children Egmore, Chennai Tamil Nadu Ramakrishnan S ’Shreyas’ 15/7 Vidya Marg Old Fatehpura Udaipur 313 004 Rajasthan Ramaswamy Ganesh Registrar in Pediatrics Kanchi Kamakoti Childs TRUST Hospital 12-A Nageswara Road Nungambakkam Chennai 600 033 Tamil Nadu Residence 3-A Raju Street West Mambalam Chennai 600 033 Ramesh S Consultant Pediatrician BRS Hospital 28, Cathedral Garden Road Chennai 600 034 Residence New No 28 Old No 37 Madava Road Mahalingapuram Chennai 600 034, Tamil Nadu Email: rameshsanthanakrishnan @gmail.com
  • 14. Contributors XVII Rana KS Senior Advisor Pediatrics and Pediatric Neurology Army Hospital R & R, Delhi Cantt New Delhi 110 010 Email: kamersinghrana@yahoo.com.in Rao KS ’Ragasudha’ 13/242 Matwada Warangal 506 002 Andhra Pradesh Rashmi Dalvi C/o Dr BV Dalvi A-10 Mutual CHS Mogul Lane, Mahim Mumbai 400 016, Maharashtra Rashmi Kumar HIG 111 Sector E Aliganj, Lucknow 226 020 Uttar Pradesh Email: rashmik2005@gmail.com; rashmik06@yahoo.co.in Ravichander B Senior Pediatric Consultant Military Hospital Bengaluru, Karnataka Ravikumar T New # 31 Old # 14 Jaganathapuram 3rd Street Chetpet Chennai 600 031 Tamil Nadu Email: trkoomar@hotmail.com Ravikumar VR 66 Cooperative Colony KK Pudur Coimbatore 641 038 Tamil Nadu Email: masr.mar@usa.net Renu Sexena Professor and Head Department of Hematology All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 Ritabrata Kundu Professor of Pediatrics Institute of Child Health Kolkata, West Bengal Residence 26A Sarat Chatterjee Road Lake Town Kolkata 700 089 Email: rkundu22@gmail.com Riyaz A ”Arakkal” Chalappuram Kozhikode 673 002 Kerala Email: saif_gem@hotmail.com Rohit C Agrawal Director Chandra-Jyoti Children Hospital Mumbai, Maharashtra Residence 603/4 Vindyachal Neelkanth Valley 7th Road Raja Wadi Ghatkopar (East) Mumbai 400 077 Maharashtra Email: drrohitag@hotmail.com Roshani N Taori Research Officer Department of Pediatrics Seth GS Medical College KEM Hospital, Parel Mumbai 400 012, Maharashtra Email: roshanitaori@hotmail.com Roshni Bhagwat Consultant Pediatric Oncologist Mahakoshal Hospital Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh Residence Vatika Duplex 65 Napier Town Jabalpur 482 001 Madhya Pradesh Email: roshni26@yahoo.com Sachdev HPS E 6/12, Vasant Vihar New Delhi 110 057 Email: hpssachdev@hotmail.com Sajid Qureshi Assistant Professor Pediatric Surgical Oncology Tata Memorial Hospital Dr Ernest Borges Marg Parel, Mumbai 400 012 Maharashtra Residence 1/26 Merchant Building 3rd Sankli Street Byculla, Mumbai 400 008 Maharashtra Email: sajidshafique@rediffmail.com Sandeep B Bavdekar A-2/9 Worli Seaside CHS Kag Khan Road, Worli Mumbai 400 018 Maharashtra Email: drsbavdekar@vsnl.com Sankaranarayanan VS 16 Balaji Avenue T Nagar, 1st Street Chennai 600 017, Tamil Nadu Email:drvssankaranarayanan@gmail.com Santosh K Bhargava D 7 Gulmohar Park New Delhi 110 049 Email: santoshb@ndf.vsnl.net.in Saradha Suresh Director and Superintendent Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children Egmore, Chennai 600 008 Tamil Nadu Saroj Mehta 1159/15C, Chandigarh 160 015 Chandigarh Email: ssmehta100@yahoo.com
  • 15. XVIII IAP Textbook of Pediatrics Shah MD 51 2nd Floor Jashoda Niwas Nehru Road Vile Parle (East) Mumbai 400 057 Maharashtra Email: shahmdip@vsnl.net Shailesh Kanvinde Consultant Pediatric Hematologist and Oncologist Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital Pune, Maharashtra Residence Prerana Society Opposite New Abhinav Vidyalaya 37/2 Erandavane Pune 411 038 Maharashtra Email: skanvin@vsnl.net; skanvinde@123inida.com Shanti Ghosh 5 Sri Aurobindo Marg New Delhi 110 016, Delhi Email: sghosh@del13.vsnl.net.in Shashi N Vani 10 ‘Shamiana’ 61 Brahmin Mitra Mandal Society Ahmedabad 380 006, Gujarat Sheila Bhave 9 Solapur Road Pune 411 001 Maharashtra Email: sheilabhave@vsnl.net Shivananda Siddhi 608 3rd Stage 3rd Block, 7th Main Basaveshwaranagar Bengaluru 560 079 Karnataka Email: sssidhi@rediffmail.com Shivbalan SO Consultant Pediatrician and Pulmonologist Sundaram Medical Foundation Chennai, Tamil Nadu Email: sivabalan.somu@gmail.com Shobha Banapurmath 390 8th Main PJ Extension Devangere 577 002 Karnataka Email: sbanapurmath@hotmail.com Shreekant W Chorghade ’Rajeev’ Dharampeth Nagpur 440 010, Maharashtra Email: chorghade1@hotmail.com Shripad Banavali Professor of Pediatric Oncology Department of Medical Oncology Tata Memorial Hospital Dr Ernest Borges Marg Parel, Mumbai 400 012 Maharashtra Residence # 11-A Jyoti Sadan, Sheetla Devi Temple Road, Mahim Mumbai 400 016 Email: banavali_2000@yahoo.com Soumya Swaminathan B-8 Sagarika 15-III Seaward Road Valmiki Nagar Chennai 600 041 Tamil Nadu Email: doctorsoumya@yahoo.com Srikanta Basu # 318 Aashirwad Enclave 104 IP Extension Patparganj New Delhi 110 092 Email: srikantabasu@hotmail.com; srikantab@yahoo.com Srinivas S Department of Gastroenterology Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne Australia Residence 14 Balaji Avenue 1st Street Thiagarajanagar Chennai 600 017 Tamil Nadu Email: dr.srinivas@gmail.com Srinivasan S C II/4 Dhanvanthari Nagar JIPMER, Puducherry 605 006 Puducherry Email: srinivasan_jip@yahoo.co.uk Srivastava RN 487 Mandakini Enclave Alaknanda New Delhi 110 019 Email: rnsri@vsnl.net Srivastava SP S-104 Udai Giri Bhavan Budh Marg Road, Patna 800 001 Bihar Email: spsrivastava13@yahoo.com Subhash J Dalal Consultant Pediatric Surgeon Former Dean, Wadia Children’s Hospital Residence 3 Maheshwar Niketan Peddar Road, Mumbai 400 026 Maharashtra Subramanyam L 9-A Karneeswarar Koil Street Santhome, Chennai 600 004 Tamil Nadu Email: shivbalam1@rediffmail.com Suchitra Ranjit G/A Ranga Nivas 40 Barnaby Road, Kilpauk Chennai 600 010, Tamil Nadu Email: chitrasona@rediffmail.com Sudeshna Mitra Department of Pediatrics Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh 160 012 Email: mitrasudeshna@hotmail.com
  • 16. Contributors XIX Sumathi B Assistant Professor Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children Egmore, Chennai 600 008 Residence New No 6 (Old 24) Kutchery Lane Mylapore Chennai 600 004 Tamil Nadu Email: drbsumathi@rediffmail.com Sunanda K Reddy Consultant Neurodevelopmental Pediatrician K-118 Ground Floor Hauz Khas Enclave New Delhi 110 016 Email: write2sunanda@gmail.com; carenidhi@gmail.com Sunil Karande Flat # 24 Joothica, 5th Floor 22A Naushir Bharucha Road Mumbai 400 007 Maharashtra Email: karandesunil@yahoo.com Sunit C Singhi Professor and Head Department of Pediatrics Advanced Pediatric Centre PGIMER, Chandigarh 160 012 Email: sunit.singhi@gmail.com; dr_singhi@yahoo.com Supriyo Ghose Chief, Professor and Head of Department of Ophthalmology Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 Surjit Singh Department of Pediatrics PGIMER, Chandigarh 160 012 Chandigarh Email: surjitsinghpgi@hotmail.com; surjitsingh@sify.com Sushil Madan 804-2A Brindaban Apartments Poonam Nagar, Andheri (East) Mumbai 400 093, Maharashtra Swati Kanakia 2/10 Shreeji Sadan Vrindavan Society Vrindavan Chowk Sion, Chunabhatti Mumbai 400 022 Maharashtra Email: drkanakia@vsnl.com Swati Y Bhave C II/47 Shahjahan Road Opposite UPSC Office New Delhi 110 003, Delhi Email: sybhave@yahoo.com; sybhave@gmail.com Tanmay Amladi Honorary Neonatologist Nowrosjee Wadia Maternity Hospital and NICU Parel, Mumbai Residence A/50/1368 MIG Adarsh Nagar CHS Ltd Prabhadevi Mumbai 400 025 Maharashtra Email: tanmayamladi@gmail.com Tanu Singhal Consultant Pediatrician Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital and Medical Research Institute Four Bungalows, Andheri West Mumbai 400 053, Maharashtra Email: tanusinghal@yahoo.com Tapan Kumar Ghosh Scientific Coordinator Institute of Child Health Kolkata Residence 13 Neogi Pukur Bye Lane Kolkata 700 014 West Bengal Email: dr_tkghosh@rediffmail.com, dr.tkghosh@yahoo.in Tewari AD 1459 Sector 3, Rohtak 124 001 Haryana Email: ad_tewari@hotmail.com Thangadorai C 18 Taylors Road, Kilpauk Chennai 600 010 Tamil Nadu Email: thangadorai@yahoo.com Thangavelu S H-15, G-2 Sea Breeze Apartments Thiruvalluvar Nagar Thiruvanmiyur Chennai 600 041, Tamil Nadu Email: thangavelu_s@yahoo.com Thapa BR Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology PGIMER Chandigarh 160 012 Chandigarh Email: brthapa1@yahoo.co.in; pgimer@chd.nic.in Thirugnanasambandham C 8 I Block 2nd Main Road Chennai 600 102 Tamil Nadu
  • 17. XX IAP Textbook of Pediatrics Uday B Nadkarni 2 Vaibhav, Plot # 12-13 Linking Road Extension Santacruz (West) Mumbai 400 054 Maharashtra Upadhyay SK 402 Bhimarathi Building Road # 3 Daulal Nagar Borivali (East) Mumbai 400 066 Maharashtra Utpal Kant Singh Professor and Head Department of Pediatrics Nalanda Medical College Patna, Bihar Residence 8 Rajendra Nagar Patna 800 016, Bihar Email: utpalkant.singh@yahoo.co.in Vaman V Khadilkar B-3 Shashi Kiran Apartment Ashok Path Off Law College Road Erandwane Pune 411 004, Maharashtra Email: vkhadilk@vsnl.com; akhadilkar@vsnl.net Varshney MK Senior Research Associate Department of Orthopedics All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 Residence 521 Masjid Moth Doctor’s Hostel Masjid Moth New Delhi 110 049 Email: drmkvarshney@gmail.com Vasanthi T Old # 4/123 New # 4/693 7th Main Road, Swaminatha Nagar Kottivakkam Chennai 600 041 Tamil Nadu Email: drvasanthi@hotmail.com Veena Kalra Senior Consultant Pediatrics (Pediatric Neurology) Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals Sarita Vihar, Delhi Mathura Road New Delhi 110 076 Residence 101 Jorbagh New Delhi 110 003, Delhi Email: kalra.veena@gmail.com Vibha Jain Consultant Department of Pediatrics Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences Jolly Grant, Dehradun 248 140 Uttarakhand Residence 77 SBM Complex Haridwar Road Rishikesh Vibha Mangal Consultant Department of Pediatrics Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences Swami Rama Nagar Dehradun 248 140 Uttarakhand Vibhu Kwatra Vibhu Nursing Home 11/137 Malviya Nagar New Delhi Vijay Agarwal Cottage # 15 Oberai Apartments 2 Sham Nath Marg Delhi 110 054 Email: vijay@webcottage.com Vijay N Yewle Yewale Hospital Plot 6B Sector 9 Vashi 400 703 Navi Mumbai Maharashtra Email: vnyewale@vsnl.com; vntewale@gmail.com Vijayakumar M Flat # 4 Muktha Vandan Old # 4 New # 7 Ramanathan Street Kilpauk Chennai 600 010 Email: drmvk@vsnl.net Vijayalakshmi Bhatia Professor Department of Endocrinology Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences Post Box # 375 Lucknow 226 001 Uttar Pradesh Email: vbhatia@sushrut.s.gpgi.ac.in Vijayasekaran D # 43rd Cross Street Dr Subbaraya Nagar Kodambakkam Chennai 600 024 Tamil Nadu Email: vijsekar@hotmail.com
  • 18. Vimlesh Seth N-14/D DDA Flats (SFS) Mandir Marg, Saket New Delhi 110 017, Delhi Email: drsdseth@yahoo.com Vinod K Paul Professor and Head Department of Pediatrics All India Institute of Medical Sciences Ansari Nagar New Delhi 110 029, Delhi Email: vkpaul@medinst.ernet.in; vinodkpaul@hotmail.com Vipin M Vashishtha Consultant Pediatrician and Neonatologist, Mangla Hospital Shakti Chowk, Station Road Bijnor 246 701, Uttar Pradesh Email: vipin@iappec.com, vipinipsita@gmail.com Vrajesh P Udani 69 Al Jebreya Court Marine Drive, Mumbai 400 020 Maharashtra Email: vrajesh@vsnl.com; vrajeshudani@yahoo.co.in Walia BNS 1004 Sector 11-C Chandigarh 160 011 Email: bnswalia@hotmail.com Wilson CG House # 117 Sector A A WHO Colony Gautam Enclave Secunderabad 500 009 Andhra Pradesh Email: info@kimsmedicalcollege.org Yogesh C Govil 4006/1/2, A-2 Balda Colony New Hyderabad Lucknow 226 007 Uttar Pradesh Email: yogeshgovil@usa.net Yogesh Jain Jan Swasthya Sahyog I-4 Parijat Colony Nehru Nagar Bilaspur 495 001 Chhattisgarh Email: janswasthya@gmail.com Yuvaraj Chandra Mathur 4-1-1233 Boggul Kunta Subodaya Hyderabad 500 001 Andhra Pradesh Email: ycmathur@hotmail.com Zeenat Currimbhoy Division of Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Department of Pediatrics LTMG Hospital and LTM Medical College Sion, Mumbai 400 022 Maharashtra Email: currimbhoyzinet@gmail.com Zulfikar Ahamed M SAJAN, TC 1072/4 Pazhaya Road MCPO Thiruvananthapuram 695 011 Kerala Email::mzulfikarahamed@rediffmail.com; zulfikarahamedm@sancharnet Contributors XXI
  • 19. Foreword Child health needs of developing countries are altogether different. Indian Academy of Pediatrics is dedicated for total child welfare from zero to eighteen years of age. With this aim, the first edition was published in 1999 and in ten years it has been so popular, not only in India but in SAARC and many developing countries. It speaks of its receptivity, utility, affectivity and relevance. And now with much enthusiasm and pleasure, the fourth edition is in your hands. I sincerely appreciate Dr A Parthasarathy’s dedication and commitment to the children and in the professional front in our country. His untiring efforts will serve as an inspiration for young pediatricians to emulate and encourage them to contribute to ailing society along their professional path with sincere services. It is certainly a matter of pride to note that many senior pediatricians have been taking time off their innumerable social commitments to pool valuable knowledge in the form of this book. I admire all the editors and contributors for this rich compilation. The contents of the book have been chosen very carefully for developing as well as developed countries and have broadly covered the relevant and vital issues of Comprehensive Child Health Care. Considering the caliber and expertise of contributors and authors, I am convinced that the book will be a treasure of knowledge to be cherished by the pediatricians across the world. RK Agarwal National President, 2008 Indian Academy of Pediatrics
  • 20. Foreword Specialty of Pediatrics covers more than 50 percent of the population. Infant and childhood morbidity continue to be very high and adolescent health problems are still not adequately addressed by medical profession. Thus, it is imperative that budding doctors need to have sound training to look after the children from birth to 18 years. Pediatrics is a part of undergraduate curriculum and there is tremendous demand for a textbook on pediatrics. For credibility it is also necessary that the book is evidence based. IAP Textbook of Pediatrics fulfills an important void in this direction and has become immensely popular with all its editions. The book has been well received in many developing countries having similar health scenario. Contributors of this book are renowned experts in their respective fields. An invariable problem with multi- authored texts is the diversity of presentations adopted by a multitude of contributors. Dr A Parthasarathy, Editor- in-Chief of the book since inception and an accomplished academician with tremendous zeal, managed this issue by carefully crafting a common editorial style. In this venture he has been aptly assisted by Dr PSN Menon and Dr Piyush Gupta, along with many highly reputed chapter editors. Keeping with time, the text of the book has been aptly modified and all the chapters have been thoroughly revised. The book is designed to be relevant to the need of the developing countries. Emphasis has been on common prevalent conditions though allied subjects seen in children have also received due attention. Section on Community Pediatrics deserves special mention as most textbooks with western approach hardly provide any information in this respect. The book is voluminous which is inherent in a textbook trying to cover all aspects related to pediatric care. Apart from fulfilling the main function of an excellent undergraduate textbook, this edition would be invaluable for residents and medical practitioners interested to know in detail various childhood conditions. Even postgraduate students will find much useful information. The book certainly will continue to remain as a very prestigious publication of Indian Academy of Pediatrics and serve the nation by helping doctors engaged in the care of children needing latest updates. Panna Choudhury Consultant Pediatrician Lok Nayak Hospital New Delhi 110 002 and National President Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2009
  • 21. Preface to the Fourth Edition The last few years have witnessed a rapid progress in medicine and technological advances in biological sciences. The specialty of Pediatrics has perceived further advances in preventive and therapeutic care. These have provided impetus to revise knowledge, harvest new information and thus continue the process of learning. There was a felt need for publication of an updated fourth edition of this book after a gap of three years. This was also prompted by the enthusiastic response to the previous editions from practicing pediatricians, postgraduates, undergraduates as well as faculty of Departments of Pediatrics throughout the country. It has been our endeavor to present this subject in a simplified, practical manner to provide adequate clinical guidance to pediatricians so that children derive the benefits of early diagnosis and optimal treatment. The basic outline of the book is retained. We have tried our best to oversee that the ‘art and science’ of clinical pediatrics maintains its central position without being overshadowed by newer technical advances. This fourth edition of the IAP Textbook represents a substantial revision and reorganization of the text based on a complete review of the field of Pediatrics. It has 36 chapters and is being published in two volumes for the first time. The first volume consists of 16 chapters with 195 subchapters contributed by 171 authors and the second volume contains 20 chapters with 95 subchapters by 89 authors. The first volume features 28 new authors while the second volume has 14 new authors representing the continuum of the best available talent, both experienced and young with vast experience and expertise. Almost all the chapters have been thoroughly revised and updated in a lucid and readable style. Several new chapters have been added keeping in mind the changing concepts of pediatric care in the global scenario. Some of these include child and adolescent school health education, vaccine storage and handling adverse effects following immunization, parent counseling, practical approach to fever in children, pneumococcal infection and its prevention, chikungunya fever, hemoptysis, gastroesophageal reflux, allergen-specific immunotherapy, antiphospholipid syndrome, vasculitis, intravenous immunoglobulin, polycystic ovarian syndrome, etc. The chapters on research methodology and computers serve a long felt need. In addition, the IAP Infectious Diseases Chapter Protocols on selected infectious diseases viz. malaria, enteric fever, pyogenic meningitis and rabies have been incorporated in the ‘Miscellaneous Topics’. This edition also provides the most recent IAP recommendations on immunization of children and adolescents. The current IAP and WHO growth charts have been appended with details on the techniques of measurement and interpretation. Unfortunately many children, especially from the rural and remote areas have not yet benefited from the significant advances in the prevention and care of many health problems. In this context the two chapters viz. National Rural Health Mission and Pediatric Priorities in the 21st Century are rewritten. The chapter on Common Procedures has been updated. The Academy would like to place on record its appreciation to all the authors for their contributions to the fourth edition. It also gratefully acknowledges the efforts and time spent by Senior Editors and Chapter Editors who have devoted great deal of their time reviewing and editing the manuscripts. The support from the office-bearers and staff of the IAP Central Office Secretariat at all stages is appreciatively accredited. The book would not have seen the light of the day but for the support and excellent cooperation of M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi. It is our earnest hope that this new edition of the IAP Textbook will help in early diagnosis and efficient management leading to optimal outcome and improving the quality of patient care. A Parthasarathy PSN Menon Piyush Gupta MKC Nair
  • 22. Pediatrics has grown and developed with significant milestones in preventive and therapeutic care over the past few decades. The WHO and UNICEF in their Primary Health Care (PHC) approach, have given due importance for effective child survival programs. So much so the medical students need to be well oriented towards these approaches in Pediatrics as the future middle level managers in Primary Health Care. Several luminaries in the Indian pediatric scenario, have contributed their might in bringing out books for the undergraduate medical students. However, the rapid advances made in the various pediatric subspecialties have necessitated the updating of these books from time to time. Nevertheless, the need for a full fledged textbook was felt for long. The Indian Academy of Pediatrics thought it fit, to shoulder the responsibility of bringing out such a need based Textbook in Pediatrics for medical students. Our erudite and enthusiastic editors and contributors made it possible at a record time. The Academy owes its gratitude to all these experts for their worthy contribution. The book has been divided into several sections. A few chapters included in this book are entirely newer concepts which are not usually found in the conventional pediatric textbooks. It has also worthy annexures to the main contents. However, editing the text to suit the needs of medical students was a Himalayan task. The idea is to equip the medical students with adequate knowledge in Pediatrics in order to make them confident to shoulder the responsibilities concerned with preventive and curative Pediatrics. Thus, it is hoped that the practitioners of Pediatric Medicine will benefit from this book. We are confident that this book will serve the needs of medical students especially at a time when the Medical Council of India has made Pediatrics as a major examination subject. Thus, the publication of the book is not only timely but also out of necessity. The Academy would like to place on record its appreciation to the senior editors, chapter editors, contributors, and staff members of IAP Central Secretariat for help rendered in the creation of this book and M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi, for their excellent cooperation in bringing out the First Edition at record time. A Parthasarathy PSN Menon MKC Nair Preface to the First Edition
  • 23. Acknowledgements We are indebted to the President and members of the Executive Board 1997 of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) for the initiation and completion of the project of bringing out the first ever Academy’s textbook for medical students and practitioners. We are also thankful to the successive Presidents and members of the Executive Boards 1998-2008 for their encouragement in sustaining the project towards the publication of the Fourth Edition. Our grateful thanks go to the various contributors and senior editors, past and present teachers of Pediatrics who have made this ‘Himalayan task’ a reality by their precise and updated text. We are indebted to the faculty and residents of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi for shaping the contents of the First Edition which has made the production of the subsequent editions an easy task and to Ms Manju, Ms Chitra and Ms Suman for their assistance in typing and drafting the text of the book for the first edition. The secretarial and organizational skills of Mr Joseph A Gonzalves and his supportive staff of IAP Central Office, Mumbai, so ably and meticulously guided by Dr Rohit Agrawal, Secretary General and Dr Tanmay Amladi, Treasurer are also gratefully acknowledged. The coordination efforts of Mrs Lokanayaki Ethirajan, Mrs Nirmala Parthasarathy, Dr (Mrs) Pratibha Janardhanan, Mrs Kavitha Balaji, Mr A Sriramulu and Mr Louis Francis are acknowledged with thanks. Mr R Janardhanan, Mr P Balaji, Ms Shruthi Pavana, Ms Swathi Pavana, Ms Kavya Balaji and Ms Mahia Balaji at Chennai need special mention for their untiring assistance in correspondence and formatting of the book with updated contents. Our grateful thanks are due to Mr Shaji Jacob Ninan and Dr Nazeer Ahamed at Kuwait for the assistance rendered to the senior editor in editing, scrutinizing and proofreading of the individual chapter files. Our sincere and grateful thanks go to the family of Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, especially Shri Jitendar P Vij (Chairman and Managing Director), Mr Tarun Vij (Director-Pharma), Mr Tarun Duneja (Director-Publishing), Mr KK Raman (Production Manager), Ms Samina Khan (PA to the Director-Publishing), Mr Ashutosh Srivastava (Assistant Editor), Ms Yashu Kapoor and Ms Kamlesh Bisht (DTP Operators) and Ms Sonia Mehta (Graphic Designer) for their untiring coordination efforts in the production of the Fourth Edition. We also place on record our sincere appreciation of the help rendered by the local branch managers of the Jaypee Brothers — Mr Mukherjee, (Chennai), Mr Uday Honnemadi (Mumbai), Mr Jayanandan (Author Co-ordinator, Chennai), Mr Damodharan (Field Executive, Chennai) — and the headquarters staff at New Delhi for the help rendered to the Editor-in-Chief and Academic/Senior Editors. All attempts have been made to acknowledge the sources of information and illustrations. Inadvertent omission, if any, is regretted. A Parthasarathy PSN Menon Piyush Gupta MKC Nair
  • 24. Contents 1. PEDIATRIC CARE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Chapter Editor: Piyush Gupta 1.1 Importance of Pediatrics............................................................................................................................ 2 RD Potdar 1.2 Attaining Proficiency in Pediatrics.......................................................................................................... 3 BNS Walia 1.3 Pediatric Care in Developing Countries................................................................................................. 5 BNS Walia 1.4 Primary Health Care................................................................................................................................... 7 Yuvraj Chandra Mathur, Nitin Chandra Mathur 1.5 Primary Neonatal Care .............................................................................................................................. 9 Santosh K Bhargava 1.6 Management of Primary Health Center ............................................................................................... 12 Piyush Gupta 1.7 Training of Medical Graduate as Middle Level Manager ................................................................ 16 C Thirugnanasambandham, T Arunmozhi 2. HISTORY ELICITATION AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION Chapter Editors: PSN Menon, Piyush Gupta 2.1 History Elicitation..................................................................................................................................... 24 T Ravikumar, C Thangadorai 2.2 Physical Examination and Clinical Skill Development .................................................................... 30 C Thangadorai, T Ravikumar 2.3 Parent Counseling .................................................................................................................................... 40 Parang N Mehta 3. NEWBORN CARE Chapter Editor: Ashok K Deorari 3.1 Neonatal Nomenclature and Definitions ............................................................................................. 46 Meharban Singh, Vinod K Paul 3.2 Resuscitation of an Asphyxiated Newborn Baby ............................................................................... 50 Meharban Singh, Ashok K Deorari 3.3 Care of a Normal Newborn Baby .......................................................................................................... 56 Meharban Singh, Ashok K Deorari Volume 1
  • 25. XXXIV IAP Textbook of Pediatrics 3.4 Common Developmental and Physiological Problems in Newborn Babies................................. 61 Meharban Singh, Vinod K Paul 3.5 Management of Low Birth Weight Babies ........................................................................................... 65 Vinod K Paul, Ashok K Deorari, Meharban Singh 3.6 Common Diseases of Newborn Babies ................................................................................................ 71 Meharban Singh, Vinod K Paul, Ashok K Deorari 4. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Chapter Editor: KN Agarwal 4.1 Growth and Development: Basic Concepts ......................................................................................... 80 AB Desai, Dilip Mukherjee 4.2 Growth—Birth to Puberty ....................................................................................................................... 83 KN Agarwal, DK Agarwal, SK Upadhyay 4.3 Physical Growth and Sexual Development in Adolescence............................................................. 96 KN Agarwal, DK Agarwal, SK Upadhyay 4.4 Development ........................................................................................................................................... 105 KN Agarwal, DK Agarwal, SK Upadhyay 4.5 Failure to Thrive...................................................................................................................................... 111 Madhulika Kabra, PSN Menon 5. INFANT FEEDING Chapter Editor: RK Anand 5.1 Infant and Young Child Feeding ......................................................................................................... 116 RK Anand, SP Srivastava 5.2 Breastfeeding and Weaning .................................................................................................................. 122 RK Anand, SP Srivastava, Arun Gupta, JP Dadhich 6. NUTRITION Chapter Editor: Meenakshi N Mehta 6.1 Protein Energy Malnutrition ............................................................................................................... 136 Meenakshi N Mehta 6.2 Water Soluble Vitamins: B Complex Vitamins................................................................................ 163 Shashi N Vani 6.3 Fat Soluble Vitamins............................................................................................................................. 166 Panna Choudhury 6.4 Trace Elements ....................................................................................................................................... 171 B Bhandari 6.5 Child and Adolescent School Health Education .............................................................................. 176 Sushil Madan
  • 26. 7. COMMUNITY PEDIATRICS Chapter Editor: Piyush Gupta 7.1 Community Pediatrics .......................................................................................................................... 188 Shashi N Vani 7.2 National Health Programs.................................................................................................................... 190 Shashi N Vani, Piyush Gupta 7.2.1 National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) 2005-2012 ........................................................... 191 Piyush Gupta 7.2.2 Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Programs...................................................................... 193 Shashi N Vani 7.2.3 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Program................................................. 194 BNS Walia 7.2.4 Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM) Program.................................................... 196 BNS Walia 7.2.5 Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) Program................................................................. 197 BNS Walia, Shashi N Vani 7.2.6 Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) Strategy .......... 200 BNS Walia 7.2.7 National Programs on Immunization .................................................................................... 200 A Parthasarathy, Shashi N Vani, BNS Walia 7.2.7.1 Universal Immunization Program (UIP) .................................................................. 200 KM Ganessan 7.2.8 Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Control Program ........................................................ 202 Keya R Lahiri, BNS Walia, Shashi N Vani 7.2.9 Control of Diarrheal Disease (CDD) Program..................................................................... 203 BNS Walia, Shashi N Vani 7.2.10 National Leprosy Eradication Program ................................................................................. 204 BNS Walia 7.2.11 National Vector Borne Disease Control Program (NVBDCP) .......................................... 206 Piyush Gupta 7.2.11.1 National Malaria Control Program ................................................................... 206 BNS Walia 7.2.11.2 National Filaria Control Program ...................................................................... 207 BNS Walia 7.2.12 National AIDS and STD Control Program ........................................................................... 207 BNS Walia 7.2.13 Nutrition Programs ................................................................................................................... 208 Shashi N Vani 7.2.14 Mid-day Meal Program ............................................................................................................ 209 HPS Sachdev 7.2.15 Anemia Control Program ......................................................................................................... 209 Shashi N Vani 7.2.16 Control of Vitamin A Deficiency ........................................................................................... 210 BNS Walia 7.2.17 National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Program ................................................... 210 N Kochupillai Contents XXXV
  • 27. XXXVI IAP Textbook of Pediatrics 7.2.18 National School Health Program .......................................................................................... 211 BNS Walia 7.2.19 National Cancer Control Program......................................................................................... 211 BNS Walia 7.2.20 National Mental Health Program (NMHP) ......................................................................... 211 BNS Walia 7.2.21 National Program for Control of Blindness ..............................................