In the course of developing skills in the craft of lighting, this lesson may be among the most important. The concepts covered here will reappear in many other lighting setups. Sometimes they are there on a subtle level, but they are almost always there. As you go thru the different lessons, pay attention to how often these concepts reappear. The more you understand them, both individually and in the way they work together to create an effective image, the easier it will be for you to adapt them as needed in a variety of situations. They will also help you to create your own distinctive lighting style. Using this interactive player, you can turn on each light in the setup individually to see its effect. You can also view the entire setup to see placement & choice of fixtures. These 4 lights: Key, Fill, Hair, & Edge, form the basics of a well lit portrait. Familiarize yourself with each light and its effect on the whole picture
Their concepts of contrast and light angles were often influenced by the light coming in a window. Very often from a window that didn't have direct sunlight shining into it. The north-light window in old photo studios and our modern soft lights attempt to emulate this classic look.
Key Light defined: The primary or dominant source of light in a shot. It often suggests an out of frame source. Choice of fixture (hard or soft) and its position will help set the mood of the shot.
In the setup shown in the viewer, the Key light is a very soft Rifa-lite 88 fitted with a 1000-watt bulb and a soft Egg Crate to control its spill. Look at the cheek closest to the camera. Notice the effect; the shadow line running down the cheek. Begin to notice how often you see this in movies, television, and photographs. It's everywhere isn't it?
This is an example of a hard Key light, instead of soft. We are using a 250-watt Pro-light. Notice the difference? The transition between the light and dark areas is more dramatic. If you move the key light until you see a light triangular patch under the near eye, you've achieved what is referred to as Rembrandt lighting. Rembrandt actually experimented with having the main light coming from many directions but this is the look that stuck to his name. You may notice that both soft and hard key lights are approaching the face from the far side of the face, from the camera. What is referred to as the short side. While it doesn't always have to be so, it is very common and a safe place to start. It might be so popular because it has a slimming effect on the
When you practice placing the Key light on your subject, keep an eye on the shadow it creates from the nose. The nose shadow is easier to see if you use a hard light but blends more attractively when you a larger soft source. As a start, find the angle and height for your Key light that places that shadow along the crease between the nose and the corner of the mouth. Now try placing your light so the nose shadow is nearly gone. This will happen when your light is anywhere from directly in front of the subject, assuming they are facing slightly away from the lens, to directly over the camera. You will start to lose the shadow line on the cheek as you come around but the effect may be what you want. Bringing the Key light 'face-on' is effective for lightening the shadows from wrinkles. Used with makeup it is even more effective. While this position tends to allow light to spill onto the background it is usually more important to have the subject look good. If possible you could move the subject and lights further away from the back wall to allow the spill to fall off. This position is very flat light so you need to balance the needs of filling wrinkles or a slimming effect. Another look is what is sometimes called Hatchet lighting. Here the shadow line runs right down the center of the face. It can be a dramatic effect when paired with little or no fill lighting or some edge lights. You may also have to adjust the height of the key light to better fill deep set eyes. A larger softer light will be able to do this without causing the nose shadow to become distracting.
Sometimes when power or time limitations are factors, one light will do the work of both Key and Fill. A second small light from behind to add a little shine to the hair adds a finishing touch. Experiment by adjusting the distance between the light and your subject to achieve the balance between your key light and the ambient light. In this example a 500-watt Omni-light with a nylon umbrella worked well for the single Key / Fill light and a 125-watt L-light is providing the shine on the hair and shoulders. Don't forget to make the necessary changes in the height of your stand and possibly an exposure change to your camera as you adjust position of the lights. Perhaps your situation calls for a more or less powerful bulb or a different fixture. Get the feel of working with a small hard source (you can really see where those shadows are) and then perhaps add an umbrella and see that by increasing the relative size of the light source you increase its softness.
Fill light defined: Fill is used to lighten shadows and control contrast ratios (the ratio of amount of Key to Fill light). Combined with the Key light, Fill light helps define the mood by lighting the shaded areas in a range of intensities. It can vary from none, to a level equaling the Key light.
Fill light aloneRifa 44, 250W Soft light After setting the Key light, you may find that the darker side of the face is too dark for your tastes. There are several methods for adding Fill light to reduce the shadows. In the setup shown in the viewer at the beginning of this lesson, we have chosen a Rifa-lite 44 soft light, with a 250-watt bulb, with a soft Egg Crate to control the spill. This doesn't just apply to lighting faces. Anytime you are treating the side left shaded by the Key light you are working on the Fill. The amount of Fill that is added depends on your taste (or the preference of the person who hired you). Keep in mind the 'look' you are attempting; especially if you are shooting something that is dramatic. Generally you can most easily alter the mood of a shot by raising and lowering the intensity of the Fill. In fact on some soap operas the main difference in lighting between a daytime interior scene and a night setting is they drop the Fill almost all together and light the background a darker than normal.
More commonly, you may begin to consider light placement positions near the camera to hide the shadows behind the subject or more off to the opposite side from the Key light. When the Fill is directly over the camera it adds to the Key light's exposure so consider adjusting for it. The near-the-camera position can be considered when you want to both fill shadows and still maintain a little modeling on the subject. You will most often need a less intense light for the Fill side. As with the Key light you could adjust the distance to lessen the intensity as well as by adding scrims or neutral density gels to the light. While it could be most any kind of light, a Fill light is usually a soft source so using an umbrella or a softbox is common. Images A & B to the right show differing levels of Fill light. Notice how image A looks more fully lit, while still maintaining the Key as the dominant light source, and the reduced Fill in image B increases its dramatic effect. A) Lower ratio of Key to Fill lightB) Higher ratio of Key to Fill lightC) Double Nose Shadow Probably the only wrong way to do Fill is if it adds another set of visible shadows; visible to the camera that is (you only need to worry about what's in your frame). Image C shows a closer view with a double nose shadow. This is caused by having a Fill light that is almost as strong as the Key, placed in a position so that the shadow the nose throws on the opposite side of the face, visible to the camera. Always look closely at your shot to see if your lights are creating unintended consequences.
Another method of providing Fill is by bouncing the Key light off of a reflector. A specular reflector (the shiny hard side) will kick back nearly as much light as the Key light shining on it, in the same degree of hardness that strikes it. In the example shown, the soft Key light is being reflected. A stippled reflector surface will soften the reflected light more and give less chance of secondary shadows. Using a matte white card will provide a very soft reflected fill at close range. You may have natural fill already happening from light colored walls reflecting back to the subject. Indeed you might even plan such a situation. Note: In highly reflective rooms, if your lighting is too flat, you might consider a technique called negative fill. This is often done by hanging a dark cloth or piece of black foamcore on the fill side to prevent stray light from providing too much fill. Experiment with different amounts of fill and see if you can manipulate the effect to change the feel of the lighting.
Hair light defined: A light from behind the subject, often weaker than the Key or Fill, aimed at the head & shoulders. It may also called a backlight. It creates a sense of separation between subject and background, and adds highlights & shine to hair, and is often widened to include a subject's shoulders. Working with Hair light gets trickier with receding hairlines, and may be done without in that situation.
Along with the amount of Fill light you use, you can continue to add finesse to the lighting to reveal the subjects form by using light from angles beyond what you use for the Fill. Both Hair lights and Edge lights fall into this category. Traditionally Hair lights are placed directly opposite the camera. It creates highlights and gives a nice shine to the hair. Small hard lights will make small hard lines and edges, which are appropriate if you are implying the motivation for the light is a hard source. Larger sources provide an even, gentle wash. In the nineteen seventies the extreme backlight was the rage. Find a glamour photo from the era and it will likely have a strong back light blasting directly at the back of the head causing the lion's mane hair style in fashion at the time to glow. If this is what you're after, just try to keep the light far enough back so it doesn't start your subject's hair on fire. If you are dealing with thinning hair or bald heads, you probably already have enough separation from the background; either because of the contrast or color differences, and only want to play with adding a subtle edge to the side of the head and neck. You may just need an edge on the shoulders of a dark garment that is blending into the background. See the Edge Light description below for more information. For shiny heads you could have separate lights for each shoulder or put up a traditional hair light and block, or flag, the part of the light falling on the head. Hair light aloneRifa 44, 250W Soft light Since all backlights are aimed in the direction of the camera be careful to keep any light from shining into the front of the lens, causing lens flare. Wave your hand in front of the light and see if a shadow falls on the camera. With the advent of modern cameras there is less need for the really heavy use of hair light unless it is to appear as motivated or logical in the scene. Watch for programs done in film or HD and notice how natural these highlights are compared to older video programming.
Edge light defined: A light from behind the subject, often weaker than the Key or Fill, is placed to create an edge of definition between subject and background. Similar in practice to Hair light, it is also a form of backlight normally used to define one dark object from another, for example a dark jacket from a similarly dark background.
Edge lights create subtle defining 'edges', and line-like highlights, which can be added to your setup to delineate the edge of your subject. You may hear them referred to as kickers, liners or edge lights. If your subject's dark hair or jacket seems to blend into a similarly dark background you can add an 'edge' to visibly separate, or cut them away, from the background. You provide a clue to the viewer where the subject leaves off and the background begins. If you have decided to use little or no fill an edge of some sort can enhance the dramatic effect. To experiment with these effects start with small fixtures and keep an eye on the shadow from the subjects ear. It is popular to have a light edge along the jaw line. Try hard sources at different distances and angles. Try using a small light with an umbrella or with a diffusion gel. Edge lights are also aimed in the direction of the camera, so be careful to keep any light from shining into the front of the lens, causing lens flare. Wave your hand in front of the light and see if a shadow falls on the camera.
Background Light defined: Used for lighting the background of a set, as a whole or specific areas. Or for lighting objects in the background of the set that are significant to the image. It also contributes to creating separation between subject and background. Often the function of the light is fulfilled by more than one fixture at a time. It is possible to use multiple background lights.
How you deal with backgrounds depends on whether it is part of the story or just a neutral setting for your subject. Either way you may notice the background level is usually down, or less bright than the subject. However it is not unusual to highlight something in the background for interest. A plant or dim lamp is a common set dressing. For the setup used in the Viewer above, we created a mottled shadow pattern on the background by shining a hard light through a cookaloris (a random pattern cut into wood, foamcore, or black foil). It was lit by a 250W focusable Pro-light, a hard source. If you look at the Setup shot in the Viewer, you will see the cookaloris, tho' the Pro is hidden from view by the Rifa Key light. By the time you've put up your Key, Fill, Hair and Edge lights you might have light bouncing off the walls and ceiling lighting up the background too much. You can try turning off any room lights, or by adding distance between the subject and the background. In combination with these is the ability to control the lights you've placed in the setting. Setup with cookaloris patternPro-light, 250W Since large broad sources tend to spill on the background consider using an Egg Crate on any softlights you use. Other lights should all have barndoors to direct light only where it's wanted. You can finesse more by specifically flagging spilled light from where you don't want it.
Slash Accent It is also common to 'treat' the background using a slash of light made by putting two barndoors close together on a hard light source. The image to the left shows a slash created by a focusable Omni-light. Focusing the light to flood will give a larger and more consistent output level to the slash. You can mix the slash with general background fill, making it less prominent, or use the slash accent alone in a darker background to increase its effect. Coloring the slash with a gel is also a common approach.
Highlight Accent A more practical approach to adding visual interest to the background would be to add a highlight to an object in the setting. In this shot, we used a tiny L-light with 100 Watt lamp directed to place a small pool of light on the flowers and the picture frame. The hard light character of the lamp created a sharp shadow. The result looks like it have could come from track lighting or a recessed ceiling light, adding to the natural feel of the effect.
Color Background A popular technique in news magazine format TV over the past 10 years has been to give the background a more obviously treated / theatrical effect. It provides a contrast of color and feel between the environment and the subject. In this shot, we added red gel to an Omni-light, focused wide enough to cover the background area of the shot. Use barn doors on the fixture to trim any spill that may fall on the subject, as its color will make it very noticable.
3 POINT LIGHTINGPhotographic Imaging 1
Interview Lighting• Most important lesson• These skills appear in other setups• Pay attention to how often concepts reappear• How the techniques work together and individually• Adapt styles as needed for different situations• Adapt your own lighting style• Use this player to use each light setup• Four lights • Key • Fill • Hair • Edge
History• Contrast and angle affected by windows with indirect sunlight• Historic north-light window = modern soft lights for a classic look
KEY LIGHT• Primary or dominant source of light• Out of frame source• Hard or soft and its position helps set the mood
Soft Key Light• Key light is a very soft Rifa-lite 88 fitted Full lighting with Soft with a 1000-watt KeyRifa 88, 1000W bulb and a soft Egg Soft lightRifa with Crate to control its Fabric Egg Crate spill• Cheek closest to the camera: Notice the shadow line running down the cheek.• Do you notice this in movies, television, and photographs? Simple Light Setups
Hard Key Light• Hard Key Light using a 250-watt Pro-light.• Transition between the light and dark areas is more dramatic• Rembrandt lighting: a light triangular patch under the near eye• Rembrandt experimented with pointing the main light from different directions• Both soft and hard key lights are approaching the face from the far side of the face, from the camera• Short side: far side of the face from the camera Full lighting with hard Key Rembrandt van Rijn, Portrait of a Lady with an Ostrich-Feather Fan, c. 1658/1660 Pro-light, 250W Focusing Hard light
Key Light Techniques• Shadow on the nose: • Easier to see with a hard light • Blends more attractively with a larger soft source. • Place the shadow along the crease between the nose and the corner of the mouth.• To remove shadow on the nose: • When light is anywhere from directly in front of the subject to directly over the camera.• With Key light face-on, wrinkles have shadows • This position allows light to spill onto the background • To reduce spill move the subject and lights further away from the back wall• Hatchet lighting: shadow line runs right down the center of the face Bad nose shadow Reduced nose shadow Hatchet lighting
Simple Light Setups• One light for both Key and Fill. Second small light from behind to add shine to the hair• 500-watt Omni-light with a nylon umbrella for the single Key / Fill light and a Single light (Omni- light 500 W) with• 125-watt L-light for the shine umbrella, positioned on the hair and shoulders. to function as Key light, with enough softness to also act as Fill light. Single light result
Fill Light• Fill is used to lighten shadows and control contrast ratios, defines the mood by lighting the shaded areas• Contrast ratio: the ratio of amount of Key to Fill light
Fill Light• Fill light alone Rifa 44, 250W Soft light, egg crate• With Key light alone, darker side of the face may be too dark.• Anytime you adjust the left side with Key light you are working on the Fill Fill light alone• Amount of Fill that is added Rifa 44, 250W Soft depends on your taste light• Change mood by raising or lowering intensity
Fill Light Techniques• Light placement near the camera to hide the shadows behind the subject• When Fill is directly over the camera it adds to the Key lights exposure• Adjust the distance of Key Light to lessen the intensity• Fill light is usually a soft source so using an umbrella A) Lower ratio of Key to Fill light or a softbox B) B) Higher ratio of Key to Fill light• If fill adds another set of C) C) Double Nose Shadow visible shadows, it’s wrong• Double nose shadow: caused by having a Fill light that is almost as strong as the Key
Reflected Fill Light• Bounce the Key light off of a reflector to create fill light.• Specular reflector: kicks back nearly as much light as the Key light• A stippled reflector surface: soften reflected light and give Specular Reflector bouncing Soft less secondary shadows. Key light to create Fill Closeup detail• Matte white card: provide a very soft reflected fill at close range.• Negative fill: hang a dark cloth or piece of black foamcore on the fill side to prevent stray light from providing too much fill.
Hair Light• A light from behind the subject, often weaker than the Key or Fill, aimed at the head & shoulders.• Creates a sense of separation between subject and background, and adds highlights & shine to hair
Hair Light Techniques• Traditionally Hair lights are placed directly opposite the camera.• Small hard lights will make small hard lines and edges• Larger hard lights provide an even, gentle wash• With thin hair or bald heads, there is probably enough separation from the background Hair light alone• For shiny heads: have separate lights for Rifa 44, 250W Soft each shoulder light• Flag: part of the light falling on the head
Edge Light• A light from behind the subject, often weaker than the Key or Fill• Placed to create an edge of definition between subject and background.• Used to define one dark object from another.
Edge Light Techniques• Edge lights create subtle defining edges, and line-like highlights, AKA kickers, liners or edge lights.• It is popular to have a light edge along the jaw line.• Edge lights are also aimed in the direction Edge light alone of the camera L-light, 100W
Background Light• Used for lighting the background of a set, as a whole or specific areas.• Creating separation between subject and background.• More than one fixture at a time
Background Light Techniques• The background level is usually down, or less bright than the subject.• Highlight something in the background for interest.• Cookaloris: a random pattern cut into wood, foam core, or black foil• Turn off any room lights, or add Setup with cookaloris distance between the subject and pattern the background to limit more light. Pro-light, 250W• Consider using an Egg Crate on any softlights used.• Other lights should all have barndoors to direct light only where its wanted
Background Light Options• Slash of light: used to treat the background by putting two barndoors close together on a hard light source.• Focusing the light to flood will give a larger and more consistent output level to the slash.• Mix the slash with general background fill, making it less prominent, Setup with Slash Accent• Use the slash accent alone in Omni-light 500W a darker background to focusable increase its effect
• Background Light Options Highlight Accent• Add a highlight to an object in the setting to add visual interest• Tiny L-light with 100 Watt lamp directed to place a small pool of light on the background• Track lighting or a Setup with Highlight recessed ceiling light, AccentL-light with looking natural 100W lamp
• Background Light Options Color Background: more obviously treated / theatrical effect.• Provides a contrast of color and feel between the environment and the subject. Setup with Color background• Red gel to an Omni-light Omni-light 500W focusable• Use barn doors to trim any spill onto the subject
Work Cited• http://www.lowel.com/edu/foundations_of_lighting.html• http://www.lowel.com/edu/