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•The human development index(HDI) isa composite statistic of life expectancy,education and income indices to rankcountries into four tiers of humandevelopment.
1. Published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).2. The purpose is to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people centered policies .3. Used since 1990 by the United Nations Development Programme for its annual Human Development Reports.
Founder of human development report -Mahbub-ul-haqFollowed by-Amartya sen
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite measure of economic and social welfare that has 3 main components Education health standards of livingfor countries worldwide.
1. EDUCATION it has two statistics- Mean year of schooling Expected year of schooling.2. HEALTH it has one statistic- Life expectancy component Minimum value of 20 years and maximum value of 83.2 years.
3. STANDARD OF LIVING it has one statistic• Gross national income(GNI) per capita adjusted to purchasing power parity standard.
GNIis now used rather than GDP because of the growing significance of remittance from abroad.
As per Helen Clark ” equity, dignity, happiness, sustainability- these are all fundamentals to live our lives but absent in the GDP. GDP= values of goods and services produced within the country during the period of time. HDI= GDP + others aspects of human development(knowledge, longetivity)
NO....... The HDI measures do NOT tackleissues related to good governance,political freedoms, etc…
There is no theoretical reasoning for why life expectancy, education and GNI should be given equal weighting in the HDI? The HDI should consider taking account of income distributions in a country – the Human Development Reports do provide information on income distributions.
Inits 2011 Human Development Report the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index (Le EI) 2. Education Index (EI)
2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI) 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI) 3. Income Index (II)
Finally, the HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices:
RANK-134 out of 187 countries HDI VALUE- 0.547 Medium human development country Between 1980-2011, India’s HDI value increased from 0.3444 to 0.547 With an increase of 59.0% Average annual increase of about 1.5%
Mean year of schooling-4.4 Increased by 2.5 years between 1980- 2011. Expected year of schooling-10.3. Increased by 3.9 years between 1980- 2011.
Lifeexpectancy at birth- 65.4 Between 1980-2011, India’s life expectancy at birth increased by 10.1 years GNI per capita- 3468 Increased by 287.0% between 1980-2011
Planning commission calculated the HDI by taking states and union territories as the unit of analysis Subsequently, each state government also started preparing the state level Human development report. Prepared by Institute Of Applied Manpower Research.
RANK COUNTRY HDI1. NORWAY 0.9422. AUSTRALIA 0.9293. NETHERLAND 0.910 S4. UNITED 0.910 STATES5. NEW ZEALAND 0.908
Germany, India, China and Maldives GERMANY CHINA MALDIVES INDIARANK 9 101 109 134HDI VALUE 0.905 0.687 0.661 0.547LIFE EXPECTANCY 80.4 73.5 76.8 65.4RATIOEXPECTED YEAR 15.9 11.6 12.4 10.3OF SCHOOLINGMEAN YEAR OF 12.2 7.5 5.8 4.4SCHOOLINGGNI PER CAPITA 34,854 7476 5276 3468