RMD100q Lec1 Intro & Res Project

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TUT Research Methods and Design

TUT Research Methods and Design

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  • 1. Research Methods (RMD100Q) A Kanjee (Prof)Department of Educational Studies
  • 2. Knowledge about education researchName, Student No, DateCurrent job description – e.g math teacher, official, etc1.  Have you taken a research class before?2.  If yes, when, and for how long?3.  What do you understand by education research?4.  List the key steps when conducting a research project.5.  Name and define the two approaches to research6.  List the three different types of research.7.  Identify three key challenges to improving education quality in South African schools
  • 3. Information about yourself Name, Student No, Date Occupation:   Primary school teacher, principal, district official, etc Brief job description:   e.g math teacher, maths specialist, district director, etc. Place of employment - Pretoria, Joburg, etc Are you planning to do a Masters: Yes or No
  • 4. Knowledge about education researchName, Student No, DateCurrent job description – e.g math teacher, official, etc1.  Have you taken a research class before?2.  If yes, when, and for how long?3.  What do you understand by education research?4.  List the key steps when conducting a research project.5.  Name and define the two approaches to research6.  List the three different types of research.7.  Identify three key challenges to improving education quality in South African schools
  • 5. Student expectations1.  What are you expectations from this course?2.  What are your personal goals for this course?3.  What extra support or specific topics would you require in this course?4.  At the end of this course, list the specific skills and competencies that you would have achieved?5.  What teaching method(s) would you recommend for this course?
  • 6. Class exercise Group students by job categories? Form groups of 10 Identify a scribe Discuss each of the questions and list the group response
  • 7. Lesson objectivesBy this end of this class, you should: Be familiar with the course content, lesson outline and dates Have a clear understanding of the Research Project and its purpose Be able to begin the Research Project – e.g. start with identifying your research topic Have some understanding of key challenges facing the education sector in South Africa
  • 8. What Is Research? The researcher asks a question. The researcher collects data. The researcher indicates how the data answered the question. John W. Creswell (2005) Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, third edition
  • 9. A Definition of Research Research is a process of steps used tocollect and analyze information inorder to increase our understandingof a topic or issue.1.9 John W. Creswell (2005)
  • 10. Importance of Research Reason 1: Research adds to our knowledge.  Addresses gaps in knowledge  Expands knowledge  Replicates knowledge  Adds voices of individuals to knowledge 1.10 John W. Creswell (2005)
  • 11. Importance of Research (cont d) Reason 2: Research helps improve practice.  Educators gain new ideas for their job.  Educators gain new insights into approaches.  Educators can connect with other educators.
  • 12. Importance of Research (cont d) Reason 3: Research helps inform policy debates.  Research allows people to weigh different perspectives on issues.  Research enables people to make informed decisions regarding policy. John W. Creswell (2005)
  • 13. Problems with Research Today Contradictory or vague findings Questionable data Unclear statements about the intent of the study Lack of full disclosure of the data collection procedure Inarticulate rendering of the research problem John W. Creswell (2005)
  • 14. The Process of Research Identify the Research Problem Report and Review the Evaluate Research Literature Analyze and Specify a Interpret Research Data Purpose Collect Data John W. Creswell (2005)
  • 15. Res Proc: Identify the Research Problem Specify a problem Justify a problem Suggest a need to study the problem for audiences 1.15
  • 16. Res Proc: Review the Literature Locate resources   Books   Journals   Electronic resources Select resources   Determine the relevant resources for the topic   Organize the resources by developing a Literature Map Summarize the resources in a literature review 1.16 John W. Creswell (2005)
  • 17. Res Pros: Specify a Research Purpose Identify the purpose statement   The major intent of the study   The participants in the study   The site of the study Narrow the purpose statement   Quantitative: Write research questions and/or hypothesis   Qualitative: Identify a central phenomenon and write subquestions 1.17 John W. Creswell (2005)
  • 18. Res Pros: Data collection Determine the data collection method Select the individuals to study Design data collection instruments and outline data collection procedures Obtain permissions Gather data 1.18 John W. Creswell (2005)
  • 19. Res Pros: Analyse and interpret data Take the data apart to look at individual responses Represent the data in tables, figures, and pictures Explain conclusions from the data that address the research questions 1.19 John W. Creswell (2005)
  • 20. Res Processs: Report & Evaluate Report research   Determine the audience for the report   Structure the report   Write the report sensitively and accurately Evaluate research   Assess the quality of research using recognized standards in a discipline   Standards can come from the academic community, school districts, or federal or state agencies 1.20
  • 21. Ethical Considerations in Research Respect the rights of the participants Honor the requests and restrictions of the research site Report the research fully and honestly 1.21
  • 22. Skills Needed for Research Curiosity to solve puzzles Long attention span Library and computer skills Writing and editing skills 1.22
  • 23. Questions?Comments ?
  • 24. Course Outline
  • 25. Weeks and Dates Topics Readings Activity 1 •  Overview of the course •  Study guide Review study guide and course •  Outline of the research project Study guide requirements 11 Feb •  •  Introduction to myTutor ???? •  Demo •  The nature of enquiry •  Chapter 1 2 •  Class test •  Chp 1, 6, 7 Identify research topic and plan for •  Choosing a research project Chp 6 project 24 March •  •  Planning educational research •  Chp 7 3 •  Class test •  Chp 5, 14, 18 Identify and select appropriate •  Ethics of educational research Chp 5 design for research project 19 May •  •  Case studies •  Chp 14 •  Action Research •  Chp 18 4 •  Class test •  Chp 21, 23 Design instruments to collect data 9 June •  Interviews •  Chp 21 •  Observations •  Chp 23 5 •  Class test •  Chp 28 Present data for use in class 11 Aug •  Approaches to qualitative data analysis •  Chp 28 •  Organising and presenting qualitative data 6 •  Discuss and review research projects Review progress on completing project29 Sep (Sosh)15 Sep (Nelsp) 9 October SUBMIT FINAL PROJECT 7 •  Questionnaires •  Chp 20 Return projects to students 20 Oct •  Tests •  Chp 24 •  Approaches to quantitative data analysis •  Chp 34 •  Descriptive statistics •  Chp 35 •  Return projects EXAM November 2012 as per university schedule
  • 26. Final Mark calculation 4 Class tests: 40% Research Project: 60%Average = Predicate Mark 50%Final Exam 50%Final Mark for course
  • 27. PLAGIARISM  Plagiarism is strictly prohibited and a punishable offense. If plagiarism is discovered, the work (e.g. essay, assignment) will be disqualified and the whole course may be disqualified. Students found guilty of plagiarism may lose their right to study at TUT
  • 28. Why should I be concerned about plagiarism?  All plagiarism, even if unintentional, can result in serious consequences.  “students who are trying conscientiously to learn and to demonstrate what they know need not worry about academic dishonesty and should feel free to use any assistance available in advancing their knowledge.  Education and scholarly research depend, after all, upon shared assistance.  On the other hand, no one should claim credit for the work of others, misrepresent or misappropriate the work of others, or try to gain unfair advantage over others”. Essentially, plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty with disciplinary actions ranging from a reduced grade for the assignment or course to expulsion. APA Reference Guide
  • 29. What is plagiarism? Plagiarism is the use of information (words, sentences, and/or ideas and even the structure of sentences and/or ideas) from another source that is not properly credited. Plagiarism may be unintentional and may occur even if a source is credited but is done so improperly. APA Reference Guide
  • 31. kanjeea@tut.ac.za 012 382 9475
  • 32. Research Project a small-scale study on a specific problem that YOU would like to address This problem located within YOUR classroom or school. Addressing this problem should (most likely) lead to an improvement in the quality of learning and teaching But you need more information to understand the problem and to identify possible solutions
  • 33. Project Report Each student to submit a report (No group work) Report format:   Typed   12 point times roman font,   1,5 spacing   Maximum of 4500 words (approx. 12-15 pages)   Excluding references and appendices Tuesday, 9 October 2012 DUE DATE: NO LATE SUBMISSIONS
  • 34. Report outline: Guidelines Section   Max. Pages   Title,  Abstract,  ToC  1. INTRODUCTION   1  2. PRELIMENARY LITERATURE STUDY   3-4  3. PURPOSE STATEMENT   1/2  4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 4.1 Main question 1/2   4.2 Sub-questions  5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 5.1 Research design and method 5.2 Population and sampling 3-4   5.3 Data collection 5.4 Data analysis  6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION   3-4  7. CONCLUSION   1/2  8. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS   1/2  9. REFERENCES   1  10. APPENDICES   ?  
  • 35. Abstract Summary of project (150 - 200Words)  Problem investigated  Purpose of Research  Methods  Results  Conclusion
  • 36. INTRODUCTION  Untitled introductory paragraph(s).   This is a brief statement to introduce your topic, and to provide the reader an idea of what your research is all about.  Personal educational context   This section provides the reader with a picture of your practical experience as an educator and of your research interests. It situates your study within your particular geographic/demographic and work setting..  Background to the study   This section provides a setting for your study, that clearly describes the study background to a reader who may not to be familiar with your specialized area of interest. I  Significance of the study   This section describes why your intended topic is important to the field of education.  Organization of the report   In one paragraph, describe the rest of the report
  • 37. LITERATURE REVIEW This section provides a brief overview of who has written what that bears on your inquiry. The literature provides a theoretical or conceptual framework for the study and methods used. This locates your work in the larger field of education and focuses specifically on your topic.
  • 38. Purpose Statements  A good (qualitative) purpose statement contains:   The central phenomenon   The participants   The research site  Include language drawn from qualitative inquiry   Use words such as purpose, intent, or objective   Use action verbs such as describe, understand, develop, examine the meaning of, or discover   Use neutral, nondirectional language   Indicate the strategy of inquiry   Provide a tentative definition of the central phenomenon
  • 39. Qualitative PS Script The purpose of this (strategy of inquiry, such as ethnography, case study, or other type) study is (was? will be?) to (understand? describe? develop? discover?) the (central phenomenon being studied) for (the participants, such as the individual, groups, organization) at (research site).
  • 40. Example of a PS The purpose of this quantitative study, using Action Research Design, is to compare the performance of English Language Learners and Native Speakers of English, in primary school Mathematics classrooms.
  • 41. Class exercise Form groups of 5 Identify any research topic of interest to the group Discuss this topic Formulate a Purpose Statement as per the guidelines noted
  • 43. Research QuestionsTwo types of qualitative research questions to focusa studys purpose:   Central question - broad question that asks for exploration of the central phenomenon   Sub-questions - Questions that narrow the focus of the study NB: Pose research questions   Not objectives   Not hypotheses
  • 44. Writing Research Questions  Identify 1 central questions and no more than 2 - 3 sub- questions  These questions should:   Relate the central question to the strategy of inquiry   Begin with "what" or "how"   Focus on a single phenomenon or concept   Use exploratory verbs like discover or describe   Avoid directional words such as "affect" or "impact"   Evolve during the study   Be open-ended without reference to the literature   Specify the participants and research site (unless stated previously)
  • 45. Script for Writing a Central Question (How or What) is the ( story for for narrative research; meaning of the phenomenon for phenomenology; theory that explains the process of for grounded theory; culture-sharing pattern for ethnography; issue in the case for case study) of (central phenomenon) for (participants) at (research site).
  • 46. Example: Research Question Students to provide a few examples
  • 47. Purpose Statements, Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Objectives Purpose Research Hypotheses Statement Questions Overall Raise questions Make predictionsIntent direction to be answered about expectationsForm One or more One or more One or more sentences questions statementsUse Quantitative Quantitative Quantitative and qualitative and qualitative research research researchPlacement End of End of the introduction, after the literature introduction review, or in a separate section of the study Creswell, 2005
  • 48. METHODOLOGYFour sections Research design and method Population and sampling Data collection Data analysis
  • 49. METHODOLOGY Research design and method  A research design provides the framework for the collection and analysis of data.  Research method is simply a technique for collecting data. It can involve a specific instrument such as a self-completion questionnaire or a structured interview etc.
  • 50. METHODOLOGY  Population  Total group of persons that comprises the focus on the study Sample  A select number of persons from the population of interest  
  • 51. METHODOLOGY Data collection  Process of obtaining data that addresses the research question Data analysis  Process of making sense of the data
  • 52. RESULTS and DISCUSSION RESULTS   Presentation of the most important findings from you study   Presented in the form of Tables, Graphs, Diagrams, Work samples, Photos DISCUSSION   List your interpretation of, and the meaning derived from the key findings
  • 53. CONCLUSION Provides a brief summary of the main arguments and findings of the project List implications for (policy and) practice List recommendations or ideas on what to do next
  • 54. REFERENCES List all published information sources used in the project. This may include:   Journal articles,   Books   Videos   Interviews
  • 55. APPENDICES Include any additional material that the reader will find useful. This may include:   Copies of the questionnaires used   Additional tables or figures
  • 56. Questions?Comments ?