A STUDY ON CASEIN FIBER

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A new generation of innovative fiber and a kind of synthetic fiber made of milk casein fiber through bioengineering method with biological health care function and natural & long-lasting antibacterial effect, which has got valid certification for international ecological textile certification of Oeko-Tex Standard 100 Authentication approved it in April 2004 and has been classified into grade A project of high-new technology transformation (2). It is most comfortable, excellent water transportation and air-permeability.

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A STUDY ON CASEIN FIBER

  1. 1. Casein Fiber Ashini Hariram M.Sc. Apparel Technology & Management Guided by: Ms. Vidhya R
  2. 2. CONTENTS• INTRODUCTION • AFTER CARE• HISTORY • DESIGNERS• PRODUCTION PROCESS • MANUFACTURERS• PROCESS IN DETAIL • CONCLUSION• STRUCTURE AND APPEARANCE• PROPERTIES• FIBER TO FABRIC FORMATION• ADVANTAGES• DISADVANTAGES• APPLICATION & OTHER END USES ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION• Drink or Wear! : The technology has benefited us in the way by providing us the alternative to extract milk’s advantage without actually drinking it.• Skimmed Milk: Milk protein fabric is made out of skimmed milk. Main component of this fiber are casein proteins, drawn from the cow’s milk.• Amino Acids: This fiber contains fifteen types of amino acid extracts that helps in the nourishment of the skin and makes it healthier.• Bio-Engineering: Milk protein fabric is a blend of nature, science and technology that has benefits of natural as well as synthetic fiber.• Whats special with it?: It is most comfortable, excellent water transportation and air-permeability. It is also more healthy, light, soft and colorful. It’s being resistant to fungus, insects and aging. ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER (Contd…)
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION• Anti-Bacterial Elements & pH Factor: It contains natural anti-bacterial elements and has a pH similar to that of human skin. It biodegrades and is renewable as well.• Hygroscopic: It helps to absorb moisture since it is hygroscopic and has vertical fibers with regular conduits providing ample space for the moisture to pass from fiber to fiber.• Environment friendly: It is an environment friendly product. This fiber is regarded as a naturally healthy fiber by association of milk ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  5. 5. HISTORY• Milks potential for cloth: During the First World War, when the Germans were looking out for some newer sources of fabric, it was then when they discovered milks potential for cloth.• How they processed?: The solutions of casein were spun experimentally to form fibers and it was forced through the jets into hardening baths forming solid filaments in which the long casein molecules had been given sufficient orientation to hold together in typical fiber form.• Why Germans failed?: These early fibers were of little value. They were brittle, hard and lacked the resilience and durability needed for textile use . (Contd…) ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  6. 6. HISTORY• Who patented it?: During early 1930’s an Italian chemist Antonio Feretti, experimented with casein fibres to try and overcome their drawbacks. He was successful, making casein fibres which were pliable and had many properties associated with wool.• Early stage manufacturers: Feretti sold his patents to large Italian rayon firm Snia Viscosa who developed the large scale manufacture of casein fibres under the trade name of Lanital. In 1936 the output of Lanital was about 300 tonnes by the following year it had reached 1200 tonnes and in 1939 the production capacity was 10000 tonnes a year. It was manufactured to compete with wool.• Alternate names of casein fiber: a. Lanital in Belgium and France. b. Fibrolane in Britain . c. Merinova in Italy. d. Wipolan in Poland. e. Aralac in America ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  7. 7. PRODUCTION PROCESS OF CASEIN RAW MATERIAL MIXING FILTERATION HARDENING DEAREATION WASHING SPINNING DRYING CUTTING BALING ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  8. 8. PRODUCTION PROCESS ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  9. 9. STRUCTURE AND APPEARANCE• COLOUR• LUSTRE• MORPHOLOGYColor and Lustre Longitudinal View Cross Sectional View ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  10. 10. FIBER IDENTIFICATIONIdentification of combustion Identification of dissolved• Near the flame: Melt and curls • Milk fiber in 2.5% NaOH• Then into flame: Burns solution, 100 degree for• Leave the flame: combustion 30minutes after heating can and sometimes eliminate be a unique milk protein fiber dissolved phenomenon• Burning Smell: hair burning • Status: fiber swelling was• Remnants of characteristics: rubbery freeze Black and basic crisp, but a trace amount lumps. • Colour changes: in the entire dissolution process, the fiber qualities of the colour gradually changes from dark red and then fade to pale yellow . ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  11. 11. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES• TENSILE STRENGTH • EFFECT OF MOISTURE Casein fiber has the tenacity of Casein tends to absorb moisture readily 2.8cN/tex when it is dry. When and the fibers become swollen and wet the fibers lose much of their soft. They may become plastic and strength then tenacity falls to , sticky as the temperature is raised. 2.4 to 2.6Cn/tex • ELONGATION• THERMAL PROPERTIES 60-70 percent, wet or dry Casein fibers generally soften on heating, particularly when • EFFECT OF AGE wet. Fibers become brittle and yellow on prolonged heating. Very resistant ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  12. 12. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES• EFFECT OF ACIDS • MICRO-ORGANISMS Casein is stable to acids of Casein fibers are attacked by mildews, moderate strength under particularly when moist. normal conditions. • ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES• EFFECT OF ALKALIES Dielectric strength of casein fibers is Casein is sensitive to alkali. low• EFFECT OF ORGANIC SOLVANTS Dry cleaning solvents do not cause damage.• INSECTS Casein fiber is not attacked by moth grubs to the same degree as wool. ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  13. 13. OTHER PROPERTIES• Casein fibres resemble wool in having a soft warm handle. The fibres are naturally crimped and yarns have a characteristic warmth and fullness handle. Casein fibres provide good thermal insulation. They are resilient like wool ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  14. 14. PHYSICAL PROPERTY COMPARISON Property Casein fiber Cotton Silk Wool Length (mm) 38 25-39 ----- 58-100 Fineness (dtex) 1.52 1.2-2.0 1.0-2.8 6-9 Dry tensile strength(CN/dtex) 2.8 1.9-3.1 3.8-4.0 2.6-3.5 Dry breaking elongation rate (%) 25-35 7-10 11-16 14-25 Wet tensile strength (CN/dtex) 2.4 3.2 2.1-2.8 0.8 Wet breaking elongation rate (%) 28.8 13 27-33 50 Friction coefficient (static) 0.187 - 0.52 0.24 Friction coefficient (dynamic) 0.214 - 0.26 0.384 Logarithm of mass specific resistance (Wg/ 9.1 6.8 9.8 8.4 cm2) Initial modulus (CN/dtex) 60-80 60-82 60-80 44-88 Moisture regain (%) 5-8 7-8 8-9 15-17 Specific weight (g/cm3) 1.22 1.50-1.54 1.46-1.52 1.34-1.38 ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  15. 15. FIBER TO FABRIC FORMATION ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  16. 16. SPINNING• PRETREATMENT The mass specific resistance of milk protein fibre is larger, so the pre-treatment before scutching is more important. • MILK FIBER BLENDS • Cool type • Thermal protection type • Top grade underclothes • Health care and body beauty • Home textile supplies• OPENING AND PICKING The compressed mass of raw fibre must be removed from bales. With good uniformity and less impurity, the milk protein fibre is bulky and it is easy to open. Opening is necessary in order to loosen the fibres and cleaning is done to remove the trashes present in the fibres ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  17. 17. SPINNING• CARDING The objective of the process is to further open and clean the remaining impurities in the fibres delivered from the opening and picking line. It must be detangled and straightened.• COMBING The main objective of this process are the reduction in short fiber content, removal of trash and neps. Production of more straight, parallel and uniform sliver. (Contd..) ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  18. 18. SPINNING• DRAWING The main objective of this process is to improve fibre orientation by aligning the fibres in one direction. Since the milk protein fibre is bulky and with weaker cohesion force, the extended parallelization of fibre in card sliver is worse, and much hooked fibre exists, the extended parallelization of fibre should be improved as much as possible during drawing to reduce its weight irregularity.• ROVING This process prepares the drawn sliver for the spinning process by converting it into an intermediate strand. It also helps in the further reduction of yarn ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  19. 19. SPINNING• SPINNING Spinning is the twisting together of fibers to form yarns. Since the fibre is soft, smooth and with weaker cohesion force, the amount of hairiness and thick and thin yarn always appears during spinning. ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  20. 20. WEAVING PROCESS ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  21. 21. WEAVING PROCESS• WINDING The yarns are wound into larger spools or cones which are placed on the racks. In winding, the electronic clearer is used and the air splicer is adopted to piece.• WARPING Warping is the process of making warping beams in which several warp ends are wound parallel to each other within known length of yarn.• SIZING Sizing of the warp yarn is essential to strengthen the yarn by adding starch to reduce breakage of the yarn and thus production stops on the weaving machine. On the weaving machine, the warp yarns are subjected to several types of actions i.e. cyclic strain, flexing, abrasion at various loom parts ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER and inter yarn friction.
  22. 22. WEAVING PROCESS• WEAVING It is the process in which two distinct sets of yarns called warp and the filling yarn are interlaced to form a fabric. There are no special difficulties in weaving blend yarns . ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  23. 23. WET PROCESSING ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  24. 24. WET PROCESSING• DESIZING It is done to break down the size. Enzyme products may be used, preferably at pH 4.0 to 6.0. If water soluble sizes have been used, desizing is not necessary• SCOURING It is processed mainly to remove the impurities present in the fiber. Synthetic detergents should be used, preferably under acid conditions .• BLEACHING It improves whitness by removing natural colour and remaining impurities in the fiber. In common with all wet processing, bleaching should be carried out if possible under weekly acid conditions, as casein fibers retain maximum strength and minimum swelling under these conditions. ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER (Contd…)
  25. 25. WET PROCESSING• DYEING It is the process of imparting colours to a textile material through dye. Dyes can penetrate into the fiber without difficulty. In general, casein can be dyed with the dyestuffs used for wool.• DRYING After dyeing, loose stock and yarns may be centrifugally hydroextracted before being dried in conventional plant. Woven fabrics can be hydro-extracted by open width suction machine, or by centrifuging in open width.• PRINTING Applying coloured patterns and designs to decorate a finished fabric is called printing. Casein blend fabrics can be printed very effectively. Good results necessitate through preparation. If singeing is needed a light treatment with a low burner will be sufficient. A thorough scour is essential. ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  26. 26. WET PROCESSING• FINISHING Milk protein fiber products should be after treated, such as crease-resist finishing and softening, to keep it soft and delicate. • Crease resistant finishing-The crease resistant finishing agent has more choices and the environmental finishing with good crease resist effect should be selected. • Softening-During dyeing and producing, the milk protein fiber fabric feels hard after crease resistant finishing in high temperature and tension. In order to make fabric full and soft, softening is needed and softening with a suitable softening agent is an effective method.• CARBONISING The vegetable matter is destroyed by soaking the cloth in weak acids and then heating in an oven. Casein will withstand the carbonizing treatment when carried out with the minimum strength of sulphuric acid necessary for the effective removal of vegetable matter .After treatment the material should be well rinsed. (Contd…) ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  27. 27. WET PROCESSING• MILLING Casein fiber itself does not display any milling properties, and blends of casein with other non-felting fibers such as rayon staple or nylon should not be processed in milling machines. A suitable milling medium is a mixture of 2 parts of soap to 1 part of synthetic detergent. A thorough washing off is essential after scouring or milling in order to remove soap and alkali. ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  28. 28. ADVANTAGES OF CASEIN FIBER• It is hygienic and flexible• It is highly smooth, sheen and delicate• It is moisture absorbent, permeable and heat resistant• It is colour fast and easily dyeable• It can be blended with other fiber• It is renewable, biodegradable and eco- friendly fabric• It is great for sensitive skin as it has the same pH level as human skin• It is environment- friendly and is considered as green product• It contains 15 amino acids and natural anti-bacterial rate is above 80 percent so it has sanitarian function. ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  29. 29. DISADVANTAGES OF CASEIN FIBER • It gets wrinkles easily after washing and needs to be ironed every time. • It should not be washed in machine and that is because its not a very hard fiber • It has a low durability • Due to abundance of other fabrics like polyester, milk fabric never really became that popular • It is expensive ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  30. 30. APPLICATIONS APPLICATIONS• Intimate garments• Children’s garments• T-Shirts• Sweaters Women’s Garments• Women’s garments• Sports wear• Uniforms• Bedding Eye Mask• Eye mask Socks Hats New born’s bath towels Dog’s Garment ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  31. 31. OTHER END USES OTHER END USES• Plastic• Glues Plastic and buttons Glue• Cosmetics• Knitting needles• Pigments• Pens Knitting Needles Pigments and Paints• Coating paper• Leather Chemicals• Aluminum Foil• Paints ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER Casein Paintings Pens
  32. 32. AFTER CARE• WASHING Garments containing casein fiber should be washed with care and treated very gently. High temperatures and strong acid or alkaline conditions must be avoided. Neutral detergents are preferable for washing.• DRYING Garments should be dried as wool, care being taken to avoid high temperatures• IRONING The full, soft handle of garments containing casein will be maintained if they are slightly damp or almost dry before being ironed or pressed. Wool settings should be used. ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  33. 33. AFTER CARE• DRY CLEANING Casein is not affected by dry cleaning solvents and garments containing casein can be dry cleaned readily as wool . ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  34. 34. DESIGNERS• DOLRES PISCOTTA has a background in the fine arts: painting, sculpting, textile design and classical piano and guitar.• CASEY LARKIN and her label Mr. Larkin have been making a big splash in the eco-fashion world over the last year or so, impressing buyers, press and consumers alike in showings at the D&A Green Market in LA and The Green Shows in New York, and recently won the Readers Choice Award for Emerging Designer of 2009 at ecouterre.com.• PER SILVERTSEN; The luxurious fashion label Fin, based in Oslo, The head designer Per Silvertsen was the winner of Norway’s most prestigious designer fashion award, Naloyet 2009. All Fin collections are 100% carbon neutral and are made from organic materials such as cotton, bamboo, baby alpaca, milk and silk. ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  35. 35. MANUFACTURERS• Cyarn Textile Co., Ltd. • Contact: info@cyarn.com• Fabman Fabrics and Manufacture • Contact: info@fabmanindia.com• Euroflax Industries (Imports of Textiles) • Contact: euroflax@euroflax.com• Shanghai Zhaokai Import & Export Co • Contact: http://zhaokai.en.made-in-china.com• China Xhmart Textile Co., Ltd.• Ningbo Guang Yuang Fabric Co, Ltd. • Contact: http://www.new-fabric.com ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  36. 36. CONCLUSION• All through the years, experts have been devoted to the researches on improved fibers and at present they have succeeded in the development of the globally advanced milk protein fiber, a milestone in the international textile industry.• Being the optimal combination of nature and hi-tech, it is more accommodated to the needs of people’s modern lifestyle. So far clothing made from milk is expensive so it has a limited market however a handful of companies are experimenting with this fabric.• Milk Fabrics are so skin-friendly that it itself makes us feel better. To educate designers about these revolutionary materials, the future fashion initiative offers a textile research team. Advances in science are also helping to fill the green wardrobe of tomorrow. Sweaters are knit from spun milk protein. These textiles are where the future innovations are going to lie. It’s taking fashion to a whole new level where it never really existed before- where it’s not just about looking good. It’s about feeling good, too.• The milk protein fiber is a fresh product as a superior green, healthy and comfortable fiber, which will certainly become popular goods in the market. ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER
  37. 37. THANK YOU! ASHINI HARIRAM ON CASEIN FIBER

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