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  • 1. By N. Ajay Kumar
  • 2. Contents • Introduction • What is PHP? • Features • Uses of PHP • Where it is used? • History of PHP • Implementations • Basics of PHP • An Example • Security Issues • Conclusion
  • 3. What is PHP?What is PHP? • PHP • PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor • Originally called “Personal Home Page Tools” • Popular server-side scripting technology • Open-source • Anyone may view, modify and redistribute source code • Supported freely by community • Platform independent 3
  • 4. • Source-code not visible by client • ‘View Source’ in browsers does not display the PHP code • Various built-in functions allow for fast development • PHP supports many databases (MySQL, Informix, Oracle, Sybase, Solid, PostgreSQL, Generic ODBC, etc.) • PHP is compatible with almost all servers used today (Apache, IIS, etc.)
  • 5. PHP FeaturesPHP Features • Easy learning • Syntax Perl- and C-like syntax. Relatively easy to learn. • Large function library • Embedded directly into HTML • Interpreted, no need to compile • Open Source server-side scripting language designed specifically for the web.
  • 6. PHP Features(cont.)PHP Features(cont.) • Conceived in 1994, now used on +10 million web sites. • Outputs not only HTML but can output XML, images (JPG & PNG), PDF files and even Flash movies all generated on the fly. Can write these files to the file system. • PHP also has support for talking to other services using protocols such as LDAP, IMAP, SNMP, NNTP, POP3, HTTP.
  • 7. Using PHP you.. • Can performs system functions, i.e. from files on a system it can create, open, read, write, and close them. • Can handle forms, i.e. gather data from files, save data to a file, thru email you can send data, return data to the user. • Can add, delete, modify elements within your database thru PHP. • Access cookies variables and set cookies. • Can restrict users to access some pages of website. • Can encrypt data.
  • 8. Where it is used..? • E-Commerce • Project Management Tools • Graphical User Interface • Building an Online Community • Developing Facebook Applications • Generating PDF Files • Mailing Lists • Image Processing and Generation
  • 9. History of PHPHistory of PHP • PHP began in 1995 when Rasmus Lerdorf developed a Perl/CGI script toolset he called the Personal Home Page or PHP • PHP 2 released 1997 (PHP now stands for Hypertext Processor). Lerdorf developed it further, using C instead • PHP3 released in 1998 (50,000 users) • PHP4 released in 2000 (3.6 million domains). Considered debut of functional language and including Perl parsing, with other major features • PHP5.0.0 released July 13, 2004 (113 libraries>1,000 functions with extensive object-oriented programming) • PHP 6 is yet to released
  • 10. Implementations • The PHP language was originally implemented as an interpreter • Several compilers have been developed which decouple the PHP language from the interpreter. • Advantages of compilation include better execution speed, static analysis, and improved interoperability with code written in other languages. • Phalanger, which compiles PHP into Common Intermediate Language (CIL) byte code, and HipHop, developed at Facebook and now available as open source, which transforms the PHP Script into C++, then compiles it, reducing server load up to 50% • PHP scripts can also be deployed in executable format using a PHP compiler.
  • 11. Basics
  • 12. Basic applications • Structurally similar to C/C++ • Supports procedural and object-oriented paradigm (to some degree) • Scripting delimiters • <? php ?> • Must enclose all script code • Variables preceded by $ symbol • Case-sensitive • End statements with semicolon • Comments • // for single line • /* */ for multiline • Filenames end with .php by convention 13
  • 13. PHP Operators •Operators are used to operate on values. There are four classifications of operators: • Arithmetic • Assignment • Comparison • Logical
  • 14. PHP Arrays In PHP, there are three kind of arrays: • Numeric array • Associative array • Multidimensional array
  • 15. Control Structures • Wide Variety available • if, else, elseif • while, do-while • for, foreach • break, continue, switch • require, include, require_once, include_once
  • 16. PHP Hello World •Above is the PHP source code.
  • 17. PHP Hello World •It renders as HTML that looks like this:
  • 18. Security issues • About 30% of all vulnerabilities listed on the National Vulnerability Database are linked to PHP. • These are caused mostly by not following best practice programming rules; technical security flaws of the language itself or of its core libraries are not frequent (23 in 2008, about 1% of the total). • Recognizing that programmers make mistakes, some languages include taint checking to automatically detect the lack of input validation which induces many issues.
  • 19. Conclusion