Constructivism

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Constructivism

  1. 1. CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN THEORY <ul><li>The Instructional Design Knowledge Base; Theory,REsearch and Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Rita C. Richey,James D. Klein and Monica W. Tracey </li></ul>aJsUe pReSeNtAtIoN
  2. 2. Page  Key Principles Learning results from a personal interpretation of experience. 1 Learning results from an exploration of multiple perspectives 3 Learning is an active process occurring in realistic and relevant situations. 2
  3. 3. Page  Philosophy Orientation Constructivism ‘s implied subjectivity reflects some elements of humanism. Constructivism is a philosophy itself Constructivism also reflects principles of rationalism...reasoning
  4. 4. Page  ED. C M U 063 832 : <ul><li>knowledge is individually constructed and often unique to each person. Correspondingly, they believe that the most effective learning occurs when people actively derive meaning from their experiences and the context in which they take place. There are, however, many interpretations and forms of constructivism. Two of the most common are individual constructivism (also known as cognitive constructivism), which emphasizes individual meaning-making, and social constructivism, which highlights the role of social interactions in knowledge development. These two orientations of constructivism have had the most impact on ID. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith and Ragan (2005) identify the key assumptions that characterize both of these orientations. They suggest that individual constructivists believe: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is constructed from experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning results from a personal interpretation of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience. (p.19) </li></ul>Learning results from a personal interpretation of experience. Interactive and Collaborative Learning Scaffolding Problem-Based Learning Facilitation of Learning and Individual Knowledge Construction Authentic Learning Activities Cognitive Apprenticeships Learner Control Developing Self-Knowledge
  5. 5. Page  Theoretical Foundations John Dewey Lev Vygosky Ernst von Glasersfled Jean Piaget
  6. 6. Page  Analysis of Environment,Problems and Individual learner s Goal-Free and Open-Ended Assessment Learning Environments (Computer- Supported Collaborative Learning, Social Networking Learning Communities) ID Applications Instructional Strategies(Cognitive Apprenticeship, Problem-Based Learning, Scaffolding Collaboration) Instructional Design Applications
  7. 7. Page  AjSuE PrEsEnTaTiOn Arrow Chart 4 Cognitive Apprenticeships (e.g. Dennen, 2004) Problem-Based Learning (e.g Albanese&Mitchell,1993;Gijbels et.al.,2005 Scaffolding (e.g.Cho&Jonassen,2002; Davis & Linn,2000; Land&Hannafin,1997; Saye&Brush,2002; Simons&Klein,2007) Computer-Mediated Collaboration ( Johnson & Johnson, 2004; Scardamalia &Bereiter,1996; Uribe et al.,2003) This is a placeholder text.
  8. 8. Page  Related Concepts Individual Constructivism Anchored Support Learning Community Situated Cognition Social Constructivism Anchored Support Knowledge Construction
  9. 9. Page  ED. C M U 063 832 : <ul><li>knowledge is individually constructed and often unique to each person. Correspondingly, they believe that the most effective learning occurs when people actively derive meaning from their experiences and the context in which they take place. There are, however, many interpretations and forms of constructivism. Two of the most common are individual constructivism (also known as cognitive constructivism), which emphasizes individual meaning-making, and social constructivism, which highlights the role of social interactions in knowledge development. These two orientations of constructivism have had the most impact on ID. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith and Ragan (2005) identify the key assumptions that characterize both of these orientations. They suggest that individual constructivists believe: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is constructed from experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning results from a personal interpretation of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience. (p.19) </li></ul>CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN THEORY social constructivism Individual constructivism or cognitive constructivism highlights the role of social interactions in knowledge development The most effective learning occurs when people actively derive meaning from their experiences and the context in which they take place.. emphasizes individual meaning-making Knowledge is individually constructed and often unique to each person.
  10. 10. Page  Distributed Cognition Knowledge Construction Learners Characteristics (beliefs and attitudes self-knowledge, self-reflective skills. Learners and Learning Process
  11. 11. Page  CONSTRUCTI VIST DESIGN THEORY Learning and Performance Contexts Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments Learning Environments (rich,authentic) Social Networking Learning Communities
  12. 12. Page  Content Structure and Sequence Learners-Controlled Instructional Sequence
  13. 13. Page  ED. C M U 063 832 : <ul><li>knowledge is individually constructed and often unique to each person. Correspondingly, they believe that the most effective learning occurs when people actively derive meaning from their experiences and the context in which they take place. There are, however, many interpretations and forms of constructivism. Two of the most common are individual constructivism (also known as cognitive constructivism), which emphasizes individual meaning-making, and social constructivism, which highlights the role of social interactions in knowledge development. These two orientations of constructivism have had the most impact on ID. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith and Ragan (2005) identify the key assumptions that characterize both of these orientations. They suggest that individual constructivists believe: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is constructed from experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning results from a personal interpretation of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience. (p.19) </li></ul>Instructional and Non instructional Strategies Interactive and Collaborative Learning Scaffolding Problem-Based Learning Facilitation of Learning and Individual Knowledge Construction Authentic Learning Activities Cognitive Apprenticeships Learner Control Active Learning
  14. 14. Page  Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Social Networking Tools Electronic Collaborative Tools Media and Delivery Systems
  15. 15. Page  Recommended Link For PowerPoint 97-2010 http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/802papers/mergel/brenda.htm#The%20Basics%20of%20Constructivism http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm
  16. 16. Page  Analysis (Context,individual learners,problems) Designer and Design Pr ocess Assessment and Evaluation ( accept multiple perspectives,goal-free assessment, open-ended assessment) Design and Development ( general goal related to authentic tasks,participatory, recursive,reflective strategy and media selection)
  17. 17. Page  AjSuE PrEsEnTaTiOn Individual constructivists believe: Knowledge is constructed from experience. Learning results from a personal interpretation of knowledge. Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience

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