Advanced Lighting Controls Design Sunday May 28, 2006 2:00- 5:00 Joseph M. (Jody) Good, III, LC, IESNA,2006 IALD, LEED - AP TM Spectrum Engineers, Inc. Salt Lake City, UT
Why Control Lighting?1.User “program” requirements2.Legal “Code” requirements
Why Control Lighting?Facility owner may require or desire lighting controls for room functionality or energy rebates
Why Control Lighting?Obvious Examples: Switch or dimmed lighting in Meeting Rooms, Classrooms,Dimmed lighting in AV, training, and presentation roomsDimmed lighting in Video Teleconference rooms and Auditoriums
Why Control Lighting?Energy Codes-Control Requirements, InteriorASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 2004IECC
Mandatory Control Requirements: AUTOMATIC LIGHTING SHUTOFF All buildings > 5000 sq ft shall have an Automatic Control Device to shut off building lighting in all spaces.a. Time of dayb. Occupancy sensorc. Signal from another system’s sensor
Mandatory Control Requirements:SPACE CONTROLAll spaces with ceiling height partitions shall have at least one control device to independently control the general lighting in the space.(IECC- Uniform Lighting Reduction Controls Required, with exceptions.)
Mandatory Control Requirements:Manual control shall be able toSee the lighting ( or with pilot light) or remote for safety then clearly labeled
Mandatory Control Requirements:Automatic control (30 minutes) after all occupants leave the space except spaces with “Multi-scene Controllers” inClassrooms (some exceptions)Conference & Meeting roomsEmployee Lunch and Break rooms
Mandatory Control Requirements:All other spaces:Each control device shall be manually or automatically by sensing the occupants.For spaces up to 10,000 sq ft- 1 per 2500 sq ft max, over 10,000 sq ft, 1 per 10,000 sq ft max.Capable of overriding time of day scheduled shutoff for no more than 4 hours. (IECC 2 Hours)
Mandatory Control Requirements:Summary:Time of day shutoff required in all spaces > 5,000 sq ft.Large spaces require sub-divisions to automatically control or override.
Mandatory Control Requirements:BIG EXCEPTIONMulti-scene Controllers” inClassrooms (some exceptions)Conference & Meeting roomsEmployee Lunch and Break roomsMulti Scene controllers are NOT REQUIRED to be to be connected to other automatic lighting shutoff controls.
Controls for Exterior Lighting:All non-exempt outdoor lighting must be controlled.Astronomic clock or photocell.
Additional controls:Display/ Accent/ Case/ Permanent Task lights, others.Master Switch for Hotel Guestrooms
GETTING IT Doesit HAVE TO be controlled? CONTROL TYPE – Switched – Dimmed CONTROL METHOD – Manual – Automatic Time, Occupancy, Photocel, etc. LARGE or SMALL SCALE
Passive Lighting Controls How to control lighting? PASSIVE - Local Autonomous Systems Occupancy Sensors Auto on and auto off OR Manual on auto off Self Adjusting Delays and Sensitivity Single or Dual Tech (PIR, Ultrasonic acoustic) Photo receptive feature
Passive Lighting Controls Relay Systems – Time of Day Control – Dusk Dawn Shift Feature – Photo receptive feature – Local Override Key or Pushbutton Stations “Sentinel Switch” – Distributed Loadcenters Network Topology
ACTIVE Lighting Control Occupant Intervention Switch Manual Dimmer Manual on / Auto off Occupancy Sensor Preset Selection for Dimmers – Might be BMS or Time of Day / Photocel Controlled
Hybrid or Combination Systems Photocel on/ clock off Complex Occupancy sensor situations – Multi Head – Multi Relay – (Emergency loads) Dual Technology Sensors – Any tech on / hold / off – Better: Both Tech on (or manual on) / any tech hold on / both tech off
Occupancy Sensors and Daylight Controls Occupants prefer a occupancy sensor with photocel be set to use photocel to decide lights on when daylight present as lights are turned on when room becomes occupied Avoid turning lights off on occupants
Example Specifications Shall use microprocessor for motion signal analysis and internal, adaptive self-adjustment. No manual adjustment shall be required at the time of installation or during operation. Shall save learned and adjusted settings in non-volatile memory that retains all settings during power outages.
Example Specifications Shall recognize motion detected within 20 seconds of turning off lighting as a false off. In response to a false off, the microprocessor shall increase the time- off setting. Maximum adapted time-out shall not exceed 30 minutes. Walk through feature shall shut off lights within 2.5 minutes after momentary occupancy.
Example SpecificationsShall beep before load is automatically switched off.Shall have a 3-position service switch: off, auto, and on.Four, selectable manual timer settings shall be available from 30sec to 20min.Available for wall or ceiling sensors
ROOM LAYOUT Billof Materials: Ceiling Dual Tech Sensor 277 Power Pack (PS and Relay) 4 Emergency Transfer Devices
ROOM LAYOUT Billof Materials: Ceiling Dual Tech Sensor 277 Power Pack (PS and Relay)120 Power Pack 4 Emergency Transfer Devices
ROOM LAYOUT Sensor Location Sense Room Occupants Avoid False Triggering Use Door to provide shield Require Manufacturer to submit placement diagrams using their own sensitivity patterns
LIGHTING RELAYS Large Scale Control Flexible Control Time of Day Local Control Local Override
LIGHTING RELAYS Large Scale Control Flexible Control Time of Day Local Control Local Override Network Multiple Panels Together
LIGHTING RELAYS Small Scale Control Flexible Control Time of Day Local Control Local Override Network Multiple Panels Together
LIGHTING RELAYS Digital or Analog Switches or Stations
LIGHTING RELAYS Building Wide Solutions to Switching Problems
Building Management SystemsOften we have to interface with BMS Building Management Systems.Here is a primer of the terms and technology used in this business.
Building Management Systems BMS “Language” • Points: • AI Analog Input • AO Analog Output • BI or DI Binary / Digital Input • BO or DO Binary / Digital Output
Building Management Systems Analog Input can be variable voltage, current, or resistance signal. Analog Output can be variable voltage or current.
Building Management Systems Binary or Digital I or O think “dry contact”. Dimming ballast on a BMS required 2 points for output: • 1 BI for switching the power on / off • 1 AO to provide the 1-10 volts.
Building Management Systems These are generated by a circuit on the serial signal “node” or “gateway”. Manufacturer specific hardware and software in a control system, to access BMS addressing and address to control properties of each node.
Building Management Systems BacNet on Ethernet or Ethernet Router/Gateway BacNet BacNet Node Node DDC Controller DDC Controller Monitored and DDC Controller Controlled Load Devices BacNet or LonWorks
Building Management Systems Router/Gateway DDC Controller DDC Controller Monitored and DDC Controller Controlled Load Devices LonWorks
Building Management Systems BacNet on Ethernet or Ethernet Router/Gateway BacNet BacNet Node Node DDC Controller InterfaceBacNet orLonWorks
Building Management SystemsNetworks:LonWorks – Proprietary, incremental license fee per device, RS485 2 conductor, half duplex. Mostly more expensive, but can be competitive.BacNet- Open standard, sponsored by ASHRAE., RS485 or Ethernet. Speed is < 10 system cycles per second.There are others, ( ie: N2, CBus, Modbus,) but these 2 are themajority of the systems,
Dimming For Function Control Zones: 1- Whiteboard 2- Downlights 3- Pendants 4-Side Wall Slot 5- Rear Wall Wash
DM-C OPTION #1Various Loads, Including Power Amplifiers, if RequiredDMC-1 DMC-2 DMC-4 DMC-5 DMC-3 Line voltage in, 120 or 277 volts
DM-C OPTION #1 With Emergency BypassVarious Loads, Including Power Amplifiers, if RequiredDMC-1 DMC-2 DMC-4 DMC-5 DMC-3/EM Line voltage in, 120 or 277 volts
“Preset Station” DM-C OPTION #2 Networked Wall Box Dimmers Line voltage in, 120 or 277 volts Preset Data
“Preset Station” DM-C OPTION #3 “Wall Box System” Preset Data Line voltage in 120
Possible Interface Requirements Bac NET / Lon Works / BMS Audio/Video Controls, (AMX Crestron) • Direct Access- i.e. Lutron, Interface- Input, output, status feedback, Bi-directional, Serial Data: • RS 232- EIA/TIA Standard, 50 ft. limitation • RS 485- EIA/ TIA IEEE Standard, 4,000 ft, limitation, 2 or 4 wire, 32 taps Dry Contacts
Dimmer and Load Types Characteristics of Load determines technical capability of dimmer Incandescent: Resistive, simple loads. Construction can enhance noise transmission or suppression. Tungsten Halogen types of Incandescent are generally less noisy. They require a period of high temperature operation to maintain the tungsten cycle.
Dimmer and Load Types Magnetic Low Voltage- Generally sees load connected to transformer, almost complete dimming range. DC a danger. Neon Very similar to Magnetic LV, often with low end cutoff Electronic LV- Very Different, often called “Capacitive load”. Needs firm zero crossing (Start of dimming cycle) for power converter synchronization.
Dimmer and Load TypesFluorescent -electronic dimming ballasts, 2 or 3 wire control “line voltage phase control”. Or 4 wire 2 wires for switched power and 2 for 0-10 volt control signal. Emergency in General Must turn on load despite dimmer setting. Easy with incandescent & LV loads. Much harder with fluorescent loads. Prefer 2 wire control schemes for this purpose.
Fluorescent Dimmers 3 Control Techniques 2 wire Phase Control and Neutral to 1 or more Dimming Ballast Tuwire & Mark 10 Known Brands 3 wire Phase Control Switched Power and Neutral to 1 or more Dimming Ballast 4 wire Switched power and Neutral with additional 2 low voltage 0-10 volt wired to 1 or More Dimming Ballasts Helios, Mark 7, Known Brands NOT INTERCHANGABLE WITH SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS
Dimmer Technology (Forward) Phase Control, Triac, Dual SCRs “Reverse Phase Control” Dimmers Semiconductor must be able to turn off.FET, IGBT semiconductors Sine-wave Dimmers Semiconductors to turn on and turn off circuit and to shape the dimmer output to track the shape of the wave of the incoming power.
Rack Consideration Fault Current Rating Size and Mounting Cooling – Fans with Noise – Convection – may require cooler ambient temp
Dimmer Specifications - Racks DMX Isolation: All DMX512 & RS485 communication ports and remote contact input connections shall be optically isolated from all processor electronics by a minimum of 2,500V RMS isolation. Life Safety Code Panic: (Also bridge to Building Fire Alarm System) The Rack Processor Housing shall have the provision to select any of a maximum of 192 dimmer outputs to be activated by the PANIC function. The PANIC function shall be activated or de-activated by one or more local or remote contact closures. Dimmer and Processor Speed: The dimmer control electronics shall have 16 bit (minimum) fade processing and a dimmer update rate better than 16 ms
Dimmer Specifications - Racks Line Regulation:The dimmer output levels shall be regulated for incoming line voltage variations. The regulation shall adjust for both RMS voltage and frequency changes of the incoming AC wave form. Regulation shall maintain the desired output voltage +/- .5V volt for the entire operation range (90 – 264 VAC). The regulation shall compensate for variations of the AC waveform on a dimmer-by-dimmer basis.
Dimmer Specifications - Racks Output Filtering:Basic Rise dimmers shall have a rise time of not less than 350 microseconds A measured at 90 degrees conduction angle B from 10% to 90% of output wave form C with dimmer operating at maximum load D. Voltage rate of rise (slew rate) must not exceed 420 millivolts per microsecond in any point of the wave under full load conditions
Dimmer Specifications - Racks Output Filtering: 2.5.3 Medium rise time dimmers shall have a rise time of not less than 500 microseconds 2.5.4 Hi-Rise dimmers shall have a rise time of not less than 800 microseconds
Filtering Criteria A: Rise time- in microseconds, 350 minimum 800 premium B: Conduction Angle- 90 degree worst case C: Percentage of waveform 10%-90% conventional, 10%-95% or others is improving spec by increasing amount if waveform measured. D: Load: Theatrical manufacturers measure at full load, (rarely achieved), other amounts as stated. E.: Slew Rate, some filters can take adequate overall time, but take too long to respond, for example, and result in noisy lamps.
Dimmer Specifications - Racks SINEWAVE Dimmers:Dimmer output waveform shall be a fully symmetrical Sinewave at any output voltage setting eliminating all lamp noise and reducing reflected harmonics on the building power supply. Total Harmonic distortion shall be less than 1% and efficiency shall be 98%.
Dimmer Specifications - WBD SPEC From website information – DIMMERS Manufacturer: Electrical Specifications – Input: 120 VAC @ 60Hz, 277VAC @ 60Hz OK – Line Voltage Regulation Where is specification???? These can have line regulation, but what is it? – RFI Noise Suppression Sure, but what??? WBD have been measured (by me) at 110 ms, 10-90% 90 degrees, full load. So “De-buzzing” coils (additional chokes) are sold for sensitive situations and loads. Maximum Load: 120V incandescent: 1500W stand-alone, OK
Rack ControlsVariety of Standalone and Centralized Controls
Bag of Tricks• Favorite Devices to Know About – 277 volt LV Wall Box Dimmer – Line voltage Power Booster – 4 wire Fluorescent Dimming Ballast Interface – Emergency Transfer Device – Emergency Bypass Device – Dual Technology Sensors – Fluorescent Ballast Interfaces
Bag of Tricks• Resettable Switch• Dual Voltage Anything
Remember• Today, Lighting Control is Mandatory in many cases• Conceive the system by determining loads separately from control function• Groups always work together, increase load, simplify programming• Load types, ie Low voltage can affect your thinking
Thanks• Lutron, Lightolier Controls, Leviton Controls, Strand Lighting, Bodine• Sentry Switch• Wattstopper, Sensor Switch,• Whoever else I Forgot• For Samples, Photos, and Website Illustrations.
Questions?• Download atwww.spectrum–engineers.com/lightingGo Visit these manufacturers and others on the Show Floor.
Please remember to complete the surveys / course evaluations. Thank you!2006 We hope you enjoy the trade show and conference!