Advanced Lighting Controls            Design        Sunday May 28, 2006 2:00- 5:00       Joseph M. (Jody) Good, III, LC, I...
Why Control Lighting?1.User “program” requirements2.Legal “Code” requirements
Why Control Lighting?Facility owner may require or desire   lighting controls for room   functionality or energy rebates
Why Control Lighting?Obvious Examples:       Switch or dimmed lighting in Meeting    Rooms, Classrooms,Dimmed lighting in ...
Why Control Lighting?Energy Codes-Control Requirements, InteriorASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 2004IECC
Mandatory Control              Requirements:      AUTOMATIC LIGHTING SHUTOFF       All buildings > 5000 sq ft shall have a...
Mandatory Control             Requirements:SPACE CONTROLAll spaces with ceiling height partitions shall     have at least ...
Mandatory Control          Requirements:Manual control shall be able toSee the lighting ( or with pilot  light) or remote ...
Mandatory Control            Requirements:Automatic control (30 minutes) after all   occupants leave the space except   sp...
Mandatory Control               Requirements:All other spaces:Each control device shall be manually or automatically      ...
Mandatory Control           Requirements:Summary:Time of day shutoff required in all   spaces > 5,000 sq ft.Large spaces r...
Mandatory Control             Requirements:BIG EXCEPTIONMulti-scene Controllers” inClassrooms (some exceptions)Conference ...
Controls for Exterior                Lighting:All non-exempt outdoor lighting    must be controlled.Astronomic clock or ph...
Additional controls:Display/ Accent/ Case/ Permanent   Task lights, others.Master Switch for Hotel Guestrooms
GREEN OWNER:LEED tm: Minimum Energy Code: Controls                       (Energy & Atmosphere Prerequisite 2)       Enhanc...
GETTING IT Doesit HAVE TO be controlled? CONTROL TYPE  – Switched  – Dimmed CONTROL       METHOD  – Manual  – Automatic...
Passive Lighting Controls   How to control lighting?   PASSIVE - Local Autonomous Systems   Occupancy Sensors   Auto o...
Passive Lighting Controls Relay   Systems  – Time of Day Control  – Dusk Dawn Shift Feature  – Photo receptive feature  –...
ACTIVE Lighting Control Occupant   Intervention Switch Manual  Dimmer Manual on / Auto off Occupancy  Sensor Preset S...
Hybrid or Combination Systems Photocel on/ clock off Complex Occupancy sensor situations    –   Multi Head    –   Multi ...
Occupancy Sensors and       Daylight Controls Occupants   prefer a occupancy sensor  with photocel be set to use photocel...
Example Specifications   Shall use microprocessor for motion    signal analysis and internal, adaptive    self-adjustment...
Example Specifications   Shall recognize motion detected within    20 seconds of turning off lighting as a    false off. ...
Example SpecificationsShall beep before load is automatically   switched off.Shall have a 3-position service switch:   off...
ROOM LAYOUT Billof Materials: Ceiling Dual Tech  Sensor 277 Power Pack    (PS and Relay) 4 Emergency  Transfer Devices
ROOM LAYOUT Billof Materials: Ceiling Dual Tech  Sensor 277 Power Pack    (PS and Relay)120 Power Pack 4 Emergency  Tr...
ROOM LAYOUTSensorRelaysSwitchesandDimmers
ROOM LAYOUT Sensor Location Sense Room  Occupants Avoid False Triggering Use Door to provide  shield Require Manufact...
LIGHTING RELAYS Large Scale Control Flexible Control Time of Day Local Control Local Override
LIGHTING RELAYS Large Scale Control Flexible Control Time of Day Local Control Local Override Network Multiple  Pane...
LIGHTING RELAYS Small Scale Control Flexible Control Time of Day Local Control Local Override Network Multiple  Pane...
LIGHTING RELAYS   Digital or Analog    Switches or Stations
LIGHTING RELAYS   Building Wide    Solutions to Switching    Problems
Building Management SystemsOften we have to interface with BMS Building Management Systems.Here is a primer of the terms a...
Building Management Systems   BMS “Language”    • Points:    • AI Analog Input    • AO Analog Output    • BI or DI Binary...
Building Management Systems Analog Input can be variable  voltage, current, or resistance  signal. Analog Output can be ...
Building Management Systems Binary or Digital I or O think  “dry contact”. Dimming ballast on a BMS  required 2 points f...
Building Management Systems These are generated by a circuit  on the serial signal “node” or  “gateway”. Manufacturer sp...
Building Management Systems     BacNet on Ethernet     or Ethernet Router/Gateway           BacNet      BacNet            ...
Building Management Systems    Router/Gateway   DDC Controller   DDC Controller                     Monitored             ...
Building Management Systems       BacNet on Ethernet       or Ethernet   Router/Gateway             BacNet     BacNet     ...
Building Management SystemsNetworks:LonWorks – Proprietary, incremental license fee per device, RS485          2 conductor...
Dimming For Function                       Control                       Zones:                       1- Whiteboard       ...
DM-C OPTION #1Various Loads, Including Power Amplifiers, if RequiredDMC-1 DMC-2             DMC-4    DMC-5          DMC-3 ...
DM-C OPTION #1              With Emergency BypassVarious Loads, Including Power Amplifiers, if RequiredDMC-1     DMC-2    ...
“Preset Station”                      DM-C OPTION #2                      Networked Wall Box Dimmers                   Lin...
“Preset Station”                   DM-C OPTION #3                        “Wall Box System”         Preset Data   Line volt...
CLASSROOM            Control            Zones:            1- Whiteboard            2- Downlights            3- Pendants   ...
Possible Interface             Requirements Bac NET / Lon Works / BMS Audio/Video Controls, (AMX Crestron)    • Direct A...
Dimmer and Load Types   Characteristics of Load determines    technical capability of dimmer   Incandescent: Resistive, ...
Dimmer and Load Types   Magnetic Low Voltage- Generally sees load    connected to transformer, almost complete    dimming...
Dimmer and Load TypesFluorescent -electronic dimming ballasts, 2  or 3 wire control “line voltage phase  control”. Or 4 wi...
Fluorescent Dimmers   3 Control Techniques                         2 wire Phase Control and Neutral to 1 or more         ...
Dimmer Technology    (Forward) Phase Control, Triac, Dual SCRs “Reverse Phase Control” Dimmers  Semiconductor must be abl...
High Density Dimming Systems
Rack Consideration Fault Current Rating Size and Mounting Cooling    – Fans with Noise    – Convection – may require co...
Dimmer Specifications - Racks DMX Isolation: All DMX512 & RS485 communication ports and remote contact input  connection...
Dimmer Specifications - Racks Line Regulation:The dimmer output levels shall be regulated for  incoming line voltage vari...
Dimmer Specifications - Racks Output Filtering:Basic Rise dimmers shall have a rise time of not  less than 350 microsecon...
Dimmer Specifications - Racks Output Filtering: 2.5.3 Medium rise time dimmers shall  have a rise time of not less than ...
Filtering Criteria   A: Rise time- in microseconds, 350 minimum 800    premium   B: Conduction Angle- 90 degree worst ca...
Dimmer Specifications - Racks SINEWAVE Dimmers:Dimmer output waveform shall be a fully  symmetrical Sinewave at any outpu...
Dimmer Specifications - WBD   SPEC From website information    – DIMMERS        Manufacturer:        Electrical Specifi...
Rack ControlsVariety of Standalone and Centralized Controls
Bag of Tricks• Favorite Devices to Know About  – 277 volt LV Wall Box Dimmer  – Line voltage Power Booster  – 4 wire Fluor...
Bag of Tricks• Resettable Switch• Dual Voltage Anything
Remember• Today, Lighting Control is Mandatory in  many cases• Conceive the system by determining loads  separately from c...
Thanks• Lutron, Lightolier Controls, Leviton  Controls, Strand Lighting, Bodine• Sentry Switch• Wattstopper, Sensor Switch...
Questions?• Download atwww.spectrum–engineers.com/lightingGo Visit these manufacturers and others on the Show Floor.
Please remember to complete the         surveys / course evaluations.                Thank you!2006             We hope yo...
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Dmx512 lightng contrl design

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Dmx512 lightng contrl design

  1. 1. Advanced Lighting Controls Design Sunday May 28, 2006 2:00- 5:00 Joseph M. (Jody) Good, III, LC, IESNA,2006 IALD, LEED - AP TM Spectrum Engineers, Inc. Salt Lake City, UT
  2. 2. Why Control Lighting?1.User “program” requirements2.Legal “Code” requirements
  3. 3. Why Control Lighting?Facility owner may require or desire lighting controls for room functionality or energy rebates
  4. 4. Why Control Lighting?Obvious Examples: Switch or dimmed lighting in Meeting Rooms, Classrooms,Dimmed lighting in AV, training, and presentation roomsDimmed lighting in Video Teleconference rooms and Auditoriums
  5. 5. Why Control Lighting?Energy Codes-Control Requirements, InteriorASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 2004IECC
  6. 6. Mandatory Control Requirements: AUTOMATIC LIGHTING SHUTOFF All buildings > 5000 sq ft shall have an Automatic Control Device to shut off building lighting in all spaces.a. Time of dayb. Occupancy sensorc. Signal from another system’s sensor
  7. 7. Mandatory Control Requirements:SPACE CONTROLAll spaces with ceiling height partitions shall have at least one control device to independently control the general lighting in the space.(IECC- Uniform Lighting Reduction Controls Required, with exceptions.)
  8. 8. Mandatory Control Requirements:Manual control shall be able toSee the lighting ( or with pilot light) or remote for safety then clearly labeled
  9. 9. Mandatory Control Requirements:Automatic control (30 minutes) after all occupants leave the space except spaces with “Multi-scene Controllers” inClassrooms (some exceptions)Conference & Meeting roomsEmployee Lunch and Break rooms
  10. 10. Mandatory Control Requirements:All other spaces:Each control device shall be manually or automatically by sensing the occupants.For spaces up to 10,000 sq ft- 1 per 2500 sq ft max, over 10,000 sq ft, 1 per 10,000 sq ft max.Capable of overriding time of day scheduled shutoff for no more than 4 hours. (IECC 2 Hours)
  11. 11. Mandatory Control Requirements:Summary:Time of day shutoff required in all spaces > 5,000 sq ft.Large spaces require sub-divisions to automatically control or override.
  12. 12. Mandatory Control Requirements:BIG EXCEPTIONMulti-scene Controllers” inClassrooms (some exceptions)Conference & Meeting roomsEmployee Lunch and Break roomsMulti Scene controllers are NOT REQUIRED to be to be connected to other automatic lighting shutoff controls.
  13. 13. Controls for Exterior Lighting:All non-exempt outdoor lighting must be controlled.Astronomic clock or photocell.
  14. 14. Additional controls:Display/ Accent/ Case/ Permanent Task lights, others.Master Switch for Hotel Guestrooms
  15. 15. GREEN OWNER:LEED tm: Minimum Energy Code: Controls (Energy & Atmosphere Prerequisite 2) Enhanced Personal Lighting Controls (Indoor Environmental Quality Credit 6.1) Reduced Energy : (Energy & Atmosphere Credit 1) Basic Commissioning: (Energy & Atmosphere Prerequisite 1) Additional Commissioning: (Energy & Atmosphere Prerequisite 3)
  16. 16. GETTING IT Doesit HAVE TO be controlled? CONTROL TYPE – Switched – Dimmed CONTROL METHOD – Manual – Automatic  Time, Occupancy, Photocel, etc. LARGE or SMALL SCALE
  17. 17. Passive Lighting Controls How to control lighting? PASSIVE - Local Autonomous Systems Occupancy Sensors Auto on and auto off OR Manual on auto off Self Adjusting Delays and Sensitivity Single or Dual Tech (PIR, Ultrasonic acoustic) Photo receptive feature
  18. 18. Passive Lighting Controls Relay Systems – Time of Day Control – Dusk Dawn Shift Feature – Photo receptive feature – Local Override  Key or Pushbutton Stations  “Sentinel Switch” – Distributed Loadcenters Network Topology
  19. 19. ACTIVE Lighting Control Occupant Intervention Switch Manual Dimmer Manual on / Auto off Occupancy Sensor Preset Selection for Dimmers – Might be BMS or Time of Day / Photocel Controlled
  20. 20. Hybrid or Combination Systems Photocel on/ clock off Complex Occupancy sensor situations – Multi Head – Multi Relay – (Emergency loads) Dual Technology Sensors – Any tech on / hold / off – Better: Both Tech on (or manual on) / any tech hold on / both tech off
  21. 21. Occupancy Sensors and Daylight Controls Occupants prefer a occupancy sensor with photocel be set to use photocel to decide lights on when daylight present as lights are turned on when room becomes occupied Avoid turning lights off on occupants
  22. 22. Example Specifications Shall use microprocessor for motion signal analysis and internal, adaptive self-adjustment. No manual adjustment shall be required at the time of installation or during operation. Shall save learned and adjusted settings in non-volatile memory that retains all settings during power outages.
  23. 23. Example Specifications Shall recognize motion detected within 20 seconds of turning off lighting as a false off. In response to a false off, the microprocessor shall increase the time- off setting. Maximum adapted time-out shall not exceed 30 minutes. Walk through feature shall shut off lights within 2.5 minutes after momentary occupancy.
  24. 24. Example SpecificationsShall beep before load is automatically switched off.Shall have a 3-position service switch: off, auto, and on.Four, selectable manual timer settings shall be available from 30sec to 20min.Available for wall or ceiling sensors
  25. 25. ROOM LAYOUT Billof Materials: Ceiling Dual Tech Sensor 277 Power Pack (PS and Relay) 4 Emergency Transfer Devices
  26. 26. ROOM LAYOUT Billof Materials: Ceiling Dual Tech Sensor 277 Power Pack (PS and Relay)120 Power Pack 4 Emergency Transfer Devices
  27. 27. ROOM LAYOUTSensorRelaysSwitchesandDimmers
  28. 28. ROOM LAYOUT Sensor Location Sense Room Occupants Avoid False Triggering Use Door to provide shield Require Manufacturer to submit placement diagrams using their own sensitivity patterns
  29. 29. LIGHTING RELAYS Large Scale Control Flexible Control Time of Day Local Control Local Override
  30. 30. LIGHTING RELAYS Large Scale Control Flexible Control Time of Day Local Control Local Override Network Multiple Panels Together
  31. 31. LIGHTING RELAYS Small Scale Control Flexible Control Time of Day Local Control Local Override Network Multiple Panels Together
  32. 32. LIGHTING RELAYS Digital or Analog Switches or Stations
  33. 33. LIGHTING RELAYS Building Wide Solutions to Switching Problems
  34. 34. Building Management SystemsOften we have to interface with BMS Building Management Systems.Here is a primer of the terms and technology used in this business.
  35. 35. Building Management Systems BMS “Language” • Points: • AI Analog Input • AO Analog Output • BI or DI Binary / Digital Input • BO or DO Binary / Digital Output
  36. 36. Building Management Systems Analog Input can be variable voltage, current, or resistance signal. Analog Output can be variable voltage or current.
  37. 37. Building Management Systems Binary or Digital I or O think “dry contact”. Dimming ballast on a BMS required 2 points for output: • 1 BI for switching the power on / off • 1 AO to provide the 1-10 volts.
  38. 38. Building Management Systems These are generated by a circuit on the serial signal “node” or “gateway”. Manufacturer specific hardware and software in a control system, to access BMS addressing and address to control properties of each node.
  39. 39. Building Management Systems BacNet on Ethernet or Ethernet Router/Gateway BacNet BacNet Node Node DDC Controller DDC Controller Monitored and DDC Controller Controlled Load Devices BacNet or LonWorks
  40. 40. Building Management Systems Router/Gateway DDC Controller DDC Controller Monitored and DDC Controller Controlled Load Devices LonWorks
  41. 41. Building Management Systems BacNet on Ethernet or Ethernet Router/Gateway BacNet BacNet Node Node DDC Controller InterfaceBacNet orLonWorks
  42. 42. Building Management SystemsNetworks:LonWorks – Proprietary, incremental license fee per device, RS485 2 conductor, half duplex. Mostly more expensive, but can be competitive.BacNet- Open standard, sponsored by ASHRAE., RS485 or Ethernet. Speed is < 10 system cycles per second.There are others, ( ie: N2, CBus, Modbus,) but these 2 are themajority of the systems,
  43. 43. Dimming For Function Control Zones: 1- Whiteboard 2- Downlights 3- Pendants 4-Side Wall Slot 5- Rear Wall Wash
  44. 44. DM-C OPTION #1Various Loads, Including Power Amplifiers, if RequiredDMC-1 DMC-2 DMC-4 DMC-5 DMC-3 Line voltage in, 120 or 277 volts
  45. 45. DM-C OPTION #1 With Emergency BypassVarious Loads, Including Power Amplifiers, if RequiredDMC-1 DMC-2 DMC-4 DMC-5 DMC-3/EM Line voltage in, 120 or 277 volts
  46. 46. “Preset Station” DM-C OPTION #2 Networked Wall Box Dimmers Line voltage in, 120 or 277 volts Preset Data
  47. 47. “Preset Station” DM-C OPTION #3 “Wall Box System” Preset Data Line voltage in 120
  48. 48. CLASSROOM Control Zones: 1- Whiteboard 2- Downlights 3- Pendants 4-Side Wall Slot 5- Rear Wall Wash
  49. 49. Possible Interface Requirements Bac NET / Lon Works / BMS Audio/Video Controls, (AMX Crestron) • Direct Access- i.e. Lutron, Interface- Input, output, status feedback, Bi-directional, Serial Data: • RS 232- EIA/TIA Standard, 50 ft. limitation • RS 485- EIA/ TIA IEEE Standard, 4,000 ft, limitation, 2 or 4 wire, 32 taps Dry Contacts
  50. 50. Dimmer and Load Types Characteristics of Load determines technical capability of dimmer Incandescent: Resistive, simple loads. Construction can enhance noise transmission or suppression. Tungsten Halogen types of Incandescent are generally less noisy. They require a period of high temperature operation to maintain the tungsten cycle.
  51. 51. Dimmer and Load Types Magnetic Low Voltage- Generally sees load connected to transformer, almost complete dimming range. DC a danger. Neon Very similar to Magnetic LV, often with low end cutoff Electronic LV- Very Different, often called “Capacitive load”. Needs firm zero crossing (Start of dimming cycle) for power converter synchronization.
  52. 52. Dimmer and Load TypesFluorescent -electronic dimming ballasts, 2 or 3 wire control “line voltage phase control”. Or 4 wire 2 wires for switched power and 2 for 0-10 volt control signal. Emergency in General Must turn on load despite dimmer setting. Easy with incandescent & LV loads. Much harder with fluorescent loads. Prefer 2 wire control schemes for this purpose.
  53. 53. Fluorescent Dimmers 3 Control Techniques 2 wire Phase Control and Neutral to 1 or more Dimming Ballast Tuwire & Mark 10 Known Brands 3 wire Phase Control Switched Power and Neutral to 1 or more Dimming Ballast 4 wire Switched power and Neutral with additional 2 low voltage 0-10 volt wired to 1 or More Dimming Ballasts Helios, Mark 7, Known Brands NOT INTERCHANGABLE WITH SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS
  54. 54. Dimmer Technology (Forward) Phase Control, Triac, Dual SCRs “Reverse Phase Control” Dimmers Semiconductor must be able to turn off.FET, IGBT semiconductors Sine-wave Dimmers Semiconductors to turn on and turn off circuit and to shape the dimmer output to track the shape of the wave of the incoming power.
  55. 55. High Density Dimming Systems
  56. 56. Rack Consideration Fault Current Rating Size and Mounting Cooling – Fans with Noise – Convection – may require cooler ambient temp
  57. 57. Dimmer Specifications - Racks DMX Isolation: All DMX512 & RS485 communication ports and remote contact input connections shall be optically isolated from all processor electronics by a minimum of 2,500V RMS isolation. Life Safety Code Panic: (Also bridge to Building Fire Alarm System) The Rack Processor Housing shall have the provision to select any of a maximum of 192 dimmer outputs to be activated by the PANIC function. The PANIC function shall be activated or de-activated by one or more local or remote contact closures. Dimmer and Processor Speed: The dimmer control electronics shall have 16 bit (minimum) fade processing and a dimmer update rate better than 16 ms
  58. 58. Dimmer Specifications - Racks Line Regulation:The dimmer output levels shall be regulated for incoming line voltage variations. The regulation shall adjust for both RMS voltage and frequency changes of the incoming AC wave form. Regulation shall maintain the desired output voltage +/- .5V volt for the entire operation range (90 – 264 VAC). The regulation shall compensate for variations of the AC waveform on a dimmer-by-dimmer basis.
  59. 59. Dimmer Specifications - Racks Output Filtering:Basic Rise dimmers shall have a rise time of not less than 350 microseconds A measured at 90 degrees conduction angle B from 10% to 90% of output wave form C with dimmer operating at maximum load D. Voltage rate of rise (slew rate) must not exceed 420 millivolts per microsecond in any point of the wave under full load conditions
  60. 60. Dimmer Specifications - Racks Output Filtering: 2.5.3 Medium rise time dimmers shall have a rise time of not less than 500 microseconds 2.5.4 Hi-Rise dimmers shall have a rise time of not less than 800 microseconds
  61. 61. Filtering Criteria A: Rise time- in microseconds, 350 minimum 800 premium B: Conduction Angle- 90 degree worst case C: Percentage of waveform 10%-90% conventional, 10%-95% or others is improving spec by increasing amount if waveform measured. D: Load: Theatrical manufacturers measure at full load, (rarely achieved), other amounts as stated. E.: Slew Rate, some filters can take adequate overall time, but take too long to respond, for example, and result in noisy lamps.
  62. 62. Dimmer Specifications - Racks SINEWAVE Dimmers:Dimmer output waveform shall be a fully symmetrical Sinewave at any output voltage setting eliminating all lamp noise and reducing reflected harmonics on the building power supply. Total Harmonic distortion shall be less than 1% and efficiency shall be 98%.
  63. 63. Dimmer Specifications - WBD SPEC From website information – DIMMERS  Manufacturer:  Electrical Specifications – Input: 120 VAC @ 60Hz, 277VAC @ 60Hz OK – Line Voltage Regulation Where is specification???? These can have line regulation, but what is it? – RFI Noise Suppression Sure, but what??? WBD have been measured (by me) at 110 ms, 10-90% 90 degrees, full load. So “De-buzzing” coils (additional chokes) are sold for sensitive situations and loads.  Maximum Load: 120V incandescent: 1500W stand-alone, OK
  64. 64. Rack ControlsVariety of Standalone and Centralized Controls
  65. 65. Bag of Tricks• Favorite Devices to Know About – 277 volt LV Wall Box Dimmer – Line voltage Power Booster – 4 wire Fluorescent Dimming Ballast Interface – Emergency Transfer Device – Emergency Bypass Device – Dual Technology Sensors – Fluorescent Ballast Interfaces
  66. 66. Bag of Tricks• Resettable Switch• Dual Voltage Anything
  67. 67. Remember• Today, Lighting Control is Mandatory in many cases• Conceive the system by determining loads separately from control function• Groups always work together, increase load, simplify programming• Load types, ie Low voltage can affect your thinking
  68. 68. Thanks• Lutron, Lightolier Controls, Leviton Controls, Strand Lighting, Bodine• Sentry Switch• Wattstopper, Sensor Switch,• Whoever else I Forgot• For Samples, Photos, and Website Illustrations.
  69. 69. Questions?• Download atwww.spectrum–engineers.com/lightingGo Visit these manufacturers and others on the Show Floor.
  70. 70. Please remember to complete the surveys / course evaluations. Thank you!2006 We hope you enjoy the trade show and conference!

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