The Practice of Language Teaching:Approaches, Methods, Procedures, Techniques

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Summary of the most common approaches used in language teaching today.

Summary of the most common approaches used in language teaching today.

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  • 1. The Practice of English Language Teaching: Approaches, Methods, Procedures and Techniques
  • 2. What is? • APPROACH: an approach describes how we acquire language knowledge and gives us guidelines about the conditions in which language learning will be successful. • METHOD: putting approach to practice. Includes various procedures and techniques to support the approach. • PROCEDURES: an ordered sequence of techniques. EX: First you do this…then you do that…. • TECHNIQUE: a type of activity, designed to support a procedure. EX: fill in te blanks.
  • 3. Purpose and success depend on… • DO THEY ACHIVE WHAT THEY SET OUT TO ACHIEVE?
  • 4. APPROACHES
  • 5. 1. Audiolingualism • Derived from Behaviorism • It based its theory in positive reinforcement Stimulus-response-reinforcement • Focused on grammatical and lexical mastery of the learned structures. • Does not focus on students creating their own rules. • Error making is not part of learning.
  • 6. 2. PPP (Presentation Practice Production) • Teacher presents a situation that gives context to what is going to be taught. • Students practice using reproduction techniques (individual or choral) • Similarities with Audio-lingual drills. • Production comes when students make sentences on their own using new language. • Critics argue that it is clearly teacher centered, and linear.
  • 7. 3. PPP and alternatives to PPP • PPP can be used in different ways. • Keith Johnson offered the alternative of encouraging students into immediate production. • Teachers can see if students have problems during production and need to return o presentation or practice. • Donn Byrne suggests that teachers can decide at which stage to enter the procedure. Presentation-practice-production
  • 8. 4. Communicative Approach • Dismisses the notion of language teaching focusing solely on grammar and vocabulary • Students use/learn language forms in a variety of contexts • Believes in plentiful exposure to language will develop student’s knowledge and skills. EX: realistic communication, role playing, etc. • Purpose of activities are creating desire to communicate EX: buy a ticket, buy food, etc) • Focus on context rather than form. • Critics argue that there is uncontrolled range of language use.
  • 9. 5. Task –based Learning • Language is presented through tasks students must perform. • Structures are not the main focus but solving the task using learned language. • After task is completed , then the teacher can discuss the language learned. • Willis suggests 3 stages: pre-task, task cycle, language focus. • EX: conducting a survey to see the most common pets own by the students. • Critics worry about it not being L2 beginner levels or for young learners, grading tasks.
  • 10. 6. Humanistic Approach • Student centered classroom. • Students are encouraged to make use of their own lives and feelings.
  • 11. 7. The Lexical Approach • Believes that “language consists not only of traditional grammar and vocabulary but of multi-word prefabricated chunks “ (Lewis 1997:3) • Fluency is the result of the acquisition of prefabricated items which help build any linguistic novelty or creativity.
  • 12. 8. Other popular approaches developed during the 1970’s and the 1980’s
  • 13. CLL (Community Language Learning) • Students decide what they want to talk about. • The facilitator stays outside the circle. • students stay in circle and facilitator provides the correct statement if a student says something in their own language. • Teacher’s role is to facilitate rather than to teach.
  • 14. Silent Way • Teachers say as little as possible. • The focus is that the learner himself discovers and creates language. • Student centered. • Teachers model sound while pointing to a phonemic chart. • Teachers only use gestures or expressions to tell students what to do. • Critics believe that teacher’s silence acts as a barrier rather that an incentive.
  • 15. Suggestopaedia • Physical surroundings and atmosphere of the classrooms is important. • Traumatic themes are avoided • Teacher-student sympathy is vitally important. • Suggestopaedia has 3 stages: • Oral reviewing-presentation of new dialogue-concert session
  • 16. TPR (Total Physical Response) • Comes from the notion that L2 language learning is similar to that of the acquisition of language in children. • Language is directed in form of commands and performing actions. • Students respond physically to the language they hear. • Critics point out that this approach may only be helpful for beginners.
  • 17. Bibliography: • Harmer, J. (2001) The Practice of Language Teaching, 3rd edition, US, Pearson Education. • Council of Europe and European Commission (2001) Methodology in Language Learning T-kit, Strasburg, Council of Europe Publishing.