What are the different types of coastal management?
Revetments £1,000/m Open structure of planks absorb wave energy, but allow sand and shingle to build up beyond Are these attractive? Hard engineering
Rock armour or Rip Rap Relatively cheap £1,000/m, but considered environmentally ugly When resting on sand and shingle they may be moved out of position by waves
Expensive at £5,000/m Designed to stop erosion, but what landforms would that prevent being created? Would you rather go on holiday and see Old Harry or a sea wall? Sea Walls Energy is reflected (not absorbed). Over time the energy scours the base of the sea wall undermining it, causing it to collapse This is reduced by absorbing the energy and angling the wall
Gabions Much cheaper than sea walls £1000/m, but do you think they are attractive? Small rocks, bound in place by cages absorb the wave energy and reduce erosion
Stop longshore drift What are they designed to do? Further down the coast this may mean that beaches are starved of sand and shingle Groynes £10,000 each (wooden groynes) £1.5m each (rock groynes) Mappleton, Yorks. coast
Gabions and groynes together Why might you choose to implement more than one coastal management strategy at a time? To protect against erosion and longshore drift
“ Soft” Engineering Less expensive than hard strategies Longer term, more attractive and sustainable as they work with natural processes How attractive do you consider these to be?
Beach Nourishment The beach is widened; how will this affect the energy of the waves? Sand and/or pebbles are brought in to replace material that has eroded away. Where do you think this replacement material has come from? It has been dredged from the sea bed. In some cases it is pumped onto the shore. It will reduce the energy that the wave has meaning less erosion. Cost: £100/m/yr
Stabilising Sand Dunes Grasses are planted in the sand dunes to bind them together, holding them in place. Footpaths may be designated. Why might this be? To reduce trampling of the dunes by people, which erodes them
Managed Retreat When the land by the sea is of low economic value it may be allowed to erode. In some cases this eroded material forms beaches which naturally protect the coast.
What about Question 4? <ul><li>You have to write your own question! </li></ul><ul><li>It needs to be about management, look at the title of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>For example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ How do the Holderness and Suffolk coastlines compare in terms of erosion and coastal protection? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are visitors managed in Dunwich village and Dunwich Heath? </li></ul></ul>
Question on visitor management. <ul><li>Introduction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ How many visitors every year? What do they come to see/do? How is the area protected? (AONB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Explain that you wanted to investigate how the large number of visitors to both the Heath and the village are managed. What facilities and services are provided? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ How did you go about the investigation? What were you methods? Largely - sketch maps, environmental surveys, photographs </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>~ Include your two sketches with annotations. </li></ul><ul><li>~ Environmental survey results? </li></ul><ul><li>What have you found out? </li></ul><ul><li>~ What are the benefits and problems of tourists </li></ul><ul><li>~ How do the two areas (Heath and Village) compare in their response to visitor management? </li></ul><ul><li>~ Could the visitors be managed better? </li></ul>
What do I do now? <ul><li>Decide upon a question. </li></ul><ul><li>Check your notes from coasts to make sure you have all the details you need to be able to compare Dunwich to Holderness. </li></ul><ul><li>Start to work your way through the usual format of answering a question (see peach booklet) </li></ul>