Lesson 5


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Lesson 5

  1. 1. How can countries develop more sustainably in the future? Bottom-Up?
  2. 2. What are the typical features of a bottom-up approach? <ul><li>Development is usually associated with economic growth (secondary/tertiary industry) </li></ul><ul><li>It is also associated with the well-being of people (Health, freedom, food supply). The HDI helps to measure development </li></ul><ul><li>Use figure 6, page 238 to compare the HDI for UK, Brazil and Peru </li></ul>
  3. 3. A bottom-up approach to development <ul><li>In contrast to top-down HEP schemes such as Santo Antonio in Brazil, some low-income countries have decided their rural peripheries would benefit from </li></ul><ul><li>‘ micro-hydro’ schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-hydro schemes are defined as those with a generating capacity under 11 KW </li></ul><ul><li>Water is diverted from a stream to a high point on the valley side and then dropped through a pipe to a turbine (Figure 7 page 238) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Video Clip <ul><li>Watch video on r-drive </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Action- micro-hydro scheme </li></ul><ul><li>http://video.google.co.uk/videosearch?q=micro+hydro+power&hl=en&emb=0&aq=0&oq=micro+hydro#q=micro+hydro+power+peru&hl=en&emb=0 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Micro-hydro scheme, Peru
  6. 6. Chambamontera micro hydro scheme Country: Peru <ul><li>Chambamontera is an isolated community in the highlands (on the east of the Andes) in the Cajamarca area of Peru.  It is more than two hours drive from Jaén, the nearest town. </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihoods in the area are mainly dependent on growing coffee and rearing livestock and development is severely restricted by lack of access to energy. 44% of the population live on less than 2 dollars a day. </li></ul><ul><li>The area has steep slopes (1,700m above sea level), poor road communication and a scattered population. 60 families live here. There is high rainfall and plenty of streams and rivers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Practical Action (NGO charity) <ul><li>Practical action works with 10 staff on micro-hydro schemes in rural Peru. It has already helped to install 50 schemes providing electricity for 30,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the costs are paid for by the local community who are also responsible for the labour to build the scheme, management and maintenance of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Action ,an NGO, held consultation meetings with the community. A socio-economic survey was completed to determine the needs of the community. They worked together to develop a micro-hydro scheme capable of producing 15 KW of power.   </li></ul><ul><li>Construction began in September 2008. When it is complete, 60 families in the area will have life-changing access to energy to light their homes, school and health centre. Several new businesses are planned which will generate the income to transform the lives of the people of Chambamontera </li></ul><ul><li>The total cost of the scheme is £34,000 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chambamontera-village labour
  9. 9. Benefits of the scheme <ul><li>The benefits of micro-hydro schemes for isolated communities are significant and include: </li></ul><ul><li>It provides a source of energy which is renewable and ‘fuel-free’ </li></ul><ul><li>Long system lifetime, typically 25 years or more </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity is available when people need it most (more hydro energy is available in winter when heating demands are high) </li></ul><ul><li>Low maintenance requirements and running costs </li></ul><ul><li>Little environmental impact during installation </li></ul><ul><li>The community is contributing both labour and materials to the scheme and an association has been formed to allow the community to access credit to pay for the installation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ‘ Practical Action’- A micro-hydro scheme in Chambamontera <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  Create a report for ‘Practical Action’ to explain why funds are needed to build the project in Chambamontera . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The report needs to include the following details </li></ul><ul><li>Location of Chambamontera </li></ul><ul><li>A description of the area </li></ul><ul><li>Why it is suitable for a micro-hydro scheme </li></ul><ul><li>How the micro-hydro scheme will lead to development in the periphery of Peru and why this is important </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the positive and negative impacts on the social, economic and natural environments of the local area (page 241 purple book) </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any ways in which the scheme is benefiting Peru as a whole? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>You can use research from the Internet to enhance your work for homework </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  11. 11. PLENARY Intermediate Technology <ul><li>A technology that the local people are able to use relatively easily and without much cost </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how micro-hydro schemes are an example of intermediate technology </li></ul><ul><li>2 MINUTES TO DISCUSS THEN REPORT BACK TO THE CLASS </li></ul>