A country can try different ways to prompt development.
Some use large scale, advanced, often expensive schemes. This requires loans from the World Bank, or involves companies from developed countries helping to start the scheme. Decisions about these schemes are made by the government. Local people are rarely involved.
This is called a TOP- DOWN approach.
What is top- down development?
These tend to be big schemes and decisions are made by the national government. Local people who often live near the scheme do not get involved in the process
Local People Top Down Decision Making Decision made here External Groups e.g. World Bank, TNCs National Government
Local People Bottom Up Decision Making National Government External Groups /agencies e.g. NGO’s,Practical Action Decision made here
Experts/NGO’s work with local communities to identify their needs.
Local people have control on how to improve their lives
Experts assist with progress
What is bottom-up development?
Local people are fully involved in the process and decision making
Top Down Approach Country gets into debt as it borrows money from the World Bank etc Uses machinery etc rather than providing jobs for local people Relies on external links and technology rather than appropriate technology As these areas grow the take away resources from peripheral areas Conditions often attached to the loans Dams etc provide energy needed for the country to develop Often energy-intensive and expensive to operate after construction.
Bottom up Approach Very limited impact of national poverty levels Involve the local people Appropriate technology to the local skill level Low cost Often associated with the well-being of people- their health, food supply.
Which is the best option?
Looking at both top-down and bottom-up approaches to development, which do you feel is the best option and why?
Mega-Dams, example of large scale development.
This clip outlines the costs and benefits of Katse Dam which is being constructed in Lesotho. The dam will allow the country to sell water to Johannesburg in South Africa, but farm land will be lost in the process.
WATCH VIDEO CLIP
What are the advantages and disadvantages of dams?
Create 2 spider diagrams, one to show advantages and one to show disadvantages of the Katse Dam in Lesotho
You all have 3 minutes to tell 4 main points to 5 people in the room.