L3 sus megacities ap 2013
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L3 sus megacities ap 2013

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L3 sus megacities ap 2013 L3 sus megacities ap 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?
  • What problems do you see in this photo?
  • Megacity problems – Sprawling slums Developing world – Explosive population growth – Poverty and prevalence of informal economy – Lack of clean water and sanitation – Disease epidemics – Transport gridlock – Urban funding crises – Overcrowding – Lack of green space – Pollution of air and water – Gating and segregation – Visual and noise pollution – Water supply problems – Deep eco-footprints – Declining centres – Sprawling suburbs and exurbs Developed world Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?
  • Consequences of megacity growth 1. Slum housing 2. Health and Environment 3. Transport and Environment Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?
  • 1. Improving Slum housing • Areas of slum housing built from waste materials are called ‘shanty towns.’ • Slums are illegal, i.e. they are built on land that they do not own. Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?
  • 1. Improving Slum Housing • Millions of slum dwellers need improved urban conditions. • Often help comes from NGO’S (e.g. Oxfam) working in slums alongside funding from local authorities. • Scale of slums now makes it impossible to supply large engineering projects through these areas e.g. sewage systems. • Slum improvement focuses on; 1. Right of ownership for residents. Renewed confidence to improve home. 2. Providing basic services (e.g. schools and clinics) 3. NGO’s (e.g. Water Aid) improving the water supply (e.g. tube wells) 4. Residents improving their own sewers, roads, etc. through ‘aided self help’ scheme, which provide training and building materials. Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?
  • 2. Improving health and environment • Improving water supply and sanitation are crucial if the cycle of poverty and deprivation is to be broken. Some water supply projects cost billions and take decades to complete. • Often requires external aid owing to the extent of the problem. • Small-scale water and sanitation projects are often implemented by NGOs. Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?
  • Case study: Urban water supply in Dhaka, Bangladesh • Dushtha Shasthya Kendra (DSK) is a Bangladeshi NGO working with Water Aid in the slums of Dhaka. • Over 90% of slum dwellers have no security of tenure therefore have no official water connection. • Many dwellers buy water at inflated prices from those who are connected. • Video from 7.20 here
  • Case study: Urban water supply in Dhaka, Bangladesh • DSK has persuaded the water companies to connect the slums to the water network. • Between 1996 and 1999, 6000 households have benefited from the construction of 40 simple water pumps at a total cost of $26,000. • The communities are responsible for managing the pumps. • Households pay about $1 a month to use the water supply.
  • Case study: Urban water supply in Dhaka, Bangladesh • DSK acts as a mediator to persuade the water companies to connect to the slum areas and works to raise the initial outlay costs. • Water costs for dwellers are then dramatically reduced. • Water company also makes money. Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?
  • 3. Transport and environment • Economic growth often leads to pollution as transport use and industry develop. • Many megacities have severe air pollution (Think of Shanghai in Olympics, huge issues of pollution and athletes threating not to compete) • Links to respiratory difficulties. Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?
  • 3. Transport and environment • Various initiatives have been trialled to try to reduce air pollution: – Mexico City: cars banned once a week from driving in the city (depends on last digit of number plate). Paris adopted this approach this week. – Shanghai: opening of the zero-emission Maglev railway in 2001. – Curitiba (Brazil): 85% of population use buses. – Video of Curitiba BRT here Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?
  • Is sustainable urban living achievable? Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?
  • “Sustainable development is a form of development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?
  • Is this evidence of sustainability?
  • Why are growing cities in poorer countries unsustainable? 1. Lack of adequate housing – due to rapid growth, poverty and lack of resources. 2. Poor health – linked to lack of clean water, sanitation and medical facilities. 3. Weak urban governance – a lack of will, combined with lack of resources makes change difficult. 4. Low environmental quality – resulting from poor transport infrastructure, lack of waste systems and industrial pollution. 5. Poverty – resulting from low wages and underemployment. Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?
  • Ecocities • Problem for most less developed nations is that their focus is improving the basic social conditions of inhabitants. • This is often at the expense of the environment. • The ideal would be to meet social needs whilst minimising the impact on the environment (i.e. and ‘Ecocity.’) • Curitiba in Brazil is a good example of a sustainable city but it is small with a population of only 3M Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?
  • Eco-cities in UAE – Masdar City • Masdar city – video here • Problem of size – tiny. • More information here Consequences of megacity growth: is it sustainable?