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L1 energy security

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  • 1. Energy Security What are the different sources of energy?
  • 2. There are a wide range of energy resources, with different security of supply and environmental issues: Non-renewable Renewable Recyclable A finite stock of resources, which will run out A flow of resources, which is infinite in human terms Can be used repeatedly, if managed carefully Coal, oil, gas (plus oil shale, tar sands, lignite etc.) Wind, solar, hydroelectric, wave, tidal, geothermal Biomass, nuclear (with reprocessing of fuel) •Significant environmental impacts during extraction (oil wells, opencast mines) •Greenhouse gas emissions during use, and acidic emissions •May require large areas (solar arrays, wind farms) for operation. •NIMBY issues. •Limited / no greenhouse emissions. •Large land area needed for biomass. •Largely unresolved issues of storing high level radioactive waste. Energy classification
  • 3. Traditional vs alternative energy options Nuclear power stations work similar to fossil fuel power plants, except for the fact that the heat is produced by the reaction of uranium inside a nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium rods, the atoms of which are split in the process of fission, releasing a large amount of energy. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in terms of remaining reserves, and is low cost. Various clean coal technologies have been developed but they are not widely used. Coal can be used to make gas. Wind turbines make useful energy by harnessing the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. These turbines cause the rotation of magnets, which creates electricity. Wind towers are usually built together on wind farms. Solar power involves using solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity, using sunlight hitting solar thermal panels to convert sunlight to heat water or air, using sunlight hitting a parabolic mirror to heat water (producing steam), or using sunlight entering windows for passive solar heating of a building. Geothermal energy harnesses the heat energy present underneath the Earth. The hot rocks heat water to produce steam. When holes are drilled in the region, the steam that shoots up is purified and is used to drive turbines, which power electric generators. Unlike the other energy sources, hydrogen fuel must be manufactured with a net loss of energy. In using hydrogen as a fuel, there are two alternatives: (1) a fuel cell can convert the chemicals hydrogen and oxygen into water, and in the process, produce electricity, or (2) hydrogen can be burned in an internal combustion engine. In hydro energy, the gravitational descent of a river is compressed from a long run to a single location with a dam. This creates a location where concentrated pressure and flow can be used to turn turbines or water wheels, which drive an electric generator. Ethanol fuel is a biofuel alternative to gasoline (also biodiesel). Current interest in ethanol lies in production derived from crops (bio-ethanol), and there's discussion about whether it is a sustainable energy resource that may offer environmental and long-term economic advantages over fossil fuels. Waste-to-energy in its strictest sense refers to any waste treatment that creates energy in the form of electricity or heat from a waste source that would have been disposed of in landfill. More advanced Waste-to-energy processes result in usable fuel commodity, such as hydrogen or ethanol, upon completion of process
  • 4. Different sources of energy • In pairs write down all the different energy sources you can think of? • How could you then classify them?
  • 5. Different sources of energy (p3) 1. Fossil Fuels Brief history of fossil fuels use here 2. Renewable energy Video here on the increasing use of renewable in the EU 3. Primary energy sources
  • 6. Homework • Research how much energy is consumed per person in the UK compared to any LEDC.
  • 7. Energy Types • Video here of main types of energy. (learning objects)