Key Terms relating to coastal
• Advance the Line:
– A strategy to move the defence of an area seaward of its
position, e.g. land reclamation.
• Hold the line:
– A strategy to hold the current line of the coast. E.g. Beesands in
• Do Nothing:
– Carry out no coastal defence activity except for safety measures.
E.g. moving static caravans away from cliff edge at …………., ……
• Retreat the line:
– A strategy to encourage the movement of the shoreline
landward of its present position in a managed or controlled
manner, hence the term ‘managed retreat’. E.g …………………….
• Soft Engineering
Makes use of natural systems, such as beaches or salt
marshes, to help with coastal defences,. The advantage of
soft systems is that they can absorb and adjust to wave and
tidal energy and have a more natural appearance.
• Hard Engineering
Involves building a physical structure, usually from rocks or
concrete, to protect the coast from the forces of natural. It is
used to reduce erosion and the risk of flooding.
2. Beach Re-profiling
• Shape of beach
reduce the effects
• Cheap and simple
• Only works in low
3. Dune regeneration
• Wooden structures erected to encourage sand
deposition and vegetation planted.
• Effective if managed properly.
• Only succeeds if public access is limited.
4. Offshore reefs
• Mining waste, old tyres and even old cars are
sunk and act like speed bumps in the sea.
• Cost effective and semi- natural.
• Largely untested and may have pollution
B. Hard engineering
Don’t write any of these down
B. Hard Engineering
• Groynes are designed to slow down longshore
• The Build up of sand reduces the wave energy
and thus protects the beach
• They are usually made of tropical hardwoods
which are more resistant to erosion.
• A few are made of concrete, steel or in more
recent times large rocks.
• They are built at right angles to the shore and
spaced about 50-100 metres apart. Groynes
may have a life of 15-20 years
Terminal Groyne Effect
• Occurs when there are piecemeal protection
• For instance a groyne field is built and
sediment builds up between the groynes
• The coastline continues to erode.
• On the downdrift side there is a sediment
deficit. The erosion of non protected side
• Small rocks, bound in place by cages
absorb the wave energy and reduce
• Open structure of planks absorb wave
energy, but allow sand and shingle to build
5) Rock Armour / Rip Rap
• Large resistant rocks placed at base of cliff to
• Help to absorb and dissipate wave energy.
• When resting on sand and shingle they may
be moved out of position by waves.
• Now using p 241 in the text book complete
the hard engineering section of your A3 sheet.