L1 ap global networks


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L1 ap global networks

  1. 1. Global Networks • Learning objectives – Know how the world is ‘connected’ through its economies, people and environments and how technology has played a key role – Understand why some places are ‘switched on’ and others ‘switched off’
  2. 2. From the specification Global Networks: Switched On palces and switch off places.
  3. 3. 1. Global Networks
  4. 4. UK Motorway network Where do all the motorways connect?
  5. 5. What does this map show? Can you explain the pattern?
  6. 6. Global Networks • There are many types of global networks; • business and trade — physical and financial flows • communication networks — e.g. the internet • transport networks — e.g. air travel and container/bulk shipping • production networks — particularly those of transnational corporations (TNCs) • political networks — especially those that focus on economic/trade ties • demographic networks — flows of people
  7. 7. Switched On and Switched Off locations? • ‘Switched on’ locations shows where wealth can be found, most connected globally through the production and consumption of goods and services. • These areas are referred to as the Core (areas that are highly connected). They are often fed by flows of labour from middle and low income nations and are rich and powerful. • Lit up at night make them both metaphorically and literally, Switched On. • Examples include Japan, USA and the UK
  8. 8. Switched On and Switched Off locations? • ‘Switched off’ locations don’t really exist, almost nowhere is totally cut off from the rest of the world. Expect perhaps remote wilderness areas, eg. Indigenous populations in the Amazon. • Some locations make less contribution to the global economic processes of production and consumption. Those contributing less remain poor.
  9. 9. 2. The role of technology in increasing global connectivity • New technology has always helped global networks to operate more efficiently. • Recent inventions in the internet and mobile phones has meant that the world we live in is more connected • Easy jet are a good example of a global network builder by using the internet and the jet airplane.
  10. 10. How does technology lead to a smaller world? Turn to p112 and see how these factors have created a smaller world. 1. Internet 2. Tourism 3. Telephones 4. Air Travel
  11. 11. 1. The Internet
  12. 12. 1. The internet • 1.9B users by 2010 • Growing digital divide as require certain key features (e.g. PC/Laptop, ISP, telephone infrastructure, etc.) • Growth of email and Sykpe to all improved communication globally. • Africa still switched off as a continent, only 10% of population using internet. • Benefits of internet in a development capacity are vast (e.g. educations, business opportunities, communication with branch plants, etc.)
  13. 13. 2. Telephones
  14. 14. • Cost of a 1-Minute Call from the US 1994
  15. 15. • Cost of a 1-Minute Call from the US 1998
  16. 16. 2. Telephones • First telephone cable across the Atlantic replaced need for a 3 week boat journey. TNC’s suddenly could grow quickly. • In parts of Africa, technical leapfrogging has taken place as land lines have never been installed and mobiles now are the main phone connections. • In 2005 a system was put in place to allow buy cash vouchers and transfer credit to businesses or family via mobiles in Africa.
  17. 17. 3. Air Travel
  18. 18. 3. Air Travel • Airplanes have been growing in size and now the largest can carry 550 passengers – the Airbus A380. • Low cost travel form companies like Easyjet has allowed more and more people to travel. • Airplanes have also got faster and faster. • Concorde cut the time it took to get from London to New York to 3hr 30mins.
  19. 19. 4. Tourism • The internet allows exploration of more far away places. It also allows booking of flights, holidays and tours. • Tourism industry is therefore growing faster in developing economies than it is in developed economies. There is a bug desire for ‘something different’. • Some developing countries receive 40% of GDP through tourism (e.g. St Lucia) • Some tourist hotspots that have received rapid growth are Vietnam, Cuba and Madagascar. • ‘Switching on’ by tourism requires less physical infrastructure than hi-tech industry. However the very environment needs to be managed so it is not loved to death.
  20. 20. May 09