• Learning objectives
– Know how the world is ‘connected’ through its economies,
people and environments and how technology has played
a key role
– Understand why some places are ‘switched on’ and others
From the specification
Global Networks: Switched On palces and switch off places.
Where do all the
What does this map show?
Can you explain the pattern?
• There are many types of global networks;
• business and trade
— physical and financial flows
• communication networks
— e.g. the internet
• transport networks
— e.g. air travel and container/bulk shipping
• production networks
— particularly those of transnational corporations (TNCs)
• political networks
— especially those that focus on economic/trade ties
• demographic networks
— flows of people
Switched On and Switched Off
• ‘Switched on’ locations shows where wealth can be found,
most connected globally through the production and
consumption of goods and services.
• These areas are referred to as the Core (areas that are highly
connected). They are often fed by flows of labour from middle
and low income nations and are rich and powerful.
• Lit up at night make them both metaphorically and literally,
• Examples include Japan, USA and the UK
Switched On and Switched Off
• ‘Switched off’ locations don’t really exist,
almost nowhere is totally cut off from the rest
of the world. Expect perhaps remote
wilderness areas, eg. Indigenous populations
in the Amazon.
• Some locations make less contribution to the
global economic processes of production and
consumption. Those contributing less remain
2. The role of technology in
increasing global connectivity
• New technology has always helped global
networks to operate more efficiently.
• Recent inventions in the internet and mobile
phones has meant that the world we live in is
• Easy jet are a good example of a global
network builder by using the internet and the
How does technology lead to a smaller
Turn to p112 and see how these factors have
created a smaller world.
4. Air Travel
1. The internet
• 1.9B users by 2010
• Growing digital divide as require certain key
features (e.g. PC/Laptop, ISP, telephone
• Growth of email and Sykpe to all improved
• Africa still switched off as a continent, only 10%
of population using internet.
• Benefits of internet in a development capacity
are vast (e.g. educations, business opportunities,
communication with branch plants, etc.)
• First telephone cable across the Atlantic replaced
need for a 3 week boat journey. TNC’s suddenly
could grow quickly.
• In parts of Africa, technical leapfrogging has taken
place as land lines have never been installed and
mobiles now are the main phone
• In 2005 a system was put in place
to allow buy cash vouchers and
transfer credit to businesses or family
via mobiles in Africa.
3. Air Travel
• Airplanes have been growing in size and now
the largest can carry 550 passengers – the
• Low cost travel form companies like Easyjet
has allowed more and more people to travel.
• Airplanes have also got faster and faster.
• Concorde cut the time it took to get from
London to New York to 3hr 30mins.
• The internet allows exploration of more far away places. It
also allows booking of flights, holidays and tours.
• Tourism industry is therefore growing faster in developing
economies than it is in developed economies. There is a bug
desire for ‘something different’.
• Some developing countries receive 40% of GDP through
tourism (e.g. St Lucia)
• Some tourist hotspots that have received rapid growth are
Vietnam, Cuba and Madagascar.
• ‘Switching on’ by tourism requires less physical infrastructure
than hi-tech industry. However the very environment needs to
be managed so it is not loved to death.