Theoretically guided HMI development for a driver assistance system

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Speaker: Dr Anke Schwarze, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Department of Research Methods and Biopsychology, Germany

Talk as part of the seminar series at HUman Centred Design Institute, London.

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Theoretically guided HMI development for a driver assistance system

  1. 1. Theoretically guided HMI development for a driverassistance systemAnke SchwarzeTU Braunschweig | Department of Research Methods and Biopsychology
  2. 2. Overview  Principles of HMI-development  classically designed HMIs  behaviourally designed HMIs  VIDE  principle  scenarios  Assessment of VIDE  subjective and objective data  Adaptation to a specific situation  Summary and outlook May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 2
  3. 3. Classically designed HMIs  presentation of information about the status of the vehicle  information has to be perceived, processed, and an adequate reaction has to be identified and executed  arbitrary stimulus-reaction-configurations are used  the driver has to interpret the signal to produce the correct reaction  the information processing of the driver is manipulated the use of many cognitive resources is necessaryhttp://www.bmw.com/at/de/insights/technology/technology_guide/articles/_shared/img/info_display.jpghttp://www.maxxcount.de/maxxcount/CustomUpload/374O357O 340O370O356O 369O350O332O 352O375O375O322O366O372O365O 371O /Con_M _GATEWAY-CAN_FIS-Display2_gross.jpghttp://www.bmw.com/at/de/insights/technology/technology_guide/articles/_shared/img/multi_information_display.jpg May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 3
  4. 4. Reducing the amount of information processing Reduction of the necessary information processing of the driver if… …behaviourally relevant information is presented …pre-programmed and consolidated stimulus reaction configurations are used …the behaviour of the driver is manipulated May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 4
  5. 5. Classical and behavioural approachClassical approach Behavioural approach information about the status of the car  behaviourally relevant signals use of arbitrary stimulus-reaction  use of pre-programmed and configurations consolidated stimulus-reaction links manipulation of the information  manipulation of the behaviour of the processing of the driver driver communication coupling of behaviour May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 5
  6. 6. HMI developmentOur „rational“ approach levels of behavioural control (Eggert, 2007)  general strategy of developing HMIs insight complexity  no substitution of cognitive systems instructions  analysis of the situation, identification of the models optimal reaction operant conditioning  finding out how this reaction can be provoked classical conditioning levels of behavioural control imprinting  if a fast and simple reaction is necessary: low level of behavioural control instincts stability  if a complex reaction is necessary and there reflexes is no time pressure: high level of behavioural control May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 6
  7. 7. Three core questions in the design of ADAS  What does the behavioural repertoire of the driver consist of?  Which situation-specific reaction should be elicited?  How can the desired reaction be elicited most efficiently? May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 7
  8. 8. APPLYING THE APPROACH IN THEDESIGN OF A DRIVINGASSISTANCE SYSTEM May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 8
  9. 9. The assistance system – characteristics the assistance system should assist the driver during his normal driving task the HMI should be able (as a vision) to replace the classical cockpit instrumentation (e.g. tachometer…) all relevant information should be presented as easy as possible pratical implications (financial, legal, technical limitations…) are of secondary importance in the first concept stage May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 9
  10. 10. Design of the HMI – main principles behaviourally relevant information instead of status information  no information about the actual driving speed but information about the appropriateness of the driving speed  no information about the absolute distance to another car but information about how dangerous the situation is („risk potential“) based on the behavioural repertoire of the driver  longitudinal control: accelerating, braking  lateral control: steering Which stimuli control behaviour? May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 10
  11. 11. Spatial orientation spatially oriented reactions in driving (to the left, to the right, forward, backward) it seems reasonable to present stimuli spatially oriented as spatially oriented stimuli gain easily control over spatially oriented reactions May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 11
  12. 12. Stimuli use of the dashboard behind the steering wheel visual stimuli May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 12
  13. 13. Dynamic task – dynamic visualization dynamic task the behaviour of the driver changes the illustration in the display in a compatible way accelerating appropriate decelerate too fast too slow May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 13
  14. 14. Appropriateness of driving speed driving speed is appropriate regarding the traffic situation car symbol is in the middle of the display driving speed is inappropriate (too high) regarding the traffic situation car symbol is shifted to the top of the display May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 14
  15. 15. Appropriateness of the distance to an object ahead if the distance to an object ahead is too small a risk potential arises this is illustrated by a longitudinal colour gradient May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 15
  16. 16. Appropriateness of the distance to the front car distance to the car ahead is too small yellow colour gradient from the top distance to the car ahead is critical red colour gradient from the top May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 16
  17. 17. Appropriateness of the lateral position distance to the left lane marking is too small yellow colour gradient from the left May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 17
  18. 18. Appropriateness of the lateral position distance to the left lane marking is too small/critical yellow/red colour gradient from the left distance to the right lane marking is too small/critical yellow/red colour gradient from the right May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 18
  19. 19. Further principles and elements safety signal: car symbol is located in the middle of the display, no colour gradients are visible presentation of signals only if the driver has to change his behaviour (shifting the car symbol, colour gradients) additional important information in specific critical situations  if particular functions of the vehicle achieve a critical status, e. g. the level of oil is far too low, VIDE gives short commands like “Please pull over to the side of the road and stop the engine.” May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 19
  20. 20. Assessment of VIDE (Goralzik, 2009)HypothesesDriving with VIDE results in smaller integrals of speeding for each characteristic ofthe track than driving with the classical instrumentation.This should hold for different courses of the track and zones of different speedlimits. May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 20
  21. 21. Assessment of VIDE – MethodConfiguration stage realised in the study appropriateness of driving speed regarding the  given speed limit  course of the track appropriateness of the  distance to the lane markings May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 21
  22. 22. Assessment of VIDE – Method HMI-lab of the German Aerospace Center in Braunschweig 26 participants (mdn=38 years, range=24-59 years) at least five years of driving practice (mdn=22 years, range=7-42 years) May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 22
  23. 23. Assessment of VIDE – Methodkm/h- course of the trackmax. rural road motor- way straight left-hand right-hand bend bend60 + + +80 + + + +100 + +120 +130 + May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 23
  24. 24. Assessment of VIDE – Method comparison of driving with VIDE and driving with classical instrumentation (tachometer, revolution counter) no vehicles ahead classical instrumentation VIDE May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 24
  25. 25. Assessment of VIDE – Method questionnaire to investigate several aspects of acceptance  subjective perception of safety  comprehensibility  comfort  usefulness  perceived control  perceived degree of efficiency  irritability  conformity with expectancies  appropriateness of driving behaviour  intentions to use the system  requests for modifications concerning the design of VIDE May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 26
  26. 26. Assessment of VIDE – Analysis calculation of the integral of the actual driving speed [m/s] as a function of simulator runtime [s] when the given speed limit had been exceeded  larger integrals imply a larger extent of speeding analysis of the difference between the averaged integral while driving with VIDE and while driving with classical instrumentation with a permutation test for dependent samples (statistic: difference of means) May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 27
  27. 27. Assessment of VIDE – Significant resultsstraight parts 80 km/h: t(25)=-5,36; p<0,01 100 km/h: t(25)=-2,74; p<0,01left-hand bends 80 km/h: t(25)=-3,64; p<0,01right-hand bends 80 km/h: t(25)=-3,98; p<0,01 driving with VIDE caused less speeding in some of the configurations of the track when compared to the classical instrumentation May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 28
  28. 28. Assessment of VIDE – Questionnaire Preferences of VIDE in comparison to the classical instrumentation Item % „Classical „New display“ display“a The information of which display made you feel 30.8 69.2 safer? Which display do you deem more reasonable? 38.5 61.5 Which display influenced you more while driving? 23.1 76.9 Which display made you drive more 11.5 84.6 appropriately?b „No“ „Yes“ Do you believe that the new displaya allows for safer driving? 7.7 92.3 Note. aThe notation ”New display“ corresponds to VIDE. bMissing values cause the categories not to sum up to 100 per cent. May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 29
  29. 29. Research project „FAMOS – Galileo for Future Automotive Systems“(funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) ADAPTATION OF VIDE TO A NEW SITUATION May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 30
  30. 30. Merging into motorway trafficthe driver is assisted in changing from the acceleration lane onto the motorway adapting driving speed keeping an appropriate distance lane keepingno automatic lane change! DLRdevelopment of different levels of assistance (German Aerospace Center) basic functions - finding a gap - guidance to a gap - partly automated May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 31
  31. 31. Dashboard of Volkswagen multi-function display between revolution counter and tachometer need for information about the driving speed (field tests) original image: www.volkswagen.de May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 32
  32. 32. Adaptation to a lane changethe main elements of VIDE are kept appropriateness of the distance to a vehicle ahead and to the lane markings illustrated by colour gradients appropriateness of driving speed illustrated by the dynamic shift of the car symbolthe new element vehicles at the motorway produce a risk potential during and after a lane change it is projected how large the distance to the other vehicles will be during and after a lane change, in dependence of the driving speeds anticipated risk potential if a lane change is performed right now illustrated by an additional lateral colour gradient May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 33
  33. 33. Design transfer of the principles into a perspective design  all elements remain  perspectivic adaptation  realistic car symbol fitting the information of the level of assistance and the mode into the display May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 34
  34. 34. Acoustic signalsadditional assistance by acoustic signals in specific situations e.g. lane change is possible, level of assistance is changed, strategy is changed guiding attention enhancing attention example: „gong“ sound which signals the possibility of a lange change without a risk potential May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 35
  35. 35. Summary integrated HMI concept for different assistance functions  integration of behaviourally relevant data from different sources  concept of a universal interface between car and driver  possibility of coupling the behaviour of the driver and the car via an adequate HMI  possibility of integrating additional information in specific situations May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 36
  36. 36. Outlook integrating more information in order to calculate the appropriateness of driving manner more accurately adapting VIDE to the individual driver in order to effectively influence his behaviour towards a safer driving manner identification of further situations for which the display has to be expanded or modified May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 37
  37. 37. Thank you very much for your attention! Dr. Anke Schwarze anke.schwarze@tu-bs.de Technische Universität Braunschweig Department of Research Methods and Biopsychology (IPMB) May 25th 2011 | Anke Schwarze | page 38

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