Vf Life Under Stress

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  • 1. Life Under Sess: Welcome To e 21st Century An Inoducon To Medical Ecology
  • 2. Total biomass of the earth = 1,840 x 109 tonnes Total biomass of all animals = 0.2 x 109 tonnes = 200 x 106 tonnes Total biomass of humans
  • 3. Ecosystem Services* * from: Living In The Environment Thompson Brooks/Cole Pubs. 2004
  • 4. A 6th Mass Extinction?
  • 5. Some Good News Regarding Extinction: Smallpox - eliminated (probably) Polio - nearly gone Yaws - almost eliminated Onchocerciasis - on its way out
  • 6. The Bad News Is We May Be Next! Billions % Urban 1973 1973
  • 7. * Some Bad News: Since 1973 over 50 new infectious disease entities have emerged onto the human scene * ProMed reporter-at-large
  • 8. More Bad News: Most vector-borne diseases are on the rise
  • 9. About 25% of all drugs currently on the market come from natural sources
  • 10. Chopping Down The Tree Of Life 27,000 species/yr 1950-present
  • 11. How many new drugs have been lost due to extinction of species of plants and animals that we had no idea even existed?
  • 12. Why we should care
  • 13. A 21st Century Dilemma: Microbial Drug Resistance* *See: http://www.fda.gov/cvm/antimicrobial/022200slides/White/tsld004.htm
  • 14. Top Ten Drug-resistant Microbes Microbe Disease Resistance Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, pneumonia aminoglycosides wound infections β-lactams chloramphenicol trimethoprim FQs Enterococcus bacteremia aminoglycosides wound infections β-lactams erythromycin glycopeptides Haemophilus influenzae meningitis, otitis media β-lactams pneumonia tetracycline chloramphenicol trimethaprim Mycobacterium tuberculosis tuberculosis aminoglycosides ethambutol isoniazid rifampin Nisseria gonorrhoea gonorrhea β-lactams tetracylcine FQs
  • 15. Microbe Disease Resistance Plasmodium falciparum malaria chloroquine Pseudomonas aerogenosa bacteremia, pneumonia aminoglycosides UTIs β-lactams tetracycline TMX Shigella dysenteriae severe dysentery ampicillin chloramphenicol tetracycline TMX Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, pneumonia chloramphenicol wound infections macrolides trimethoprim FQs β-lactams tetracycline glycopeptides? Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis, pneumonia aminoglycosides chloramphenicol macrolides penicillin
  • 16. Malaria 300 million infections/year 3 million deaths/year, mostly in Africa Drugs - Most strains of Plasmodium falciparum are resistant to chloroquine and its derivatives. Best Control Method: Eliminate breeding sites for vector species of mosquitoes. Examples: Ancient Rome - Construct city of Ostia South Eastern USA drained swamps, creating new farmland.
  • 17. The Linkages Between Environmental Degradation And Infectious Diseases
  • 18. Fragmentation of Ecosystems Fragmentation of Ecosystems Agriculture Agriculture Settlement Settlement Mining Mining Industrialization Industrialization Civil unrest Civil unrest War War
  • 19. Sources Of Pollution Non-point Sources: 1. Agricultural* 2. Residential Point Sources: 1. Industrial 2. Residential *Largest world-wide source - soil erosion, pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, heavy metals, animal and human waste, etc.
  • 20. Q: Who allows this? A: The EPA: Agricultural runoff is exempt from The Clean Water Act See: http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm
  • 21. Cryptosporidium parvum Reservoir host
  • 22. Access to safe drinking water is everyone’s right
  • 23. Yet……………..
  • 24. Many Tropical Infectious Diseases Are Transmitted At The Agricultural Interface Malaria Hookworm Ascaris Trichuris Schistosomiasis Filariasis Nipha
  • 25. Geohelminths (hookworm, ascaris, trichuris) Eliminate feces as an environmental contaminant and you effectively control the spread all parasitic diseases spread by fecal-oral route. Two approaches, two different outcomes: United States : The birth of the outhouse. This single architectural wonder controlled all fecally-transmitted infections: viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Southeast Asia and China: Ferment feces before using it as fertilizer on crops: eliminated hookworm.
  • 26. In 2050 Population Stabilizes At 9.3 billion* *
  • 27. Population Growth and Poverty
  • 28. Problem: How to feed the next 2.8 billion people without incurring more environmental damage due to traditional agricultural practices
  • 29. Land Use And Agriculture Rondonia, Brazil 1975 1975 1986 1986 1992 1992
  • 30. Conclusion of Science article
  • 31. Don’t just sit there, do something!
  • 32. A Possible Solution: The Vertical Farm
  • 33. Vibrant, successful cities are not only possible but necessary for the health of society and our planet. Urban Ecology plans and designs cities that sustain the people, natural resources, and economy necessary for everyone to thrive. http://www.urbanecology.org/
  • 34. Advantages Of Vertical Farming • Year-round crop production • No weather related crop failures due to droughts, floods • Eliminates agricultural runoff • Converts black water to potable water • Greatly reduces the incidence of many infectious diseases • Adds energy back to the grid via methane generation • Dramatically reduces fossil fuel use (no tractors, plows, etc.) • Converts abandoned urban properties into food production • Sustainability for urban centers • Creates new employment opportunities • Returns farm land to nature, restoring ecosystem services • Reduces the incidence of armed conflict over natural resources, such as water and land for agriculture
  • 35. Advantages Of Vertical Farming Adds energy back to the grid via methane generation What A Difference A Day Makes August 14th August 15th
  • 36. Advantages Of Vertical Farming Returns farm land to nature, restoring ecosystem services
  • 37. A Vertical Farm* * not exactly what I had in mind
  • 38. Vertical New York City Photo: NASA
  • 39. Virtual Vertical Farm* *www.verticalfarm.com
  • 40. Medical Ecology Class of 2003* Kristin Anderson Nicola Areshenko Alan Brown Jennifer Buskey Amanda Colligan Marisa Dahlman Catherine Dell’Orto Catherine Tuglus *Steven Chen- technical advisor
  • 41. How It Could Work Sustainability through re-cycling
  • 42. Bioremediation Re-gain “lost” water
  • 43. Energy Considerations Capture all energy in black water
  • 44. Methane Digester No new technology needed
  • 45. Original Design by Andrew Kranis, Columbia University School of Architecture 2003
  • 46. A lunar colony
  • 47. Schematic for advanced life-support system
  • 48. Or a colony on Mars
  • 49. Components for a Mars colony
  • 50. The Dawn Of A New Beginning (perhaps)
  • 51. So, What’s For Dinner?
  • 52. Anything you want
  • 53. Any Time You Want It
  • 54. Any Where In The World
  • 55. Or In The Universe