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5.1   Development Economics   Introduction
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5.1 Development Economics Introduction

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  • 1. Development Economics Characteristics of Developing Nations Topic 5.1
  • 2. Development is.. “A process where nations achieve higher standards of living, happiness and fulfilment often through economic growth.” Obstacles to Development…… Exporting produce Less reliance on with the world Subsistence Agriculture Breaking the poverty cycle Political stability Utilising Natural Resources
  • 3. Common characteristics of developing countries Low level of productivity Imperfect world Low living markets standards Colonial dominance and High levels of dependence population growth Overdependence High levels of on agriculture unemployment
  • 4. What are some differences between developing countries? Geographic and Demographic factors Resource Endowment Political Structure Historical Background Structure of Industry Ethnic and Religious Breakdown Per capita income levels
  • 5. Development Indicators Quantitative Indicators – are based on  objective and truthful pieces of information. Often collected in surveys or by in a census. Qualitative Indicators – are based on  subjective feelings, impression and opinion. These provide a good indication of the social health of a country.
  • 6. Ways to evaluate Happiness Index development? HIV Infection Rate Birth Rate Human Development Index Population Density Gross National Income per capita % employed in Human agriculture Freedom Index Unemployment Rate Infant Mortality Rate Access to clean water Internet Users People per per 1000 doctor Income Equality Average Wage Cars per 1000 people (US$) per day
  • 7. GNP per capita for regions of the world Beyond Economic Growth, World Bank 2000, Pg 2
  • 8. World Population Beyond Economic Growth, World Bank 2000, Pg 4
  • 9. In what ways can development be measured? Composite Indicators  Human Development Index (HDI) composite of  GNP per capita  Adult literacy rate  School enrolment rate  Life expectancy  A HDI between 1 and 0.8 is considered high, 0.8 and 0.6 is considered medium and 0.6 to 0.4 is considered low http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Human_Development_Index
  • 10. Japan = 0.956 8th in world USA = 0.944 10th in world Singapore = 0.918 28th in world Zambia = 0.394 167th in world NZ = 0.933 19h in world Human Development Index (HDI) composite of  GNP per capita  Adult literacy rate  School enrolment rate  Life expectancy 
  • 11. Strengths of the HDI as tool to measure Development A strength of HDI may be selected from the list below: It is an indicator that is a combination of social and economic  measures/indicators. It combines levels of education, life expectancy and income. It is a comprehensive measurement. The HDI is based on quantitative data that measure quality of life.  The use of an economic figure such as GDP/GNP does not give  an indication of social well-being or the quality of life in a country such as how the wealth of a country may be spent to improve the lives of its inhabitants. The HDI does this by including social measures, such as education. The index is based on a 0-1 scale so it is easy to judge the social  well-being of the people in a country. A figure closer to 1 shows that the quality of life is high, a figure closer to 0 shows that the quality of life is low.
  • 12. Views of Development What perspective of development does this cartoon depict? What are reasons for this?
  • 13. Views of Development What perspective of development does this cartoon depict? What are reasons for this?
  • 14. Homework Difference between Developing Nations Using one page, compare two nations on their level of  Development using appropriate statistics. Use wikipedia – HDI to find countries to compare.  Use websites to collect the data for comparison. Useful  websites include www.gapminder.org  www.nationmaster.org  www.oecd.org  www.cia  Summary should be no more than one page, use Pg 320 of  your text book as a guide on how to compare.
  • 15. What kind of disparities exist between Zambia and USA? Zambia United States of America Human 0.434 (low) 0.951 (high) Development Index 165th in world 12th in world % living below 86% 12% poverty line GDP per capita $900 $39,700 (2004) GDP growth rate 5.1% 4.4% (2004) 5.5 (58th in world) 12 (1st in world) Average years of schooling (2004) 80% (145th in world) 97% (68th in world) Adult Literacy rate 2.5% (129th in world) 72.6% (1st in world) Tertiary enrolment (2000)
  • 16. What kind of disparities exist between Zambia and USA? Zambia United States of America Forested Land 43.9% 24% Arable Land 7% 19% Irrigated Land 1,560 sq km 214,000 sq km (1998) Living with AIDS 0.9 million 0.9 million (2003) 165 per 1000 3.1 per 1000 Life expectancy 40 years 77 years Labour force by agriculture: 22% agriculture: 1% occupation industry: 29% industry: 20.4% services: 48.9% services: 78.7%
  • 17. Satisfaction with Life Index Zambia = 148th score 163 USA = 23rd score 246 green = happiest blue purple orange red = least happy
  • 18. Differences and Similarities Economic Economic Growth Development Readings from McGee Pg 328 - 330