4.5 International Economics Balance Of Payments

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IB Diploma Economics, presentation on how to calculate and analysis the Balance of Payments national accounts.

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4.5 International Economics Balance Of Payments

  1. 1. International Trade 4.5 Balance of Payments ISS International School Mr. Andrew McCarthy
  2. 2. Trade statistics <ul><li>As economists we need an overall view of our money transactions with the rest of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The government system for analysing this is the Balance of Payments . </li></ul><ul><li>It is made up of three separate accounts. Together it measures all of the economic transactions that one country has with the rest of the world in one year. </li></ul><ul><li>Current Account </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Account </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Account </li></ul>
  3. 3. Trade statistics <ul><li>Balance of Payments </li></ul>Red = deficit (more imports than exports) Blue = surplus (more exports than imports) Grey = no data
  4. 4. Balance of Payments shows all transactions between one country and the rest of the world <ul><li>Current Account: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The trade in goods (exports – imports-) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The trade in services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income Flows, interest, dividends. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Transfers, presents. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capital Account: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sale and purchase of capital assets and non-produced or non-financial assets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financial Account: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct investment in bank accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portfolio investment in shares </li></ul></ul>1 2 3
  5. 5. Balance of Payment transactions Foreign Aid Purchase of machinery and computers Interest Chemicals, meat, raw materials Dividends Profit Direct investment A family from Taiwan settles in NZ And brings $400,000 A backpacker visits NZ Buying shares in ANZ (Australia) A NZ borrowing funds from overseas for expansion Sale of music copyright to Sony UK Insurance purchased from USA Purchase airfare from Singapore Airlines A Russian firm buys 42 Below
  6. 6. Balance of Payments The Balance of Payments statements set out a country's transactions with the rest of the world. The current account balance is the sum of the balances of trade in goods and services, current transfers, and investment income. More simply, the current account measures what a country saves minus what it spends or invests. The graph shows that since 1990, New Zealand has been a net borrower. Thus, the current account deficit has reflected the amounts of other countries' savings that New Zealand has had to borrow, in order to finance spending. The last time that New Zealand was a net saver - that is, had a current account surplus - was 1973.
  7. 7. Balance of Payments
  8. 8. UK balance of payments: 2001 (£ millions)
  9. 9. Current account balance as % of GDP in selected countries: 1970–2003
  10. 10. Current account balance as % of GDP in selected countries: 1970–2003 UK
  11. 11. Current account balance as % of GDP in selected countries: 1970–2003 UK USA
  12. 12. Current account balance as % of GDP in selected countries: 1970–2003 USA Japan UK
  13. 13. Consequences for Japan <ul><li>Positive Current Account Balance, means that another part of the account must be in deficit to create a balance of money </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts include…. </li></ul><ul><li>A current account surplus usually means the country has high demand for its exports . </li></ul><ul><li>This creates high demand for local currency (yen), exports must be purchased with yen, which leads to an appreciation compared to other countries </li></ul><ul><li>An appreciation of currency makes imports cheaper. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Consequences for USA <ul><li>Negative Current Account Balance, means that another part of the account must be in surplus to create a balance of money </li></ul><ul><li>Options include… </li></ul><ul><li>Can use its Foreign Currency Reserves to outset the deficit, this requires large reserves of funds (short term solution) </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes foreign ownership of local assets can increase which balances the Current Account. This relies on confidence in the local market. Asian Financial Crisis in 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be financed my high levels of lending from overseas countries. This requires a good credit rating with other countries and a short term impact of paying interest. </li></ul>The magnitude of a deficit is important. Measured as % of GDP
  15. 15. How do you fix a country with a large Current Account deficit? <ul><li>Encouraging people to buy locally produced products. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to devalue currency to make imported products more expensive and exports more attractive to overseas buyer. </li></ul><ul><li>Broader expenditure reduction policies – reducing aggregate demand. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Links… Balance of Trade (Current Account) ( X – M ) Improves !! Value of export receipts increases Value of import payments decreases Imports become more expensive Exports become cheaper for overseas buyers Suppose exports from USA are very elastic? A small drop in price will lead to a more than proportionate change in QD. Therefore… The increase in export receipts will be significant And Current Account will move into surplus faster. Depreciation or weakening of Exchange Rate
  17. 17. Linking J Curve and the Marshall Learner Condition… Demand for exports and imports is elastic, improvement in Current Account (good) Demand for exports and imports is inelastic, Deficit in Current Account (bad, worsening)
  18. 18. Links… Balance of Trade (Current Account) ( X – M ) Improves !! And demand for exports is elastic Exchange rates Marshall Learner Condition J Curve If currency depreciates
  19. 19. Terms of Trade TERMS OF TRADE = X 1000 $$$ $$$
  20. 20. Explanation of Terms of Trade <ul><li>Overtime the average price of imports and the average price of exports can change. </li></ul><ul><li>These changes are measured with a concept </li></ul><ul><li>called the terms of trade . </li></ul><ul><li>Historically the price of primary products and raw materials such as wheat, rice, timber, wool, soya bean has been moving downwards. Many nations rely on exporting these to receive income. </li></ul><ul><li>Historically the price of durable consumer goods has been increasing due to technological innovation. Many nations rely on importing these products. TV’s, Washing Machines, Cars. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Terms of Trade Export price index: Shows change in price of exports overtime Import price index: Shows change in price of imports overtime TERMS OF TRADE = X 100 An increase in terms of trade is deemed…? Above 100 good A decrease in terms of trade is deemed…? Below 100 bad
  22. 22. Terms of Trade Export price index: Shows change in price of exports overtime Import price index: Shows change in price of imports overtime GOOD
  23. 23. Terms of Trade Export price index: Shows change in price of exports overtime Import price index: Shows change in price of imports overtime REALLY GOOD
  24. 24. Terms of Trade Export price index: Shows change in price of exports overtime Import price index: Shows change in price of imports overtime REALLY BAD
  25. 25. Exporters Appreciation = Bad Depreciation = Good NZ$1 = US$0.80 NZ$1 = US$0.70 NZ$1 = US$0.60 US$2.40 US$2.10 US$1.80 APPRECIATION DEPRECIATION NZ$3.00 NZ$3.00 NZ$3.00 Sell Buy
  26. 26. Importers Appreciation = Good Depreciation = Bad NZ$1 = US$0.80 NZ$1 = US$0.70 NZ$1 = US$0.60 NZ$25.00 NZ$28.50 NZ$33.30 US$20.00 US$20.00 US$20.00 APPRECIATION DEPRECIATION Buy Sell
  27. 27. Foreign exchange market <ul><li>When the exchange rate is high, people overseas have to find more of their own currency to buy NZ $..... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This disadvantages exporters, as the price of their goods on the overseas market is relatively expensive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importers are advantages as they need to find less NZ$ to buy their imported goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the exchange rate is low….. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exporters are advantaged as price of their goods has fallen on overseas markets to QD increases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importers are disadvantaged as they need to find more money to pay to get their imports. </li></ul></ul>APPRECIATION DEPRECIATION
  28. 28. Trade statistics <ul><li>Trade Weighted Index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a basket of selected exchange rates that are important to the NZ economy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each of the following exchange rates are weighted according to their relative importance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This includes the currencies of Australia, Japan, USA, UK and the Euro. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Trade Weighted Index <ul><ul><li>This is a measure of the NZ Dollar relative to the currencies of New Zealand's major trading partners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The TWI is the preferred summary measure for capturing the effect of exchange rate changes on the NZ economy. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Trade Weighted Index <ul><ul><li>Decrease in trade weighted index is the same as a depreciation of a range of exchange rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(exporters advantages, importers disadvantaged) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in the trade weighted index is the same as an appreciation of a range of exchange rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(exporters disadvantaged, importers advantaged) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Promotion of overseas trade <ul><li>Government can promote trade by negotiating better access for NZ goods and services with other countries. </li></ul>

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