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Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
Early china ppt[1]
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Early china ppt[1]

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Transcript

  • 1. China in the Shang and Zhou Eras
  • 2. Shang Era• Culture develops –Divination, Shamans use bones, shells –Silk worms, silk fabrics –Ancestor worship –Pictograms  3000 characters –Paper used by 100 C.E.• Religion –Fertility central –Human sacrifice
  • 3. Zhou Era• Zhou – 1100 BCE –Feudal  Oaths of allegiance, fiefs for military service• 2 Things weaken feudal order –Mandate of Heaven –Professional bureaucracy (government officials)• Movement along Huanghe, Huai, Yangzi• Non-Chinese displaced
  • 4. Cultural Change in the Early Zhou Period• Patriarchy reinforced• Correct behavior, ritual important• Decline by 8th• Xian city abandoned
  • 5. The Era of Nomadic Incursions and Warring States
  • 6. Kung Fuzi (Confucius)• Late 500s B.C.E.• Wandering scholars• Analects, collected sayings• Correct behavior• Filial piety• Duty, order, obedience• Stability, peace• Education is important
  • 7. Daoist Alternatives• Laozi –Philosopher and founder• Retreat from society –State cannot solve all problems• Nature –Dao, cosmic force• Meditation• Education not important
  • 8. Qin and Imperial Unity• Qin Dynasty –Originally nomadic, marginal –Shi Huangdi  c. 200 B.C.E.• Reforms• Improved technology• Peasants freed• Bureaucracy
  • 9. China from the Later Zhou to the Han Era
  • 10. The Transformation of a “Barbarian” Land• Military transformed –Influence of nomads –Cavalry –Crossbow• Legalism –All to serve the state –People are bad and need harsh laws and punishments
  • 11. Shi Huangdi, Emperor of China• Unification by 221 B.C.E.• Unification –Common writing –Coinage, –Weights and measures• Great Wall begun• Killed by son• Shortest dynasty–ends 207 B.C.E.
  • 12. The Han Dynasty• Liu Bang (Gaozu) –Peasant –202 B.C.E., becomes first Han ruler• Strong centralized state• Expansion to Korea and Vietnam –Assimilation  Education common
  • 13. Scholar Gentry• Legalists replaced by scholar gentry (educated bureaucrats)• Dominance of Confucianism• Education –Examination system  Based on Confucianism –Meritocracy – earn your job
  • 14. Class and Gender• Peasants –Production increased  Horse collar, wheelbarrow• Mean people • Below peasants – no land, no training• Women –Upper classes  Arranged marriages  Education common
  • 15. Towns and Traders• Xian, capital –Walls, towers –Grid pattern –approx. 100,000 citizens  approx. 100,000 in hinterland –"Forbidden city“• Trade as far as India, Rome on the Silk Road
  • 16. Arts and Sciences• Invention –Paper –Compasses –Watermills –Rudders• Art –Calligraphy• Science –Calendar: 365.5 –Medicine: acupuncture

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