Early china ppt[1]

499 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
499
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
12
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Early china ppt[1]

  1. 1. China in the Shang and Zhou Eras
  2. 2. Shang Era• Culture develops –Divination, Shamans use bones, shells –Silk worms, silk fabrics –Ancestor worship –Pictograms  3000 characters –Paper used by 100 C.E.• Religion –Fertility central –Human sacrifice
  3. 3. Zhou Era• Zhou – 1100 BCE –Feudal  Oaths of allegiance, fiefs for military service• 2 Things weaken feudal order –Mandate of Heaven –Professional bureaucracy (government officials)• Movement along Huanghe, Huai, Yangzi• Non-Chinese displaced
  4. 4. Cultural Change in the Early Zhou Period• Patriarchy reinforced• Correct behavior, ritual important• Decline by 8th• Xian city abandoned
  5. 5. The Era of Nomadic Incursions and Warring States
  6. 6. Kung Fuzi (Confucius)• Late 500s B.C.E.• Wandering scholars• Analects, collected sayings• Correct behavior• Filial piety• Duty, order, obedience• Stability, peace• Education is important
  7. 7. Daoist Alternatives• Laozi –Philosopher and founder• Retreat from society –State cannot solve all problems• Nature –Dao, cosmic force• Meditation• Education not important
  8. 8. Qin and Imperial Unity• Qin Dynasty –Originally nomadic, marginal –Shi Huangdi  c. 200 B.C.E.• Reforms• Improved technology• Peasants freed• Bureaucracy
  9. 9. China from the Later Zhou to the Han Era
  10. 10. The Transformation of a “Barbarian” Land• Military transformed –Influence of nomads –Cavalry –Crossbow• Legalism –All to serve the state –People are bad and need harsh laws and punishments
  11. 11. Shi Huangdi, Emperor of China• Unification by 221 B.C.E.• Unification –Common writing –Coinage, –Weights and measures• Great Wall begun• Killed by son• Shortest dynasty–ends 207 B.C.E.
  12. 12. The Han Dynasty• Liu Bang (Gaozu) –Peasant –202 B.C.E., becomes first Han ruler• Strong centralized state• Expansion to Korea and Vietnam –Assimilation  Education common
  13. 13. Scholar Gentry• Legalists replaced by scholar gentry (educated bureaucrats)• Dominance of Confucianism• Education –Examination system  Based on Confucianism –Meritocracy – earn your job
  14. 14. Class and Gender• Peasants –Production increased  Horse collar, wheelbarrow• Mean people • Below peasants – no land, no training• Women –Upper classes  Arranged marriages  Education common
  15. 15. Towns and Traders• Xian, capital –Walls, towers –Grid pattern –approx. 100,000 citizens  approx. 100,000 in hinterland –"Forbidden city“• Trade as far as India, Rome on the Silk Road
  16. 16. Arts and Sciences• Invention –Paper –Compasses –Watermills –Rudders• Art –Calligraphy• Science –Calendar: 365.5 –Medicine: acupuncture

×