1.1. Forming objectives, and drawing strategies toForming objectives, and drawing strategies to
achieve them ( What, Who, When, How,achieve them ( What, Who, When, How,
Why, and How cost ? )Why, and How cost ? )
2.2. Moving from a situation to a better one.Moving from a situation to a better one.
3.3. Identifying the nature of decisions in presentIdentifying the nature of decisions in present
to obtain desirable results in future.to obtain desirable results in future.
4.4. The mechanism of specifying and allocatingThe mechanism of specifying and allocating
limited resources.limited resources.
5.5. Determining rules and conditions by whichDetermining rules and conditions by which
actions and behavior of Health Organizationactions and behavior of Health Organization
are controlled.are controlled.
Where are we ?Where are we ?
Where we wantWhere we want
to reach ?to reach ?
Decision makingDecision making
process & futureprocess & future
How to reach ourHow to reach our
goal ?goal ?
“If you aim at
nothing you will
hit every time”
through other people
courses of action
Developing objectivesDeveloping objectives
Developing plansDeveloping plans
Developing policies and proceduresDeveloping policies and procedures
Planning is the workPlanning is the work
managers do tomanagers do to
determine objectivesdetermine objectives
and a course of actionand a course of action
ØØ Related to Future.Related to Future.
ØØ Contains Decision MakingContains Decision Making
ØØ Providing health organization with actionProviding health organization with action
ØØ Participation opportunities MotivationParticipation opportunities Motivation
& increasing Morals Adherence to& increasing Morals Adherence to
plan & better performance.plan & better performance.
ØØ Enhancing better actions & procedures,Enhancing better actions & procedures,
removing barriers early, and promotingremoving barriers early, and promoting
spirit of innovation rather than reactionspirit of innovation rather than reaction
(( ProactivityProactivity vs. Reactivity )vs. Reactivity )
ØØ Minimizing conflict, as a result of effortsMinimizing conflict, as a result of efforts
unity and coordination.unity and coordination.
ØØ Facilitating monitoring and quality controlFacilitating monitoring and quality control
through determining standards.through determining standards.
ØØ Promoting level of skills & experiencesPromoting level of skills & experiences
through enhancing anticipative thinkingthrough enhancing anticipative thinking
rather than responding to problems.rather than responding to problems.
( A method for Training & Education )( A method for Training & Education )
ØØ Improving Efficiency of resource utilizationImproving Efficiency of resource utilization
using the most economic means.using the most economic means.
ØØ Improving the health organization ability toImproving the health organization ability to
deal with complex & complicated issues.deal with complex & complicated issues.
ØØ Utilizing and protecting the limited humanUtilizing and protecting the limited human
ØØ Enabling the health organizations toEnabling the health organizations to
compete with other sectors for the limitedcompete with other sectors for the limited
ØØ Facing the technical development.Facing the technical development.
ØØ Minimizing surprising problems andMinimizing surprising problems and
ØØ Better meeting for customerBetter meeting for customer’’s needs &s needs &
ØØ To be brief, with clear objectives.To be brief, with clear objectives.
ØØ Opportunity of collaboration &Opportunity of collaboration &
ØØ Unity of health plan.Unity of health plan.
ØØ Relation between resource allocation andRelation between resource allocation and
plansplans’’ needs & objectives.needs & objectives.
ØØ Capability for anticipation & immediateCapability for anticipation & immediate
ØØ Plan flexibility.Plan flexibility.
ØØ Plan comprehension.Plan comprehension.
ØØ Plan commitment & continuity.Plan commitment & continuity.
ØØ Identifying performance TimeIdentifying performance Time--Frame.Frame.
ØØ Results evaluation & following up.Results evaluation & following up.
1.1. Inability to find clear & measurable goalsInability to find clear & measurable goals
by health managers:by health managers:
ØØ Unwilling to take the risk of failure inUnwilling to take the risk of failure in
achieving objectives.achieving objectives.
ØØ Lack of self confidence.Lack of self confidence.
ØØ Lack of technical & practical experience.Lack of technical & practical experience.
ØØ Lack of necessary information.Lack of necessary information.
ØØ Variety & diversity of health activities &Variety & diversity of health activities &
facilities; e.g. Providing care for acute orfacilities; e.g. Providing care for acute or
chronic diseases?chronic diseases?
2.2. Difficulty of collaborating the differentDifficulty of collaborating the different
requirements of the plan:requirements of the plan:
ØØ To get data quickly & accurately.To get data quickly & accurately.
ØØ Speed & accuracy vs. costs; i.e.Speed & accuracy vs. costs; i.e.
Fast data collecting Less accuracy & lowFast data collecting Less accuracy & low
Getting accurate data Slower work & highGetting accurate data Slower work & high
3. Resistance to planning3. Resistance to planning--related Change;related Change;
because of:because of:
ØØ Knowledge & information deficiency.Knowledge & information deficiency.
ØØ Difficulty of adapting with new plans, as aDifficulty of adapting with new plans, as a
result of difficulty of changing the presentresult of difficulty of changing the present
behavior which is implanted with time, i.e.behavior which is implanted with time, i.e.
““The present plans have the power ofThe present plans have the power of
ØØ Original constant concepts.Original constant concepts.
4. Some common managerial patterns & styles,4. Some common managerial patterns & styles,
ØØ Low commitment with determining plans by theLow commitment with determining plans by the
superior management.superior management.
ØØ Low effective participation among the differentLow effective participation among the different
levels of managementlevels of management ““ Autocratic stylesAutocratic styles ““
ØØ Lack of managerial authorities,Lack of managerial authorities, ““ low delegationlow delegation””
ØØ Low coordination & complementation betweenLow coordination & complementation between
all departments.all departments.
motivate themotivate the
oneone’’s efforts effort
Encouraging theEncouraging the
development of goaldevelopment of goal--
attainment strategiesattainment strategies
or action plansor action plans
““Goals are performance targetsGoals are performance targets——thethe
means by which organizations andmeans by which organizations and
their managers measure success ortheir managers measure success or
failure at every level.failure at every level.””
ØØ Management tools that draw borders ofManagement tools that draw borders of
decisions to achieve goals.decisions to achieve goals.
ØØ Broad lines that direct managers duringBroad lines that direct managers during
decision making.decision making.
ll Prescription of medication using generic name.Prescription of medication using generic name.
ll Providing care to local population only.Providing care to local population only.
ll Taking the maximum prices.Taking the maximum prices.
ll No medication related orders by phone allowedNo medication related orders by phone allowed
ll Not allowing physicians to work for private sector.Not allowing physicians to work for private sector.
ll Requesting a medical approval for companions.Requesting a medical approval for companions.
ØØ Developing capacities & skills of potentialDeveloping capacities & skills of potential
ØØ Avoiding conflictsAvoiding conflicts
ØØ Allowing delegation of authority &Allowing delegation of authority &
responsibility with keeping control.responsibility with keeping control.
ØØ Coordination between daily decisions &Coordination between daily decisions &
general goals & strategies.general goals & strategies.
ll To all parts of plan.To all parts of plan.
ll Containing any emerging conditions.Containing any emerging conditions.
ØØ Consistence with communityConsistence with community’’s ethical modelss ethical models
ll To cope with change, with maintaining fairTo cope with change, with maintaining fair
balance between stability & flexibilitybalance between stability & flexibility ““requiredrequired
for changefor change””..
ØØ Clearance & logicClearance & logic
ll To build mutual relationships betweenTo build mutual relationships between
procedures & ways of performance amongprocedures & ways of performance among
different departments & individuals.different departments & individuals.
ll This ensures following goals consistent withThis ensures following goals consistent with
policies, and excluding inconsistent ones.policies, and excluding inconsistent ones.
ØØ Nature of procedures:Nature of procedures:
ll More specific than policies for directing &More specific than policies for directing &
treating future activities.treating future activities.
ll Explain the fine details of actions.Explain the fine details of actions.
ll Direct the actions rather than concepts (Direct the actions rather than concepts (
policies direct concepts.)policies direct concepts.)
ll Transfer proceduresTransfer procedures
ll Medical record procedureMedical record procedure
ll Surgery procedure,Surgery procedure,
ØØ Increasing staff qualificationIncreasing staff qualification
ØØ Improving performance by determiningImproving performance by determining
ØØ Helping managers to monitor by assigningHelping managers to monitor by assigning
time schedules for actionstime schedules for actions
ØØ Facilitating activities by removingFacilitating activities by removing
unnecessary orunnecessary or overterlapingoverterlaping steps, aftersteps, after
evaluating the needed ones carefully.evaluating the needed ones carefully.
ØØ Limiting spirit of creativity & innovationLimiting spirit of creativity & innovation
ØØ Difficulty of forming procedures forDifficulty of forming procedures for
dynamic & changeable activities, moredynamic & changeable activities, more
appropriate for routine and constant jobsappropriate for routine and constant jobs
ØØ Minimizing innovation & creation of newMinimizing innovation & creation of new
ways to act as a result of determining strictways to act as a result of determining strict
standards & predetermined ways of action.standards & predetermined ways of action.
ØØ Freezing actions & delaying performanceFreezing actions & delaying performance
because of expired procedures.because of expired procedures.
ØØ More specific & detailed.More specific & detailed.
ØØ Identify the fine details of work steps.Identify the fine details of work steps.
ØØ Determine utilized resources.Determine utilized resources.
Example:Example: ““Surgical operations actionsSurgical operations actions””
Actions identify:Actions identify:
ll Persons who act.Persons who act.
ll Equipments & supplies which are used.Equipments & supplies which are used.
ll Actions timeActions time--frame & schedules.frame & schedules.
ØØ Representing the necessary agents toRepresenting the necessary agents to
perform plans/ financial & humanperform plans/ financial & human
A plan requires:A plan requires:
•• Defining types of resources.Defining types of resources.
•• Their amounts.Their amounts.
•• And their source.And their source.
This requires preparing aThis requires preparing a ““ budgetbudget”” which is:which is:
•• An estimation for the cost, and anticipation ofAn estimation for the cost, and anticipation of
•• A tool for specifying / allocating resources intoA tool for specifying / allocating resources into
different activities.different activities.
ØØ Contains assigning & directing staff to put plans intoContains assigning & directing staff to put plans into
ØØ Importance:Importance: An effective & efficient implementationAn effective & efficient implementation
indicates a successful plan.indicates a successful plan.
ØØ Implementation is to be done byImplementation is to be done by ““Non plannerNon planner””
ØØ Assigning tasks of implementation is done using:Assigning tasks of implementation is done using:
ll Formal managerial authority.Formal managerial authority.
ll Leadership skills; by providing necessary informationLeadership skills; by providing necessary information
for understanding results & circumstances of onesfor understanding results & circumstances of ones
task or role, leading to perform plans believing in theirtask or role, leading to perform plans believing in their
values rather than obeying to formal authority.values rather than obeying to formal authority.
ØØ Measuring actual performance.Measuring actual performance.
ØØ Comparing it to target performance / GoalsComparing it to target performance / Goals
/ pre established standards./ pre established standards.
ØØ Measuring deviation.Measuring deviation.
ØØ Corrective actions.Corrective actions.