Professional Career Development for IC EngineersPresentation Transcript
Shaping One’s Career by Leading Paradigm Shifts (for Information Age) Presented by: Al Kwok ( 郭灿辉 ) President, CASPA Pearl River Delta Chapter Individual Member, VSI Alliance Career Forum (Sep/10/2005)
Essence of this Presentation
Vision, skill sets, efforts (leap of faith and perseverance)
Passion (the love of one’s life) is the engine
Money is not everything – follow one’s bliss!
Optimism is the most important attitude
Don’t submit to FEAR!
Emerging force/idea replacing the existing one
The beginning of a significant trend (a new “wave”)
Opportunity to make a difference ( values to mankind )
Need to get in front of the “wave” – leading the change
Leap of faith – no risk, no gain!
Information Age (led by many paradigm shifts)
The inevitable milestone – if mankind has a future!
Our immediate future – how we can flourish?!
Abstract – Conceptual Framework
“Change is the only CONSTANT of our universe.”
Changes (according to evolutional trends) present:
Opportunities to those able to adapt
Fortunes to those able to anticipate
One must embrace changes and learn to flourish with it.
“ Changes Innovations” (an endless cycle of renewal)
The most important skill set to manage change (be innovative) – “Learn how to learn effectively”!
Develop the following capabilities all-in-one:
to spot (be observant and open-minded ) the emerging real trend,
to learn (study and understand its significance ) quickly,
to adapt ( take action ) swiftly, and
to lead the change ( shape the future )
Career Development (from a personal angle)
Evolution of IC Industry (as background information)
Speaker’s Career Development
Speaker’s Community Services (a vital aspect)
Paradigm Shifts Encountered
Career Development Path
Paradigm Shifts and Major Trends
Impact of CMOS Technology and Underlying Message
Emerging Paradigm Shifts and Major Trends
Characteristics and Opportunities
Closing Remark and Advice
Evolution of IC Industry
A pattern of rapid cause-effect developments:
1970’s – Memories (tech. drivers) were the Kings!
Second sources for std. products as a business model (AMD)
Support infrastructure/service businesses for IC industry:
Focused on design activities by outsourcing non-core functions
Manufacturing equipment; EDA tools; mask making; probe-cards & test fixtures; packaging, test and burn-in; reliability tests…
1980’s – CMOS redefined the electronic world!
CMOS as the standard process technology pioneered by IDT
Enabled Higher Integration & Power Reduction
Made scaling (Moore’s Law) a reality
PC as the killer application
Rapid growth of microprocessor and PC chip-set market.
IC design house and foundry business models
Application Specific Standard Products (ASSPs) for differentiation
New design methodologies for ASIC
Gate Array, standard cell-based design…
Evolution of IC Industry – cont.
1990’s – Foundries enabled Product Diversity
User-friendliness was the differentiator
On-chip programmability as key features – a seed for SOC !
Embedded applications enabled IP licensing business
ARM, Rambus, Artisan, MIPS, Mosys, Virage Logic…
Consumer electronics ( 3C convergence ) as killer applications
The internet boom and dot-com bubble in late 1990’s
2000’s – The networking and multimedia era!
SOC design methodology based on SIP reuse (</=0.13um)
China market as the driving force for growth
Application Development platforms for complete turnkey solutions as the means for design wins
Comment: Always “ The Survival of the Fittest!! ”
Both market needs & business models evolve over time!
Speaker’s Career Development
79-83 AMD Tech./Proj. Engr. -> Team leader
SRAM product engineer (individual contributor)
Z8000 family product engng. team leader (4 persons)
83-88 IDT* Tech./Proj. Sr. Engr. -> Eng. Mgr.
High-speed CMOS technology (the “A” Team) – IPO in 1984
4 generations of CMOS technology development – world leader
Top-notch yield improvement troubleshooter -- the best of the best!
88-89 VTI Proj./Tech. Eng. Mgr.
Partnership with Hitachi (the best Japanese co. in CMOS)
Japan visits twice to understand Japanese advantages first-hand
89-95 QSI* Operations Mgr. -> Director
Start-up from scratch to build an operation of 60+ ( IPO in 1996 )
Brought up fabless design house bus. model using SII & Yamaha
Spent 50% of the first 2 years at licensees in Japan .
Vendor management, P&L responsibility, team building …
Speaker’s Career Development
95 Individual consultant
Worked in Taiwan and Mainland China – business networking
96-98 PMC^ Bus. Dev. & Opn. VP
Initiated IP program and managed IP portfolio for PMOS Flash
Brought up IP licensing business model earning >US$7M rev.
Contract negotiation and overall license project management
ODM business development as an extension of licensing
98-02 NMI* Bus. Dev. & Opn. VP
Initiated IP portfolio development program leading to 53+ issued and ~83 pending US patents (at IPO in 2004 ) and securing NMI’s sole leadership position in NSE/CAM
Built up the operation and backend engineering team
Oversaw ISO 9000 certification program for cont. improvement
Established customer base and sale channels in China
Speaker’s Community Services
75->78 USCPFA Core member
Promoted US-China people-to-people friendship
77->78 CSA Vice Chairman
Represented Hong Kong students at Chinese Student Assoc. (UT Austin)
86->88 AAMA Active member
Business networking among Asian American entrepreneurs
96->02 JEDEC Company representative
Professional and business networking for setting industry standards
Chaired JEDEC’s CAM standard task force from 1999->2000
97->02 CASPA Board Director & CFO
Promoted advancements in semi fields for Chinese Americans
99->04 VSIA Individual member
Helped setting standards on Semiconductor IP reuse
02->05 CASPA President, PRD Chapter
Promoting business networking
Benefits from Community Services
Community services without self-serving interests is a true path to self-enrichment:
Good opportunities to develop and polish our interpersonal skill sets (beyond the work setting) for career advancement
Useful business connections are developed through community services
People with the like ideal group together
Friends who are devoted to common good are more reliable
The more we give, the more we gain
Being a big giver, we end up the biggest winner!
Self-worthiness and self-appreciation
"No person was ever honored for what he received. Honor has been the reward for what he gave." - Calvin Coolidge
People were immortalized for their contributions to mankind instead of their wealth accumulation
CASPA: A Community Service Platform Shanghai Taipei Silicon Valley, HQ Singapore Austin Phoenix HQ, local chapters Corporate Sponsors Alliances Oregon HongKong Beijing Dallas CASPA Global Business Network
CASPA Connections in China
CASPA members contributing to China’s IC industry developments
Name CASPA Aff. Role in China
Dr. Tony Liu Ex-Pres. President of ASMC
Dr. T. L.Hwang Ex-Pres. Partner of Acorn Campus SH
Dr. Ning Chang Ex-Pres. GM at IP Core
Dr. Sheldon Wu Ex-Pres. Former Chief Rep. of TSMC
Mr. Lung Chu Ex-Pres. President of Cadence Asia Pacific
Mr. Mark Ding Ex-BOD President of SEMI China
Dr. Ning Hsieh Ex-BOD VP of SMIC
Dr. Pang Fang Ex-BOD Former President of HH-NEC
Dr. Peter Yin Ex-BOD President of Huayuan
Mr. Tyrone Huang Ex-BOD President of Ultrachip China
Mr. Li Zheng Ex-BOD GM of Hong Ri Intl.
Mr. Steve Chen Life member GM of Credence China
Mr. Al Chang Life member VP of AlChip (SH)
Mr. Chuck Cheng Life member CEO & Founder of Appotech
Dr. Steve Liu Life member President of HH-NEC
Mr. Yiming Zhu Life member President of GigaDevice
Numerous Members Sr. management at SMIC & TSMC
Career Development Path
Contributor (as an individual) – 1 to 5 yrs.
Result-oriented ; integrity ; focus on the basic – solid data ; open-minded ; team player; listening; communication…
Facilitator (as a team leader) – >3 yrs.
Win-win proposition & big picture ; resolve difference and unite interest; build trust ; fair-minded; team building…
Deal-maker (as a business executive) -- >10 yrs.
Empathy ; earn respect ; turning disadvantages into advantages
Path-finder (as an industry/corp. leader) -- >15 yrs.
Clear vision in the midst of chaos ; ability to mobilize, lead and achieve desirable results
Rainmaker (as a global leader) -- >20 yrs.
Creating a self-flourishing ecosystem for a budding paradigm or a new standard (lasting values to mankind!)
Career Development Path (2) Main (IP trading) Main (IP trading) Main (MOU) Some (connection) CASPA PRD (ecosystem) Some (CAM Std.) Main (IP mgmt.) Some (M&A) Some (res. Mgmt.) Some NMI (bus. dev.) Some (P-flash) Main (IP B.M.) Main (licensees) Some (tech. dev.) Some PMC (bus. dev.) Some (QSOP) Some (fabless) Main (vendors) Main (res. mgmt.) Some (tech. tranf.) QSI (operations) Some (strat. partr.) Main (proj. mgmt.) Some VTI (88-89) Some (CMOS) Some (CMOS) Main (proj. mgmt.) Main (yield guru) IDT (83-88) Some (team leadr.) Main AMD (79-83) Rainmaker (ecosystem) Path-finder Deal-maker Facilitator Contributor
Paradigm Shifts – Propelling Career Developments
Paradigm Shifts Encountered
AMD (1979) Second-source business model
IDT (1983) CMOS emerging as the dominant IC process technology
VTI (1988) Japanese surpassing US in IC manufacturing
(as a discipline)
QSI (1989) Dawn of Fabless design business model
(know-how transfer from IDM to foundry)
1995 Emerging Taiwan IC industry
PMC (1996) SoC & embedded programmability
IP management as core competence IP licensing business model
NMI (1999) NSE/CAM as the critical component for QoS in routers
NSE look-up table for IP network traffic management
2002 Maturing China market ( China joined WTO )
Ride on “CMOS” Paradigm Shift
New paradigm: CMOS displacing other IC technologies
Took the risk in 1983 to join IDT, the only start-up launching the CMOS revolution with 100% commitment
CMOS was unproven with lots of issues
Latch-up, larger PMOS transistor area….
No major companies committed to CMOS 100%
Contributed to IDT’s leadership in CMOS technology
Became the in-house yield improvement expert
Learnt from the best about CMOS process technology
Invented new yield analysis techniques and methodology
Close collaboration with R&D and fab production
Took initiative to build teamwork and core team
Sped up improvements in cost reduction
Made CMOS technology profitable and shaped the world’s future
The CMOS Low Power Advantage Picture was taken on September 7, 1983 by A. Kwok (IDT) for a Fortune Magazine article about IDT (Integrated Device Technology) and CMOS technology published on the Oct. 17, 1983 issue (P.85) written by Gene Bylinsky. IDT went IPO in mid 1984 on CMOS. Source: “(Silicon Valley) High Tech – Window to The Future” (Gene Bylinsky)
Ride on “IP-centric” Paradigm Shift
New paradigm: IP are crown jewels for knowledge-based companies
Joined QSI in 1989 as a member of the founding team licensing CMOS technology & products to Japanese fab partners
Executed IP license business model, transferring engineering know-how to licensee partners and bringing foundry capacity within a year
Joined PMC in 1996 to start the IP license business
Took advantages of PMOS flash for embedded NVM in SOC design
Managed patent portfolio generation for comprehensive IP protection
Secure license agreements with top-tier Japanese firms
Joined NMI in 1998 to initiate IP portfolio development plan
Set up a system to ensure continuous innovations & IP generations
Set up top-management patent committee, patent generation and reward programs
Promoted patent programs to all engineering staff
Building an impressive patent portfolio since 1998
In-house patent attorney to manage IP creation/development
Enabling cutting-edge product developments
Creating significant entry barriers against competition
Ensuring NMI’s leadership and profitability in NSE market
Valuable Patent Portfolio Partial patent list in Dec. 2002
Ride on “Internet” Paradigm Shift
New paradigm: Parallel look-up displacing algorithmic hashing
Identified table look-up as the fundamental bottleneck for IP-based data traffic in the internet boom
The destination address of each IP packet is checked against a routing look-up table at each router to decide where (to which next router) it should be forwarded.
Joined NMI in 1998 to introduce CAM/NSE as the cost-effective look-up table solution for internet era.
Chaired JEDEC committee to standardize CAM/NSE
Promote NSE to replace hashing for new router designs
NSE (Network Search Engine) became mainstream
Real-time (zero latency) decision making for packet forwarding
Enabling policy-based routing and time-critical packet processing for QoS, VoIP, etc…
Fundamentally increased router capabilities to handle broad-band data traffic and value-added functions
Anatomy of a Generic Problem-solving (Intelligent) Process Pattern recognition parallel-search engine is fundamentally superior to algorithmic one Presented in Jan. 2000
CMOS Technology – the ONLY Scalable One, the Best of Human Inventions
CMOS Technology Impact
Million Gate Silicon now
10 million gates by 2000
Each Silicon Generation provides lower cost (at a higher complexity)
So we have to move to next generation
But the design gap is growing
10 X productivity gain
1000 X silicon gain
Solution is Design Reuse
Requires Spec of Deliverables
Requires standard interfaces
Requires new design methods
Requires Verifiable VCs
VSIA founded to help
And we did!
Source: VSI Alliance Lower cost for next generation Si Process
Source: Intel Presentation Could not happen w/o CMOS! Could have ended at “80286”
Source: Intel Presentation This future of semiconductor industry could not happen w/o CMOS!
The Impact of Scaling (Moore’s Law)
Comparison based on SRAM:
1983 @ IDT (the innovator of CMOS Technology)
16Kx4 CMOS SRAM (@2.0um) cost ~US$80 (mil. grade)
Operation voltage @ 5V ( 0.5W ) in ceramic packages
10 MHz (tAA = 100nS)
32M CMOS SRAM (@0.15um) cost ~US$4
Operation voltage @ 1.5V ( 0.15W ) in thin plastic packages
400 MHz (tAA = 2.5nS)
Cost reduction (in price/bit) = 10,000X
Density (# bits/unit) has increased: 512X
Unit price has decreased: 20X
w/ better technology, performance, quality and reliability as well as lower power too
Source: Intel Presentation CMOS power scaling => Feature size scaling Feature size scaling => Price scaling The secret behind scaling: Price can drop because power can be reduced!
The pace of advancement in Semiconductor Industry is UNPARALLEL in human history!
Unparallel cost reduction with unparallel quality and performance improvements
It enables all improvements on “material” quality-of-life.
Semiconductor devices are EVERYWHERE!
Proliferation by standardization and ease of use
Semiconductor devices are the building blocks of all systems.
Semiconductor is the ENABLING PLATFORM for the Information Age:
All Information Technology hardware are built on Semiconductor devices.
It provides the foundation for other high-tech endeavors too: software, 3C, e-commerce, etc.
The Key to Scaling - CMOS
IC Process Technology Development from 1970 -> 2000
Bipolar (PNP to NPN) – current driven gain
Higher performance means higher power
Scaling means current crowding – melting the junctions
MOS (P-MOS to N-MOS) – voltage driven gain
DC power and Vt drop were BIG problems
NMOS went into electromigration in “286” (~100MHz) -- 1984
CMOS came as the SAVIOR! (to carry IC industry forward)
Otherwise, Moore’s Law is a lie!!
Beauty of CMOS
No DC currents – only switching currents ( no energy wasted )
No Vt drops – full Vcc range (excellent signal quality)
Reduce power by scaling down Vcc (power supply)!
Increase performance by reducing power! That is scaling!
Impact of CMOS on Mankind!!
Information Age (knowledge based society) is built on 3 pillars:
A corporation defines its profit-making potential by the activities upon which it focuses its key resources.
<30% PM (profit margin) for contract manufacturing (OEM)
<50% PM for ODM with little IP leadership
>50% PM for an IP leader setting a de facto standard
The two curves along Core Competency axis (based on Innovation ) and Customer Recognition axis (based on Brand ) form the wall of the bowl holding the potential profit
Lowering of either curve will let the potential profit escape
In order to achieve high profit (like “Wintel”), a corporation must focus its resources mainly on strengthening its core competence with differentiating IP generation and promoting customer recognition as the leading brand .
IP for Commanding Mkt. Position
IP defines the ownership of any market territory and one’s position along a product/service food chain:
Dell and Compaq/HP dominate PC market
Protected by their IP portfolio (brand, patents, know-how, etc.)
Controlling the Market/Customer Channels
Sitting on the top of the PC food chain
Striding to outsource their manufacturing & design work
Taiwan manufacturers as manufacturing partners
Providing low-cost manufacturing supports (open book for audit!)
Managing the logistics for 48-hour global ship-to-order end-customer delivery
Financing the WIP and buffer inventories at multiple manufacturing sites world-wide
Responsible for all RMAs and replacements to consumers
Funding the BRAND (IP) OWNERS ’ businesses, with much lower profit margins (actually <10% gross margin) in return!!
At an inferior position along the PC food chain
The Value Hierarchy – Rule #2
IP development is based on applications
Good IP reflects high MARKET VALUES
Proper IP portfolio => dominance in a specific appl .
“ Wintel” in personal computing; TI in DSP
eBay in on-line auction and trading
New standards < = new applications => new IP
New applications <=> new system integr. (SI) reqmts.
New applications => new SI/application know-how
New applications => new IP & patent applications
New applications => new landscape for competition
The crowning of new top suppliers
The Value/Demand Chain IC H/W Platform IC S/W Platform (API, drivers, etc.) System Application Platform(s) Generic Reference Design (w/ other chips) Differentiated Application Designs Various Applications/Services Consumer Markets (End Users) IC Design houses System Integrators Service Providers For Consumer Electronics Market System Manuf.
Example – Cellular Phone
Rapid market development to maturity depends close collaboration among value/demand-chain
IC design houses -- component suppliers
Components: Base-band, media processor, CMOS sensor…
Provide the basic H/W & S/W building blocks
System integrators – either in-house or 3 rd parties
Integrate the components from various sources (suppliers) to build a turnkey solution – incl. H/W, S/W, middleware, appl.….
Develop the necessary applications (features) for end-users
System manufacturers – handset makers
Make the device meet the consumers’ and service providers’ requirements
Service providers – mobile network operators
Provide services to any consumer for specific applications
Provide the overall VALUES to consumers
New Paradigm for IC Suppliers
Create a self-nurturing ECOSYSTEM (to be self-growing) – similar to Intel’s and TI’s “ Developer Communities ”
Provide complete system-level turnkey solutions ASAP for the targeted applications/customers
Accelerate time-to-market and time-to-mass production ( profitability )
Realize ROI within the earliest possible timeframe
Leverage others’ resources along the demand/value-chain by forming a consortium of (1) IC makers, (2) system integrators, (3) system manufacturers and (4) service providers to collaborate up-front to proactively address all the system integration issues in a well-coordinated manner .
System function requirements
H/W, S/W and middleware interface and application requirements
Manufacturability and testability issues
Field deployment environment , etc.
A Vision of Information Age
Stages of Human Evolution
The decisive capital asset for competitiveness in each stage of human evolution and development:
Stage of civilization Decisive capital asset
Stone Age Shelter ( basic survival needs)
Agricultural Age Land (survival for future as a group )
Industrial Age Energy (being the dominant species)
Information Age Knowledge, know-how, IP
(survival beyond ignorance & fear )
Information Age is based on knowledge-based economy.
Knowledge is power! Useful information is wealth!
The foundation for the knowledge-based economy is Intellectual Assets .
Intellectual Property (IP) is “Protected” Intellectual Assets
Unlike other consumable assets of limited supplies (e.g., land, energy, etc.), knowledge cannot be depleted by usage but enriched through sharing and multiple uses.
New Paradigm for Information Age
“ Win-lose” paradigm before Information Age
The decisive capital assets have limited supplies
The available inventories have been depleted by consumption.
They cannot be shared without giving up the ownership.
“ You have” means “I have not”; then “you gain/win” means “I lose”.
Fear about “have not” has been the predominant human motivation factor.
Fights for possessions have led to untold human sufferings!
“ Win-win” paradigm in Information Age and thereafter
Knowledge has unlimited supplies (through innovations).
It can be shared without giving up ownership .
New experiences created by sharing knowledge enhance the value of knowledge (proven more useful) – following Metcalfe’s Law!?
Thus, sharing is a rewarding behavior and will become “mainstream”.
Sharing knowledge builds closer trust-bonds and cooperation.
There is hope for the future for mankind in Information Age!
Progressing into Information Age for mankind is a TOP PRIORITY!
Knowledge sharing is the key economic driver.
“ Win-win” paradigm (sharing) replacing “win-lose” paradigm (not sharing) as the key self-serving motivator
Fear about “have not” is a less justifiable behavior!
Trading IP (sharing knowledge) will be as common as trading stocks (ownership).
A comprehensive IP trading business model is urgently needed to facilitate the development of knowledge-based economy.
The Future beyond Information Age
Win-win behavior is the norm
Empathy: mutual respect and trust is commonplace
Ignorance and fear are treated systematically in child education
Fear-induced aggressions and prejudice were eliminated
Pursuit of knowledge (instead of wealth) is a lifetime occupation
The acquisition of wealth is no longer the driving force in life
People work to better themselves and the rest of humanity
Honors given to those who facilitate smoother and quicker progress for mankind on its evolution path
Poverty is eliminated – basic quality of life is guaranteed
Well-balanced: conservation instead of consumption driven
Little waste of energy and resources
Recycling and respect of nature has become second nature