Mst326 1 Qgurus

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Mst326 1 Qgurus

  1. 1. Quality: definitions and some key gurus MST326 lecture 1 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  2. 2. Your lecturer for the module <ul><li>Dr John Summerscales </li></ul><ul><li>Reader in Composites Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>School of Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Reynolds Room 008 </li></ul><ul><li>01752.23.2650 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.plym.ac.uk/staff/jsummerscales </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  3. 3. Quality: definitions (Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1979) <ul><li>degree of excellence </li></ul><ul><li>faculty, skill, accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>high rank or social standing </li></ul><ul><li>(logic) being affirmative or negative </li></ul><ul><li>distinctive character (of sound, voice etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>concerned with maintenance of high quality (quality control) </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  4. 4. Quality: definition (Bergman and Klefsjö, 1994) <ul><li>“ The quality of a product </li></ul><ul><li>(article or service) </li></ul><ul><li>is its ability to satisfy </li></ul><ul><li>the needs and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>of the customers” </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  5. 5. Quality: definition (ISO 8402/ISO 9000) <ul><li>“ Quality is the totality of </li></ul><ul><li>features and characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>of a product or service </li></ul><ul><li>that bear on its ability to </li></ul><ul><li>satisfy stated or implied needs” </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  6. 6. Quality Gurus <ul><li>W Edwards Deming </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Juran </li></ul><ul><li>Philip Crosby </li></ul><ul><li>Shigeo Shingo </li></ul><ul><li>Kaoru Ishikawa </li></ul><ul><li>Yoshio Kondo </li></ul><ul><li>Taiichi Ohno </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  7. 7. W Edwards Deming (1900-1993) the key to quality: reducing variation <ul><li>Electrical Engineering, University of Wyoming, 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>PhD, Yale University </li></ul><ul><li>Western Electric Hawthorne, Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>US census statistician, 1939/40 </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Shewhart methods, 1942 </li></ul><ul><li>invited to Japan after the war .... </li></ul><ul><li>Quality, Productivity and Competitive Position , 1982 </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the Crisis , 1986/88 </li></ul><ul><li>British Deming Association, Salisbury </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  8. 8. W Edwards Deming <ul><li>regarded by the Japanese as the chief architect of their industrial success </li></ul><ul><li>“ all processes are vulnerable to loss of quality through variation: if levels of variation are managed, they can be decreased and quality raised” </li></ul><ul><li>quality is about people, not products </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  9. 9. W Edwards Deming <ul><li>Core element is the “management circle” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do/implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>check/study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDCA (or PISA) cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement (Kaizen) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>teamwork and competence in problem solving </li></ul></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  10. 10. W Edwards Deming <ul><li>“ Out of the Crisis” is “required reading for every chief executive in British industry who is serious about ensuring the international competitiveness of his company” Sir John Egan (Jaguar Cars) in Director magazine, September 1988 </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  11. 11. W Edwards Deming <ul><li>Out of the Crisis (1984) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>having a satisfied customer is not enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>profit in business comes from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>repeat customers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>customers that boast about your product and service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>customers that bring friends with them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>necessary to anticipate customer needs </li></ul></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  12. 12. W Edwards Deming fourteen points <ul><li>1 create constancy of purpose for continual improvement of products and service </li></ul><ul><li>2 adopt the new philosophy created in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>3 cease dependence on mass inspection build quality into the product </li></ul><ul><li>4 end lowest tender contract: require meaningful quality along with price </li></ul><ul><li>5 improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  13. 13. W Edwards Deming fourteen points <ul><li>6 institute modern methods of training on the job for all, including management </li></ul><ul><li>7 adopt and institute leadership aimed at helping people do a better job </li></ul><ul><li>8 drive out fear encourage effective two-way communication </li></ul><ul><li>9 break down barriers between departments and staff areas </li></ul><ul><li>10 eliminate exhortations for the workforce they only create adversarial relationships </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  14. 14. W Edwards Deming fourteen points <ul><li>11 eliminate quotas and numerical targets substitute aid and helpful leadership </li></ul><ul><li>12 remove barriers to pride of workmanship including annual appraisals and management by objectives </li></ul><ul><li>13 encourage education and self improvement for everyone </li></ul><ul><li>14 define top management permanent commitment to ever improving quality and productivity and their obligation to implement all these principles </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  15. 15. Joseph Juran (1904-2008) company wide quality cannot be delegated <ul><li>Western Electric manufacturing, 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>AT&T manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Control Handbook , 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>Management of Quality courses </li></ul><ul><li>Juran on Planning for Quality, 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>died aged 103 of natural causes </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  16. 16. Joseph Juran <ul><li>structure CWQM concept: Company-Wide Quality Management </li></ul><ul><li>essential for senior managers to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involve themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>define the goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assign responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>measure progress </li></ul></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  17. 17. Joseph Juran <ul><li>empowerment of the workforce </li></ul><ul><li>quality linked to human relations and teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>key elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identifying customers and their needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creating measurements of quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>planning processes to meet quality goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continuous improvements </li></ul></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  18. 18. Philip Crosby (1926-2001) conformance to requirements <ul><li>Martin missiles </li></ul><ul><li>QM at ITT, then corporate VP </li></ul><ul><li>1979: Quality is Free </li></ul><ul><li>Philip Crosby Associates Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>1984: Quality without Tears </li></ul><ul><li>“ Do It Right First Time” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Zero Defects” </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  19. 19. Philip Crosby Four absolutes of quality management <ul><li>quality is defined as conformance to requirements, not as goodness or elegance </li></ul><ul><li>the system for creating quality is prevention, not appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>the performance standard must be Zero defects, not that’s close enough </li></ul><ul><li>the measurement of quality is the Price of Nonconformance, not indices </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  20. 20. Philip Crosby <ul><li>1992: “Quality, meaning getting everyone to do what they have agreed to do and to do it right first time is the skeletal structure of an organisation, finance is the nourishment and relationships are the soul” </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  21. 21. Philip Crosby <ul><li>manufacturing companies spend around 20% of revenue doing things wrong, then doing them over again </li></ul><ul><li>service companies may spend 35% of operating expenses in a similar way </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  22. 22. Four Absolutes of Quality Management (Crosby, 1979) <ul><li>Cost of Quality classified as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appraisal costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure costs </li></ul></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  23. 23. Cost of Quality: prevention costs <ul><li>design reviews </li></ul><ul><li>product qualification </li></ul><ul><li>drawing checking </li></ul><ul><li>engineering quality orientation </li></ul><ul><li>supplier evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>supplier quality seminars </li></ul><ul><li>specification review </li></ul><ul><li>process capability studies </li></ul><ul><li>tool control </li></ul><ul><li>operation training </li></ul><ul><li>quality orientation </li></ul><ul><li>acceptance planning </li></ul><ul><li>zero defects programme </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Audits </li></ul><ul><li>preventative maintenance </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  24. 24. Cost of Quality: appraisal costs <ul><li>prototype inspection and test </li></ul><ul><li>production specification conformance analysis </li></ul><ul><li>supplier surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>receiving inspection and test </li></ul><ul><li>product acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>process control acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>packaging inspection </li></ul><ul><li>status measurement and reporting </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  25. 25. Cost of Quality: failure costs <ul><li>consumer affairs </li></ul><ul><li>redesign </li></ul><ul><li>engineering change order </li></ul><ul><li>purchasing change order </li></ul><ul><li>corrective action costs </li></ul><ul><li>rework </li></ul><ul><li>scrap </li></ul><ul><li>warranty </li></ul><ul><li>service after service </li></ul><ul><li>product liability </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  26. 26. Shigeo Shingo (1909-1990) Poka-Yoke: mistake-proofing <ul><li>1930: ME degree from Yamanashi Tech </li></ul><ul><li>Taipei Railway Factory, Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>consultant with Japan Management Ass n </li></ul><ul><li>1955: training at Toyota Motor Company </li></ul><ul><li>1959: Institute of Management Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>1961-64: concept of Poka-Yoke </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  27. 27. Shigeo Shingo <ul><li>Poka-Yoke: mistake-proofing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify errors before they become defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stop the process whenever a defect occurs, define the source and prevent recurrence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1967: source inspection + improved PY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prevented the worker from making errors so that defects could not occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero Quality Control </li></ul></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  28. 28. Kaoru Ishikawa (1915-1989) Pareto and cause-and-effect diagrams <ul><li>1939: engineering. graduate (Tokyo University) </li></ul><ul><li>1947: Assistant Professor </li></ul><ul><li>1955-60: Company-wide QC movement </li></ul><ul><li>1960: Professor (Tokyo University) </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  29. 29. Kaoru Ishikawa <ul><li>“ quality does not only mean </li></ul><ul><li>the quality of the product, </li></ul><ul><li>but also of after sales service, </li></ul><ul><li>quality of management, </li></ul><ul><li>the company itself </li></ul><ul><li>and human life” </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  30. 30. Kaoru Ishikawa (points 1-7 of 15) <ul><ul><li>product quality is improved and becomes uniform. Defects are reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reliability of goods is improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cost is reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quantity of production is increased, rational production schedules are possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wasteful work and rework are reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technique is established and improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inspection and testing costs are reduced </li></ul></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  31. 31. Kaoru Ishikawa (points 8-15 of 15) <ul><ul><li>rational contracts between vendor/vendee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sales market is enlarged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better relationships between departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>false data and reports are reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freer, more democratic discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smoother operation of meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more rational repairs and installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improved human relations </li></ul></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  32. 32. Yoshio Kondo (b.1924) motivation of employees is important <ul><li>1945: graduated from Kyoto University </li></ul><ul><li>1961: doctorate in engineering & Prof </li></ul><ul><li>1987 Emeritus Professor </li></ul><ul><li>1989: Human Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- a key factor for management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1993: Companywide Quality Control </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>leadership is central to implementation of TQM </li></ul></ul></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  33. 33. Yoshio Kondo <ul><li>Human work should include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the joy of thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the joy of working with sweat on the forehead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sociality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the joy of sharing pleasure and pain with colleagues </li></ul></ul></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  34. 34. Yoshio Kondo <ul><li>Four points of action to support motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when giving work instruction, clarify the true aims of the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>see that people have a strong sense of responsibility towards their work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>give time for the creation of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nurture ideas and bring them to fruition </li></ul></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  35. 35. Yoshio Kondo <ul><li>Leaders must have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a dream (vision and shared goals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strength of will and tenacity of purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to win the support of followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to do more than their followers, without interfering when they can do it alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>successes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to give the right advice </li></ul></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  36. 36. Taiichi Ohno (1912-1990) <ul><li>graduated with mech eng degree from Nogoya </li></ul><ul><li>worked for the Toyoda Weaving Company </li></ul><ul><li>1939: Toyota Motor as machine shop manager </li></ul><ul><li>1988: Workplace Management ~ just-in-time and Toyota Production System (later known as Lean Manufacturing). </li></ul><ul><li>regarded as the father of Just-In-Time (JIT) at Toyota. </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt
  37. 37. Ohno: seven forms of waste <ul><li>overproduction </li></ul><ul><li>waiting </li></ul><ul><li>transportation </li></ul><ul><li>motion </li></ul><ul><li>inventory </li></ul><ul><li>defects </li></ul><ul><li>overprocessing </li></ul>11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

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