2. These are analog computers which have been replaced in modern times by pocket calculators.
The first semi-electronic digital computing device is constructed by John Atanassoff.
The "Mark I" Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator , the first fully automatic calculator, is begun at Harvard by mathematician Howard Aiken. Its designed purpose was to generate ballistic tables for Navy artillery.
10. Controlled Calculator or Harvard Mark I (1944)-first information- processing machine
An electromechanical computer with 760,000 wheels, 500 miles of wire, and a panel 51 ft long and 8ft high
GENERATION OF COMPUTERS
First Generation Computers: (1950-1959)
Second Generation Computers:(1959-1969)
Third Generation Computers(1969-1977)
Fourth Generation Computers(1977-Present)
Fifth Generation Computers (Yet to come)
The idea of computer networking started in the1960s when time-sharing services were first available to the public. Computer networking has been developed at three levels:
Local area network (LAN) that interconnect computers located within a relative small area such as a college campus
metropolitan area network (MAN) representing LAN technologies optimized for a metropolitan area such as a city
wide area network (WAN) providing communication services over several kilometres, across the nation, or around the globe
ISDN : Came into existence in1970’s : regarded as an all-purpose digital network in that it will provide an integrated access that will support a wide variety of applications in a flexible and cost-effective manner. ISDN-Integrated service digital network
Robotics And Artificial Intelligence
“ A robot is a reprogrammable , multifunctional manipulator designed to perform functions ordinarily ascribed to human beings”
Robot age began in 1954 when George C.Devol, who is regarded as the "father of robot," patented the first manipulator with a playback memory.
In 1969 and 1970,researchers at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) produced a mobile robot, known as Shakey, which had some vision capability
By the year 1978,there were about 2,500 industrial robots in the United States.
University1980 witnessed the establishment of the largest university laboratory on robotics at Carnegie Mellon.
FIRST GENERATION COMPUTERS(1941-1956)
Operating instructions built with specific task in mind
Only machine language possible
Difficulty and malfunctions
Vacuum tubes and magnetic drums
EXAMPLES OF 1 ST GEN
ENIAC -Electronic Numerical Integrator and computer
University of Pennsylvania and The US Government
John Presper Eckert and John W Mauchly-general purpose computer
COBOL and FORTRAN were used (still in use for some applications)
THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS(1964-1971)
Faults of the transistor
IC (Integrated Circuit) -1958-Jack Kilby
Electronic components combined into silicon chip- quartz
Operating systems advantageous
The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) is the world's first electronic computer
In 1946, John Mauchly and J Presper
Eckert developed the ENIAC I
( E lectrical N umerical I ntegrator A nd
It was a war time effort by the University of Pensylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering for the U.S Army's Ballistics Reseach Lab at Aberdeen Maryland .
The U.S. military sponsored their research; they needed a calculating device for writing artillery-firing tables (the settings used for different weapons under varied conditions for target accuracy).
It spanned 150 feet in width with twenty banks of flashing lights indicating the results of its computations.
Weighed 30 tons, consumed 160 kilowatts of
The ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes.
70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors, 1,500 relays, 6,000 manual switches and 5 million soldered joints.
ENIAC could perform 5,000 additions, 357 multiplications or 38 divisions.
The use of vacuum tubes instead of switches and relays created the increase in speed
It was a 4 digit decimal arithmetic unit based on vacuum tubes.
It could store 4 digits in memory (2 digits each on the left and right).
Add and subtract 2 digits + 2 digits, perform transfer in 200É sec, and display results or store them in memory.
It was unable to store program.
It had to be manually wired to execute
a particular program .
It could not be reprogrammed easily
EDSAC contained 3,000 vacuum tubes and used mercury delay lines for memory. Programs were input using paper tape and output results were passed to a teleprinter. Additionally, EDSAC is credited as using one of the first assemblers called "Initial Orders," which allowed it to be programmed symbolically instead of using machine code. a
it seemed obvious that there were a few large defects. The most significant one was how long it would take to reprogram it. Previously, mechanical computers had been programmed with cards or punched tape, but the Eniac would operate too fast for that to be feasible, so there wasn’t any apparent alternative to internal programming- where a programmer would have to go rewire things to change the program. This could take hours or even days for a new program to be ‘written
Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer, or EDVAC
The actual ENIAC Type Arithmetic System and binary vacuum tube electronic computer are currently preserved in the Special Materials Room of the Faculty of Engineering of Osaka University.
The Moore School computer nonetheless provided a crucial step in a progression of technological advances; it also served to convince military scientists and technical experts of the value and practicability of electronic computation. The resulting enthusiasm was compounded by the advent of the Cold War;
The rate of change in artillery designs and the changing patterns of warfare created demands that exceeded their computational capacity. At any other time, the ideas worked out by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert--only 32 and 23 years old at the time that they met--would have been dismissed as impractical. Under other circumstances, their ideas would have been rejected for the simple reason that the ENIAC would cost too much to build
Designed by Ceymour Cray for CDC (1960).
Left CDC to form a new company; Cray research.
Manufactured supercomputers with new designs and became the top spot in the market (1985 – 90).
Today the pioneers in this field are IBM and HP.
Scalar processors (before 1985)
Vector processors (1985 – 1990)
Parallel processing (1990 onwards)
Protection from dust
Needs large storage capacity
Produces large amount of heat
Protection from external heat
What will computers be like in the future?
The computers of tomorrow won’t be on top of desks and won’t have a monitor, keyboard and case. They may look like a pen ,box, sun glasses etc.
The near future, crystal holographic memory is coming on line at MCC.
Computers may be in a 2 or 3 part unit. Stationary semi-stationary and mobile.
How will we communicate with future computers?
Get rid of keyboards
We don’t have to use our keyboard instead just sit before the monitor and tell the password or just speak to your monitor. That will light up your files on the internet. Our monitor will recognize our voice.
How will the future computers look like ?
Some looks like a pen
It produces both the monitor as well as the key board on flat surfaces from where you can just carry out the normal operations .
Some computers look like boxes in which laser beams produces on the flat surface from where you can do your operations.